|Molluscan ResearchISSN 1323-5818|
| An international journal
of the Malacological Society of Australasia and
the Society for the Study of Molluscan Diversity published by Magnolia Press
Papers are considered on the
understanding that they have not been submitted or published elsewhere and that
all authors of a multi-authored paper agree to its submission. All
manuscripts must be submitted in English.
All papers will be peer reviewed by at least two referees. Upon
acceptance, copyright becomes the property of the Society and the author(s)
must complete a Copyright
follow the format outlined below. A current issue of Molluscan Research can be used as
a guide, but please note that there are format changes from time to time.
Although monographs of up to 60 printed
pages may be published in the journal, they will only be considered after
consultation with the Managing Editor. We recommend that long monographic
papers be submitted to Zootaxa.
Page charges will apply to non-members of the Malacological Society of Australasia or the Society for the Study of Molluscan Diversity for papers over six (6) printed pages at a rate of $AUD20 per page after the first six pages. These fees are payable to the Malacological Society of Australasia. There are no page charges payable by members of the Society.
The cost of production of colour
figures in the print edition will be charged to authors.
Submission of your manuscript must be electronic. The main text should be a MS Word document or RTF file and the figures as a PDF file or located at the end of the doc or rtf file. Hard copy will not be accepted. Individual files should not exceed 3 MB in size. A manuscript can be split into several files if necessary.
Right margins should not be justified.
For taxonomic papers, the same components (primary headings) as standard papers should be used (see above), but the following additional instructions apply.
Synonymies, including type details;
Material examined (with subheadings: Type material; Other material);
Diagnosis (optional); Description; Distribution; Remarks; Etymology.
The abbreviations ‘n. gen.’, ‘n.
sp.’, or ‘n. subsp.’ should be used for indicating a new genus,
species, or subspecies.
Author and date (in the format Smith,
1902 or Smith & Brown, 1902) should be cited following the first
introduction of a genus or species name in the text. These are not
references and should not be included in the reference list (unless they
are also cited specifically as references or in a synonymy). Authors’ names and dates
should also be used for genus-group and species-group names used in
must immediately follow the centred taxon headings. These must
include the reference to the original description. References given
(whether to the valid name or synonyms) should include the author, date,
page number and any figure numbers, but should exclude the name of the
publication, because this must be given under author and date in a list of
references at the end of the paper.
format for species synonymy:
Xus yusSmith and Brown 1902: 304, pl. 3, fig. 4A; Jones and Smith 1934: 456; Dick 1956: 23, pl. 2, fig. 6. [Example of an available name.]
Wus yus.— Gail 1978: 56, pl. 4, fig. 5. [Example where genus name has been changed.]
Xus mus.— Hope 1987: 21, pl. 3, fig. 8; Freeman and Brown 2000: 400 (not of Black 1934). [Example of misidentification.]
Examples of format for genus synonymy:
XusSmith 1902: 303. Type species (by subsequent designation of Jones and Smith 1934: 456): Xus yus Smith, 1902; Recent, Bolivia.
WusGail and Brown, 1978: 56. Type species (original designation): Xus yus Smith, 1902; Recent, Bolivia.
Multiple synonyms should be arranged in
order of date of first application to the unit in question and, under each
name, the separate references (if more than one is given) should be in
If synonymies and references have
previously been published these should not be repeated in full, if a
reference to that source is given.
The type species, with author and date,
should be cited immediately with the synonymy for each genus treated. The
mode of designation can also be given.
Type data should be given for each valid
species treated, the museum in which the primary type (holotype, syntypes,
lectotype or neotype) is preserved should be given or, if the whereabouts
of the type are unknown, what steps were taken to ascertain its
whereabouts. Designation of a lectotype must be accompanied by an express
statement of the taxonomic purpose of the designation.
examined. Concise lists of specimens examined should be presented for each
For type material, where only some of the type material has been examined then
registration numbers of specimens examined should be listed. Other
non-examined type material can be listed under Additional Type Material.
Where no types have been examined, list the details under Type
material prior to Material
Example of format for type
data (normally given under Material examined or, if not examined, under Type
Holotype of Condylocardia rectangularis. Off Beachport, South Australia, 73 m (SAMA D.14979, ex. D.10113,
2 v). [Example where more than one type specimen.]
Holotype. Off Emery Point, Darwin,
Northern Territory, 12°27´S 130°49´E, coll. P. H. Colman, 25 Oct.
1969, on sandbar (AMS C.388191). [Example for new species.]
Paratypes. Off Emery Point, Darwin,
Northern Territory, 12°27´S 130°49´E, coll. P. H. Colman, 25 Oct.
1969, on sandbar (AMS C.379877, 8 v). Sandbar No. 1, Darwin, Northern
Territory, 12°26´S 130°48´E, coll. O. J. Cameron, 14 Nov. 1970 (AMS
C.379878, 4 v; NTM P14470, 1 v). [Example for new species.]
All types of new taxa must be lodged in
a public museum. Authors should make every effort to ensure that types are
lodged in the most appropriate institution in the region from which the
species originates and in accordance with the requirements of collecting
permits or legislation. Authors should be aware of the wildlife protection
acts governing the import and export of specimens of wildlife in the
countries in which specimens were collected.
Information for non-type
material should be presented after the
heading ‘Other material’ in the following format (items in [ ] are
Type material. See above. Other material. Locality, latitude and
longitude, depth (if a marine species), [collector, date, habitat
information], repository (i.e. museum), registered number (if available)
(number of specimens – in parentheses). Locality, lat. long., etc.
Collection date should be given in the
form 2 Aug. 2001.
For large material examined sections,
authors should minimise the information to locality, repository,
registered number and number of specimens only, and should summarise the
information from label data in distribution maps or in the main text.
Records should normally be arranged
geographically from north to south and east to west where practical.
Museum acronyms should conform to those
normally used. They should be spelt out in a list under Materials
and methods along with other abbreviations.
Museum registration numbers should be
cited in the form required by the institution concerned, but there should
not be a space between the letter and the number, i.e. C.3000 or F4000 not
C 3000 or F 4000.
Citation of numbers of specimens should
follow the registered number in the form (AMS C.3000, 2).
You may wish to specify details such as
separate valves, empty shells, etc.; this can be done using abbreviations,
e.g. (AMS C.3000, 2 v, 1 c).
Use bold headings for country and state
Avoid needless repetition: group common localities
together in the following way:
Sydney Harbour: Balmoral Beach, Lat.
Long., date (museum registered number, number of specimens); Vaucluse,
Lat. Long., date (museum registered number, number of specimens). Botany
Multiple lots from the same locality
should be given in the following way:
Balmoral Beach, Lat. Long.: subsidiary
data (museum registered number, number of specimens; museum registered
number, number of specimens); subsidiary data (museum registered number,
number of specimens). Botany Bay, etc.
Distributions should usually be summarised in a distribution map.
Information regarding distribution,
habitat, host association, seasonality, behaviour, and biology should be
summarised in the body of the paper.
The ‘telegraphic’ style is required
for both. Authors should take particular care that this is done correctly.
Diagnoses should contain only the
distinguishing characters or combination of characters for that taxon.
Descriptions should be subdivided by
appropriate subordinate headings in italics at the left margin.
Comparative comments are to be placed
The use of figures to illustrate
descriptions is encouraged and should permit some reduction in the length
of the verbal description of the parts figured.
Descriptions should include precise measurements of the type
material and other relevant information (e.g., counts, colour) in table
format. All tables must be numbered (see Tables below). For shelled
species, measurements of more than just length and width should be
provided. If multiple specimens are available, measurements of more than one specimen should be provided and summary statistics of multiple
specimens can also be given.
Keys should use clear-cut and, preferably, readily accessible
characters. Triplets or couplets can be used. Headings to keys should be
self-explanatory. Tabular (i.e. synoptic or special purpose) keys are
permitted where appropriate.
This style of
paper may be used to present (1) the results of an important
observation or well-designed but brief experiment in less than six
manuscript pages OR (2) the description of one or a few new taxa.
The paper must
include a brief (up to 150 words) Abstract.
The body of paper should be arranged in the following order:
Introduction; Materials and methods; Results (or Taxonomy for a taxonomic
contribution); Discussion; Acknowledgments (if appropriate); References.
No other headings should be used. The style for references, figures,
tables, etc. is the same as for standard papers.
The Introduction should clearly
indicate the need for the work and the discussion should place the work in
a broader context, such as outlining the significance and/or relevance of
the contribution to the field.
taxonomic papers should generally otherwise follow the instructions
It is recognised that short papers
describing new taxa are necessary given the large number of new molluscan
taxa to be described, particularly in the Indo-west Pacific region. This
style of paper is intended for the introduction of one or a few new taxa
where a comprehensive review or analysis of a group is not involved. The
following sections must be used: Abstract; Introduction; Taxonomy;
Discussion; Acknowledgments (if appropriate); References.
Each description of a new species-group
taxon should contain the following subheadings in the order given: Name;
Synonymy (if appropriate); Material examined (Type material and Other
material); Diagnosis; Description (including a table of standard
measurements preferably of more features than length and width (see under Measurements
above) of at
least the holotype and, if more material is available, additional
specimens); Remarks; Etymology. For genus-group taxa the following
subheadings should be used in the order given: Name; Type species;
Included species (as a list – where appropriate); Diagnosis; Remarks;
The format for the text under each of the subheadings
should be the same as in normal taxonomic papers (see above). The
introduction to the paper should ‘set the scene’ and provide a brief
overview of what is known about other related taxa (e.g. in the same
genus). The description should be as comprehensive as possible and must
tests should be described briefly and, if necessary, supported by
references. Numbers of individuals, mean values, ranges and measures of
variability should be stated. It should be made clear whether the standard
deviation or the standard error of the mean has been given.
The International Code of
Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth Edition, effective
from 1 January 2000) and decisions by the ICZN must be adhered to.
Tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript in a simple MS Word TABLE format without borders to columns and rows within the body of the table, apart from horizontal lines under the column headings.
The width of tables (using 10 pt font)
must not exceed the maximum width of the page (17 cm). Each table must be
accompanied by a title. Normally data provided graphically should not
repeated in tabular form.
in the text should be used only when essential. When needed, please
use the footnote function in MS word or other word processors.
Latin names of genera and species and Latin words (et al., sensu lato) should be in
italics. Italics should not be used for any other purpose.
The first mention in the text of the
scientific name of a species or genus should be accompanied by the author
and date, but subsequent use of these names should omit the author and
date (e.g. Jones, 1999 or Jones & Brown, 1999) unless they are used in
Numbers in the text should (unless
given as actual units of measurement) be spelt out as words if less than
10 and as numerals if more than 10.
Metric and Celsius units must be used.
Do not give original imperial units unless quoting or for another
When citing distances and measurements
insert a single space between the number and the dimension (e.g. 5 mm, not
References should be cited in the text
with the year of publication, e.g. Shepherd and Cannon (1988) or (Shepherd
and Cannon 1988; Smith 1992, 1995). Note that commas are not used between
the name and date in cited references. However, for authors of names, a
comma should be included (recommended in the International
Code of Zoological Nomenclature) (e.g. Jones, 1999 or Jones &
Brown, 1999). These should NOT be included in the references unless
otherwise cited as an actual reference in the text or in a synonymy.
References must be listed
alphabetically by first author and then chronologically at the end of the paper,
in the following form:
Shepherd, S.A. & Cannon, J. (1988) Studies on southern
Australian abalone (genus Haliotis). X. Food and feeding of juveniles. Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 9, 21–26.
Note: only use Roman numerals (as in this example) if they are used in the title of the original article.
Note: titles of periodicals are
italicised and must not be abbreviated. Only proper nouns are capitalised
in the paper title.
Short, J.W. & Potter, D.G. (1987) Shells of Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef. marine gastropods. Golden Press, Drummoyne, Australia.
(Note: add the country after the locality of the publisher only if the town or city is a minor one)
Habe, T. & Kosuge, S. (1967) The standard book of Japanese shells in colour 3. Hoikusha, Osaka (in Japanese).
(Note: the book title is in italics; only proper nouns are capitalised in the book title)
Kohn, A.J. & Amalsi, K.N. (1993) Comparative ecology of a biogeographically heterogeneous Conus assemblage. In: Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H.& Lethbridge, R. (Eds.), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Australia, pp. 523–538.
Reeve, L. (1852-53) Monograph of the genus Pecten. Conchologia Iconica; or, illustrations of the shells of molluscous animals 8. Reeve, London, plates 1-35 + captions.
Sowerby, G.B (2nd of name) (1842) Monograph of the genus Pecten. Thesaurus conchyliorum, or monographs of genera of shells. 1. Sowerby, London, pp. 45-78.
(Note: add the country after the locality of the publisher only if the town or city is a minor one).
Dissertations resulting from graduate studies and non-serial proceedings of conferences/symposia are to be treated as books and cited as such. Papers not cited must not be listed in the references.
Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F.
(2001) MrBayes 2.01: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Available online at
http://morphbank.ebc.uu.se/mrbayes/. [Accessed on 1 July 2003.]
Final figures for publication should be
submitted only at the time of final submission following
acceptance of the paper.
Electronic copies of figures are required (see below).
All illustrations (line drawings, photographs, graphs, maps, etc.) should be numbered in the order that they appear in the text. Composite figures should have items labelled on each figure using capital letters in bold Helvetica font with a
publication size of 3.0–3.5 mm.
Unsatisfactory artwork will be returned
General information on preparing files of plates for publication is also available here.
Figure captions Format as follows:
Figure 1. Shells of species of Hydrobia. A, B, Hydrobia xus n. sp., holotype, TMH E3456; C-F, Hydrobia yus (Smith, 1924), C, Vigo, Spain, NHM, 789123; D-F, Crete, NHM, 667788. Scale bars: 1 mm.
Line drawings must be submitted electronically (see below) and of good contrast.
Black and white photographs intended for reproduction as half-tone plates must be provided electronically (see below). They must be of the highest quality. If multiple photographs are to be used in a single figure, they should be mounted after being trimmed to exclude features not relevant to the paper and be separated from adjacent photographs by uniform spaces that will be 1 mm wide after reduction.
Colour photographs can be published in the print edition at author’s expense. Such figures must be submitted
in reproducible form or electronically in RGB or CMYK format.
Note that colour can be provided in PDF free of charge,
Note that colour can be provided in PDF free of charge,
A scale (when appropriate) must be included on the figure; magnifications
cannot be given in the figure caption. Scale bars should be between 0.5
and 2 pt width at final size. Lengths can be given in the caption
(preferable) or on the figure.
Do not use magnifications in figure caption.
Do not use magnifications in figure caption.
Lettering (labels) on
figures should be in Helvetica bold
font with only the first letter of any proper names capitalised. The
height after reduction (i.e. printing size) should be no more than 3 mm
and there should be good contrast with the background. Important features
to which attention has been drawn in the text should be indicated. Leader
lines should be a minimum width of 0.5 pt at final size.
Symbols should be about 3 mm in height in the printed version. Explanations
of symbols should be given in the caption to the figure. The following
symbols in Symbol font should be used:
Graphs. Grid marks should point inwards; legends to axes should state the
quantity being measured and be followed by the appropriate units in
parentheses. Lettering should be kept to a minimum.
Format as follows: Figure 1, Shells of species of Hydrobia. A, B. Hydrobia xus n. sp., holotype, TMH E3456. C-E. Hydrobia yus (Smith, 1924), Vigo, Spain, NHM, 789123. Scale bars: 1 mm.
Electronic files of the final versions
of both the text and illustrations (in the formats described below) should
be sent when the paper has been accepted for publication. They may be sent
on CD-ROM, PC disk or by email attachment. The electronic file should
match exactly two hard copies of the final manuscript, which should
accompany the disk (or be mailed when files are emailed).
The text, figure captions and tables
should be sent as a single MS Word file, with the tables printed one per page
at the end of the manuscript. If you are unable to supply a Word file,
please contact the Managing Editor for acceptable alternatives.
We much prefer to
receive illustrations electronically (both line
diagrams and photographs) and electronic files are recommended for best
quality reproduction. Scans of figures should be produced at high
resolution in the required formats (see below). Electronic figures should
be supplied on PC disk or CD-ROM as separate files together with two top quality hard copies (which can be scanned in the
Scanning figures Back to index
Line drawings: should
be scanned at high resolution, at least 600 dpi at final (printed) size,
and saved in black and white bitmap format as TIFF files. Fine line
drawings with a lot of variable grey shading should be saved in greyscale
format as TIFF files.
Black and white photographs: should be scanned at a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final
size and saved in greyscale format as TIFF or Photoshop files. It is
preferable for labels to be applied electronically to the scanned images,
rather than scanning manually labelled figures.
Colour photographs and figures: should be saved in CMYK colour or RGB colour. Authors
should note that colours change when converted to CMYK from RGB and when
printed from different types of printer; hence it is important to check
that the hard copy you provide is correct and matches the CMYK file
figures: (e.g. vector images such as maps, cladograms, statistical plots)
may be saved in one of the following formats: Word, Excel or Adobe
scan them at least 600 dpi as 1 bit images and save as tiff files.
Avoid using 3D surface area charts because print quality is often
poor. Remove colours from all charts and graphs.
NOTE: Scanned line art or photo plates
embedded in Word are often difficult to import successfully into
typesetting programs; please provide the final version in the formats given above.
Authors unable to prepare electronic
artwork should submit lettered line drawings and lettered and mounted
photographs that are suitable for direct reproduction and which comply
with the instructions above. Unsatisfactory figures will be returned for
correction. The Managing Editor may be consulted for further guidance.
Copyedited manuscripts and subsequently
page proofs are sent to the corresponding author for checking prior to
publication. At these stages only essential alterations and correction of
publisher errors may be undertaken. Excessive author alterations at page
proof stage will be charged to the author at $5 per each item.
A PDF file will be supplied to the
corresponding author on publication of the article. Paper reprints may be
ordered before publication upon completion of
an order form sent to the corresponding author with the final page
proofs. There are no free
Dr Winston F. Ponder
|Copyright © 2005-2012 Magnolia Press||Published: 26 Jun. 2012|