Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Monograph
Published: 2023-11-27
Page range: 1-89
Abstract views: 271
PDF downloaded: 19

Continental fishes of Nicaragua: diversity, distribution and conservation status; with an annotated and illustrated checklist of species and an identification guide to families

Escuela de Biología; Museo de Zoología/Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Ecología Tropical (CIBET) and Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR); Universidad de Costa Rica. 11501–2060; San Pedro de Montes de Oca; San José; Costa Rica
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Michigan State University; 480 Wilson Rd #13; East Lansing; MI 48824; USA
Unidad de Gestión Técnica de Proyectos - Oficina de Relaciones Internacionales y de Cooperación Externa (ORICE/UGETEP); Bluefields Indian & Caribbean University (BICU). Barrio San Pedro; Avenida Universitaria; Bluefields; Nicaragua; P.O. Box 88
Universidad Americana (UAM; Costado Noroeste Camino de Oriente; Managua; Nicaragua
Department of Environment and Development; Zamorano Biodiversity Center. Zamorano University of Tegucigalpa; P.O. Box 93; Honduras
Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH). Chicago; Illinois; United States of America
Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH). Chicago; Illinois; United States of America
Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas; Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas (UNICACH). Tuxtla Gutiérrez; Chiapas; México
Pisces Neotropical Central America Ichthyofauna Taxonomy


Based on a combination of intensive literature review, electronic database searches, re-identification of museum specimens, and fieldwork, we provide an updated checklist of the continental fishes of Nicaragua. This checklist, systematically arranged at the ordinal and familial level, includes nomenclatural revisions, distributional information, conservation status, and when appropriate, cross-references to previous lists and revisionary works on the fish fauna of the country and region (Central America); illustrations and descriptions to the family level and color photographs of some representative species are also included. According to our results, the native Nicaraguan continental fish fauna is composed of 244 species, divided into 111 genera, 45 families, 24 orders, and two classes; increasing by 60 (i.e., 32.6%) the number of species originally reported by Villa (1982; i.e., the most comprehensive work published to date). The majority of the Nicaraguan native continental fish species, according to their supposed tolerance to salinity, are peripheral (68.9%), followed by secondary freshwater fishes (23.8%), and primary freshwater fishes (only 7.4%). Fish diversity in the 19 major river basins ranged between 21 and 90 species (mean = 58 species, median = 60); the Escondido (Es; 87 species), in the Atlantic, and the Pacífico de Nicaragua (PN; 90), in the Pacific, presented the highest species richness. Most species (188) are restricted to elevations between 0 and 100 meters above sea level (masl); only a few species (18), in contrast, were found at elevations greater than 500 masl (up to 780 masl). Fourteen species in this revision are listed as endemic to Nicaragua. Regarding their conservation status, 22 species (9.0%) are categorized, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), as Data Deficient, 186 (76.2%) as Least Concern, and seven (2.9%) as Near Threatened; while 24 species (9.8%) are listed as Threatened, thirteen (5.3%) as Vulnerable, two (0.8%) as Endangered, and nine (3.7%) as Critically Endangered. Five species (2.0%) have not yet been evaluated. Six exotic species are also reported. Our results provide a framework for future taxonomic and biogeographic works on fishes from this country and region (Central America), particularly by providing up-to-date knowledge on nomenclature and distributions. In addition, the data provided in this revision will help to monitor fish distributional changes in the future due to human introductions and global change and will aid in conservation decisions concerning Nicaraguan continental fishes.



  1. Agorreta, A., Domínguez-Domínguez, O., Reina, R.G., Miranda, R., Bermingham, E. & Doadrio, I. (2013) Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Pseudoxiphophorus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66, 1, 80–90.
  2. Al-Faisal, A.J. & Mutlak, F.M. (2014) First record of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758), from the Shatt al-Arab River, southern Iraq. Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science, 29, 45–50.
  3. Alda, F., Reina, R.G., Doadrio, I. & Bermingham, E. (2013) Phylogeny and biogeography of the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae) in Central America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (3), 1011–1026.
  4. Alemán, N.G. (2006) Ictiofauna del Rio Mahogany y su afluente Cano Negro en el Parque Ecológico Humedales de Mahogany, RAAS, Nicaragua. Bluefields Indian & Caribbean University, El Rama, 112 pp. []
  5. Angulo, A. (2013) Nombres comunes y técnicos de los peces de agua dulce de Costa Rica. Revista de Filología y Lingüística, 39 (2), 77–103.
  6. Angulo, A. (2021) New records and range extensions to the Costa Rican freshwater fish fauna, with an updated checklist. Zootaxa, 5083 (1), 1–72,
  7. Angulo, A. & Gracián-Negrete, J.M. (2013) A new species of Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, with a key to the lower Mesoamerican species of the genus. Zootaxa, 3731 (2), 255–266.
  8. Angulo, A. & San Gil-León, J. (2022) Claves para la identificación de los peces de las aguas continentales e insulares de Costa Rica. Parte II: Cichliformes, Cichlidae (Mojarras, Guapotes, Tilapias y afines). 1740280795 UNED Research Journal, 14 (2), e4029.
  9. Angulo, A., Garita-Alvarado, C.A., Bussing, w.A. & López, M.I. (2013) Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of continental and insular Costa Rica: additions and nomenclatural revisions. Check list, 9 (5), 987–1019.
  10. Angulo, A., López, M.I., Bussing, W.A., Ramírez-Coghi, A.R. & Arias-Godínez, G. (2015) Colección ictiológica del Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica. In: Del Moral-Flores, L.F., Ramírez-Villalobos, Á,J., Martínez-Pérez, J.A., González-Acosta, A.F. & Franco-López, J. (Eds.), Colecciones ictiológicas de Latinoamérica. Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México & Sociedad Mexicana de Ictiología, Oaxtepec, pp. 56–65.
  11. Angulo, A., Molina-Arias, A., Murase, A., Miyazaki, Y., Bussing, W.A & López, M.I. (2015) Fishes from the Tusubres River basin, Pacific coast, Costa Rica: Checklist, identification key and photographic album. Check list, 11 (3), 1666, 1–15.
  12. Angulo, A., Ramírez-Coghi, A.R. & Sánchez, M.L. (2021) Claves para la identificación de los peces de las aguas continentales e insulares de Costa Rica. Parte I: Familias. UNED Research Journal, 13 (1), 27–27.
  13. Angulo, A., San Gil-León, J., Oviedo, A., Abarca-Odio, J.I. & Umaña-Villalobos, G. (2020) The fishes from the Coto River basin, Pacific coast, Costa Rica. Zootaxa, 4751, 1–28.
  14. Angulo, A., Santos, A.C., López, M., Langeani, F. & McMahan, C.D. (2018) A new species of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) from Costa Rica and Panama, with a key to the lower Central American species of the genus. Journal of Fish Biology, 92 (6), 1866–1887.
  15. Ardón, D.A., McMahan, C.D., Velázquez-Velázquez, E. & Matamoros, W.A. (2022) Testing spatial and environmental factors to explain body shape variation in the widespread Central American Blackbelt cichlid Vieja maculicauda (Teleostei : Cichlidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 20, e210139.
  16. Azevedo-Santos, V.M., Arcifa, M.S., Brito, M.F., Agostinho, A.A., Hughes, R.M., Vitule, J.R., Simberloff, D., Olden, J.D. & Pelicice, F.M. (2021) Negative impacts of mining on Neotropical freshwater fishes. Neotropical Ichthyology, 1740280779 19 (3), e210001.
  17. Bagley, J.C., Matamoros, W.A., McMahan, C.D., Tobler, M., Chakrabarty, P. & Johnson, J.B. (2017) Phylogeography and species delimitation in convict cichlids (Cichlidae: Amatitlania): implications for taxonomy and Plio-Pleistocene evolutionary history in Central America. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 120, 1, 155–170.
  18. Bagley, J.C., Alda, F., Breitman, M.F., Bermingham, E., Van Den Berghe, E.P. & Johnson, J.B. (2015) Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of Neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae). 1740280778 PLoS ONE, 10 (e0121139), 1–30.
  19. Bănărescu, P.M. & Paepke, H.J. (2002) The freshwater fishes of Europe. Cyprinidae 2, Part III: Carassius to Cyprinus. Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden, 305 pp.
  20. Betts, J.T., Mendoza-Espinoza, J.F., Dans, A.J., Jordan, C.A., Mayer, J.L. & Urquhart, G.R. (2020) Fishing with pesticides affects river fisheries and community health in the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve, Nicaragua. Sustainability, 1740280778 12 (23), 10152.
  21. Betts, J.T., Urquhart, G.R., Roman-Heracleo, J. & Flores-Mc.rea, J.C. (2021) Effects of deforestation from cattle ranching over time on protected rainforest streams in the Rama-Kriol Territory, Nicaragua. Hydrobiologia, 849, 4547–4568.
  22. Briggs, J. C. (1984). Freshwater fishes and biogeography of Central America and the Antilles. Systematic Zoology, 33 (4), 428–435.
  23. Britzke, R., Menezes, N.A. & Nirchio, M. (2019) Redescription of Mugil setosus Gilbert 1892 with comments on the occurrence of Mugil curema Valenciennes 1836 in the Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae). Zootaxa, 4671 (3), 396–406.
  24. Bussing, W.A. (1976) Geographic Distribution of the San Juan Ichthyofauna of Central America with remarks on its origin and ecology. 1740280777 In: Thorson, T.B. (Ed.), Investigations of the Ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, pp. 157–175.
  25. Bussing, W.A. (1979) Taxonomic status of the atherinid fish genus Melaniris in lower Central America, with the description of three new species. Revista de Biología Tropical, 26 (2), 391–413.
  26. Bussing, W.A. (1998). Freshwater fishes of Costa Rica. Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica, 468 pp.
  27. Bussing, W.A. (2008) Astyanax cocibolca, a new characid (Pisces: Ostariophysi) from Lake Nicaragua, Central America. Revista de Biología Tropical, 56 (3), 1361–1370.
  28. Carr, A.F. Jr. & Giovannoli, L. (1994) The fishes of the Choluteca drainage of southern Honduras. Ceiba, 35 (2), 95–115.
  29. Castellanos-Galindo, G.A., Robertson, D.R., Pacheco-Chaves, B., Angulo, A. & Chong-Montenegro, C. (2019) Atlantic Tarpon in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 80 years after it first crossed the Panama Canal. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 29 (2), 401–416.
  30. Collette, B.B. & Russo, J.L. (1981) A revision of the scaly toadfishes, genus Batrachoides, with descriptions of two new species from the eastern Pacific. 1740280776 Bulletin of Marine Science, 31 (2), 197–233.
  31. Contreras-MacBeath, T., Ardón, D.A., Quintana, Y., Angulo, A., Lyons, T., Lardizabal, C., McMahan, C.D., Elías, D.J., Matamoros, W.A., Barraza, J.E., González, R., Fuentes-Montejo, C.E., Ambruster, J.W., Carrasco, J.C. & Rodríguez-Brito, M. (2022) Freshwater fishes of Central America: distribution, assessment, and major threats. Diversity, 14, 793, 1–28.
  32. Corea, J.T., Hernández, G.M., Solís, V. & Aguilar, A.J. (2014) Distribución y abundancia de peces de la familia Loricariidae (Pleco) y su relación con los peces de interés comercial en los alrededores de la Isla de Ometepe. Encuentro, 98, 44–59.
  33. Dallevo-Gomes, C.I.A., Mattox, G.M.T. & Toledo-Piza, M. (2020) Taxonomic review of the pipefish genus Pseudophallus Herald, with the description of a new species (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae). Zootaxa, 4859 (1), 81–112.
  34. FAO (2000) 1740280774 B1740280774 ibliografia comentada, cambios en la cobertura forestal Nicaragua. Programa de aevaluacion de los Recursos Naturales. Documento de Trabajo 34. FAO, Nicaragua, 51 pp. []
  35. Faria, V.V., McDavitt, M.T., Charvet, P., Wiley, T.R., Simpfendorfer, C.A. & Naylor, G.J.P. (2013) Species delineation and global population structure of critically endangered sawfishes (Pristidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 167, 136–164.
  36. Fowler, H.W. (1923) Fishes from Nicaragua. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 75, 23–32.
  37. Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & Van der Laan, R. (2023) Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Available from: (acccesed 18 February 2023)
  38. Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (2023) FishBase. Available from: (acccesed 18 February 2023)
  39. Geiger, M.F., McCrary, J.K. & Stauffer Jr., J.R. (2010) Description of two new species of the Midas cichlid complex (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 123 (2), 159–173.
  40. Ghotme, R. (2012) El protectorado británico en la Costa Mosquitia (1837-1849). Revista de Relaciones Internacionales, Estrategia y Seguridad, 7 (1), 45–74. [1740280824]
  41. Gómez-Martínez, R.F., López-Vila, J.M., Matamoros, W.A., González-Díaz, A.A. & Gómez-González, A.E. (2022) Diversity of cichlid fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) in Chiapas, Mexico: a practical identification key with updated distribution maps. Zootaxa, 5175 (2), 231–252.
  42. Greenfield, D.W., Winterbottom, R. & Collette, B.B. (2008) Review of the toadfish genera (Teleostei: Batrachoididae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences,1740280773 Series 4, 59 (1740280773 15)1740280773 , 665–710.
  43. Gros, P.M. & Miguel-Frithz, N. (2010) Conocimientos del pueblo Mayangna sobre la convivencia del hombre y la naturaleza: peces y tortugas: Peces y Tortugas. 1740280773 Vol. 1. UNESCO, Paris, 284 pp.
  44. Herath, H.M.T.N.B., Radampola, K. & Herath, S.S. (2014) Morphological variation and length weight relationship of Oreochromis mossambicus in three brackish water systems of Southern Sri Lanka. International Journal of Research, 2 (2), 2311–2476.
  45. Hubbs, C.L. & Lagler, K.F. (1964) Fishes of the Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 213 pp.
  46. Huete-Pérez, J.A., Alvarez, P.J., Schnoor, J.L., Rittmann, B.E., Clayton, A., Acosta, M.L., Bicudo, C.E., K. Arroyo, M.T., Brett, M.T., Campos, V.M. & Chaimovich, H. (2015) Scientists raise alarms about fast tracking of transoceanic canal through Nicaragua. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (7), 3989–3996.
  47. Karmalkar, A.V., Bradley, R.S. & Diaz, H.F. (2011). Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections. Climate dynamics, 37, 605–629.
  48. Kihn-Pineda, H.P. & Cano E.B. (2012) Continental fishes of Guatemala: Addenda et corrigenda. In: Cano, E.B. & Schuster, J.C. (Eds.), Biodiversidad de Guatemala. Vol. II. Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala, pp. 313–328.
  49. Kihn-Pineda, P.H., Cano, E.B. & Morales, A. (2006) Peces de las aguas interiores de Guatemala. In: Cano, E.B. (Ed.) Biodiversidad de Guatemala. Vol. I. Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala, pp. 457–486.
  50. Klingenberg, C.P., Barluenga, M. & Meyer, A. (2003) Body shape variation in cichlid fishes of the Amphilophus citrinellus species complex. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 80 (3), 397–408.
  51. Lehner, B., Verdin, K. & Jarvis, A. (2008) New global hydrography derived from spaceborne elevation data. Eos, Transactions, AGU, 89, 10, 93–94.
  52. Lyons, T.J., Angulo, A. & Matamoros, W.A. (2020) Brachyrhaphis olomina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2020, e.T162001803A164691516.
  53. Marceniuk, A.P., Oliveira, C., Sales, J.B.L. & Betancur-R, R. (2022) The marine catfishes of the genus Bagre (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the Western Atlantic. Marine Biodiversity, 52, 12, 1–18.
  54. Martinez-Sanchez, J.C., Maes, J.M., van den Berghe, E., Morales, S. & Castañeda, E. (2001) Biodiversidad zoológica en Nicaragua: una estrategia para su conservación. PNUD/Marena, Managua, Nicaragua, 144 pp.
  55. Matamoros, W. (2019) Poecilia sphenops. 1740280771 The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2019, e.T191753A2002434.
  56. Matamoros, W.A., Chakrabarty, P., Angulo, A., Garita-Alvarado, C.A. & McMahan, C.D. (2013) A new species of Roeboides (Teleostei: Characidae) from Costa Rica and Panama, with a key to the Central American species of the genus. Neotropical Ichthyology, 11 (2), 285–290.
  57. Matamoros, W.A., McMahan, C.D., Chakrabarty, P., Albert, J. & Schaefer, J. (2015) Derivation of the freshwater fish fauna of Central America Revisited: Myers’s hypothesis in the 211740280771 st Century. Cladistics, 31 (2), 177–188.
  58. Matamoros, W.A., McMahan, C.D., Mejia, C.R., House, P.H., Armbruster, J.W. & Chakrabarty, P. (2016) First record of the non-native suckermouth armored catfish Hypostomus cf. niceforoi (Fowler 1943) (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Central America. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, 87, 1–12.
  59. Matamoros, W.A., Schaefer, J.F. & Kreiser, B.R. (2009) Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of continental and insular Honduras. Zootaxa1740280826 ,1740280826 2307 (1), 1–38.
  60. McCrary, J.K., Castro, M. & McKaye, K.R. (2006) Mercury in fish from two Nicaraguan lakes: a recommendation for increased monitoring of fish for international commerce. Environmental Pollution, 1740280770 141 (3), 513–518.
  61. McCrary, J.K., Van Den Berghe, E.P., McKaye, K.R. & Pérez, L.L. (2001) El cultivo de tilapias: una amenaza a las especies ícticas nativas en Nicaragua. Encuentro, 58, 9–19.
  62. McCrary, J.K., Murphy, B.R., Stauffer, J.R. & Hendrix, S.S. (2007) Tilapia (Teleostei: Cichlidae) status in Nicaraguan natural waters. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 78, 107–114.
  63. McCrary, J.K., R-yan, J.D., Stauffer, J.R., López Peréz, L., Vega, G.L., van den Berghe, E.P. & McKaye, K.R. (1998) Tilapia africana en el Lago de Nicaragua: ecosistema en transición. 1740280769 Encuentro, 46, 46–53.
  64. McKaye, K.R., Ryan, J.D., Stauffer Jr., J.R., Perez, L.J.L., Vega, G.I. & van den Berghe, E.P. (1995) African tilapia in Lake Nicaragua. BioScience, 45, 406–411.
  65. McMahan, C.D., Elías, D.J., Li, Y., Domínguez‐Domínguez, O., Rodriguez‐Machado, S., Morales‐Cabrera, A., Velásquez-Ramírez, D., Piller, K.R., Chakrabarty, P. & Matamoros, W.A. (2021) Molecular systematics of the Awaous banana complex (River gobies; Teleostei: Oxudercidae). Journal of Fish Biology, 99 (3), 970–979.
  66. McMahan, C.D., Ginger, L., Cage, M., David, K.T., Chakrabarty, P., Johnston, M. & Matamoros, W.A. (2017) Pleistocene to holocene expansion of the black-belt cichlid in Central America, Vieja maculicauda (Teleostei, Cichlidae). PLoS ONE, 12, e0178439.
  67. McMahan, C.D., Matamoros, W.A., Álvarez-Calderón, F.S., Henríquez, W.Y., Recinos, H.M., Chakrabarty, P., Barraza, E. & Herrera, N. (2013) Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. Zootaxa, 3608 (6), 440–456.
  68. McMahan, C.D., Matamoros, W.A., Piller, K.R. & Chakrabarty, P. (2015) Taxonomy and systematics of the herichthyins (Cichlidae: Tribe Heroini), with the description of eight new Central American Genera. Zootaxa, 3999 (2), 211–234.
  69. Meek, S.E. (1907) Synopsis of the fishes of the Great Lakes of Nicaragua. Field Columbian Museum Zoological Series, 7, 97–132.
  70. Mendoza, J., Sánchez, R. & Barnutti, R. (2008) Diagnóstico de la presencia del Hypostomus plecostomus (Pez Diablo) basado en la literatura consultada y en la participación de personas involucrados en la actividad pesquera del Gran Lago de Nicaragua (Informe técnico). Instituto Nicaragüense de la Pesca y Acuacultura (INPESCA)-Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras (CIPA), Managua, 156 pp.
  71. Miller, R.R. (1966) Geographical distribution of Central American freshwater fishes. Copeia, 1966, 773–802.
  72. Miller, R.R. & Carr Jr., A.F. (1974) Systematics and distribution of some freshwater fishes from Honduras and Nicaragua. Copeia, 1974 (1), 120–125.
  73. Morgenstern, R. (2018) Fishes collected by Emanuel Ritter von Friedrichsthal in Central America between 1838–1841. Vertebrate Zoology, 68 (3), 253–267.
  74. Muñoz Gamboa, P.S. (2021) Assessing Management of Nicaragua’s Caribbean Region Protected Areas Using Remote Sensing: The Indio Maíz Biological Reserve. Master’s Thesis, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, 174 pp.
  75. Myers, G.S. (1966) Derivation of the freshwater fish fauna of Central America. Copeia, 1966, 766–773.
  76. Páiz-Medina, L. & Huete-Pérez, J.A. (2008) DNA Barcode, una alternativa para identificar especies del Complejo Midas Cichlidae en Nicaragua. Encuentro, 81, 99–111.
  77. Palacios, M., Arias-Rodriguez, L., Arciniega, M., Rodríguez, V., Barraza Sandoval, J.E., Herrera, N., Marroquín, D.C., Ulloa, J.B., Márquez, G., Voelker, G. & Tobler, M. (2023) Conservation genetics of the tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus, Lepisosteidae). Conservation Genetics, 24, 405–415.
  78. Palacios, M., Voelker, G., Rodriguez, L.A., Mateos, M. & Tobler, M. (2016) Phylogenetic analyses of the subgenus Mollienesia (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) reveal taxonomic inconsistencies, cryptic biodiversity, and spatio-temporal aspects of diversification in Central America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 103, 230–244.
  79. Perdices, A., Bermingham, E., Montilla, A. & Doadrio, I. (2002) Evolutionary history of the genus Rhamdia (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in Central America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 25 (1), 172–189.
  80. PNUMA/OEA (1997) Estudio de diagnostico de la cuenca del Rio San Juan y lineamientos del plan de accion. Ministerio del Ambiente y Energía de Costa Rica, Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de Nicaragua, División de Aguas Continentales Programa de las Naciones Unidas Para el Medio Ambiente & Oficina de Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente Organización de los Estados Americanos, 209 pp. Available from: (accessed 18 October 2023)
  81. Poeser, F.N. (2011) A 1740280761 n1740280761 ew 1740280761 s1740280761 pecies of 1740280761 Poecilia1740280761 from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae). 1740280761 Copeia1740280761 , 2011 (1740280761 3)1740280761, 418–422. []
  82. Recknagel, H., Kusche, H.1740280761 , 1740280761 Elmer, K.R. & Meyer, A. (2013) Two new endemic species in the Midas cichlid species complex from Nicaraguan crater lakes: Amphilophus tolteca and Amphilophus viridis (Perciformes, Cichlidae). Aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 19 (4), 207–229.
  83. Reis, R.E., Kullander, S.O. & Ferraris, C.J. (2003) Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, 742 pp.
  84. Říčan, O., Piálek, L., Dragová, K. & Novák, J. (2016) Diversity and evolution of the Central American cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae) with revised classification. Vertebrate Zoology, 66 (1), 1–102.
  85. Robertson, D.R. & Allen, G.R. (2015) Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific: online information system. Version 2.0. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá. Available from: (acccesed 18 February 2023)
  86. Robertson, D.R. & Van Tassell, J. (2019) Shorefishes of the Greater Caribbean: online information system. Version 2.0. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá. Available from: (acccesed 18 February 2023)
  87. Román-Valencia, C. (2002) Revisión sistemática de las especies del género Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae) de Centroamérica. Revista de Biología Tropical, 50 (1), 173–192.
  88. Sabaj, M.H. (2020) Codes for natural history collections in ichthyology and herpetology. Copeia, 108, 3, 593–669.
  89. Schmitter-Soto, J.J. (2007) A systematic revision of the genus Archocentrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), with the description of two new genera and six new species. Zootaxa, 1603 (1), 1, 1–76.
  90. Schmitter-Soto, J.J. (2017) A revision of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America, with the description of nine new species. Journal of Natural History, 51, 23-24, 1331–1424.
  91. Silfvergrip, A. (1996) A systematic revision of the Neotropical catfish genus Rhamdia (Teleostei, Pimelodidae). Doctoral dissertation, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 156 pp.
  92. Smith, S.A. & Bermingham, E. (2005) The biogeography of lower Mesoamerican freshwater fishes. Journal of Biogeography, 32 (10), 1835–1854.
  93. Stauffer, J.R. Jr., McCrary, J.K. & Black, K.E. (2008) Three new species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 121 (1), 117–129.
  94. Stauffer, J.R. Jr. & McKaye, K.R. (2002) Descriptions of three new species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Xiloá, Nicaragua. Cuadernos de investigación de la UCA, Universidad Centroamericana, 12, 1–18.
  95. Suazo, E.G.R. & Mongalo, B.F.E. (2022) Hypostomus sp. El pez diablo que invade la cuenca del Caribe de Nicaragua. 1740280790 Wani, 77, 54–62.
  96. Tate, B.A., McKaye, K.R., van den Berghe, E.P., Lopez P., L.J. & Secor, D.H. (2001) Initial Six year expansion of an introduced piscivorous fish in a tropical Central American Lake. Biological Invasions, 3, 391–404.
  97. Thorson, T.B., Watson, D.E. & Cowan, C.M. (1966) The status of the freshwater shark of Lake Nicaragua. Copeia, 1966 (3), 385–402.
  98. Thorson, T.B. (1982) Life history implications of a tagging study of the largetooth sawfish, Pristis perotteti, in the Lake Nicaragua-Rio San Juan system. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 7, 207–228.
  99. Tisseaux-Navarro, A. (2019) Aspectos biológicos de una especie introducida de pez diablo Hypostomus sp. (Loricariidae), en el sureste del Lago de Nicaragua. Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia, 75 pp.
  100. Urroz-Escobar, J. (1976) La explotación de la pesca en Nicaragua y sus perspectivas. Encuentro, 10, 45–55.
  101. van den Berghe, E. (2015) Peces de la cuenca del río Punta Gorda, vertiente del Caribe de Nicaragua. Revista Nicaraguense de Biodiversidad, 3, 1–55. []
  102. Van der Laan, R., Fricke, R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (2023) Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: Classification. Available from: (acccesed 18 February 2023)
  103. Villa, J. (1982) Peces nicaragüenses de agua dulce. Editorial Unión Cardoza y Cía. Ltda, Managua, 253 pp.
  104. Ward, S.J., McMahan, C.D., Khakurel, B., Wright, A.M. & Piller, K.R. (2022) Genomic data support the taxonomic validity of Middle American livebearers Poeciliopsis gracilis and Poeciliopsis pleurospilus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). PLoS ONE, 17, 1, e0262687.
  105. Webster, T.C., Markley, B. & Waite, L. (2001) 1740280791 Water resources assessment of Nicaragua. US Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District & Topographic Engineering Center, Alabama, 122 pp. []