Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2023-10-19
Page range: 301-341
Abstract views: 460
PDF downloaded: 35

Marine and freshwater fishes of Alabama: a revised checklist and discussion of taxonomic issues

Department of Biology and Environmental Science; Auburn University at Montgomery; 301 Goodwyn Hall; Montgomery; AL 36124; USA; Department of Biology; Virginia Commonwealth University; 1000 W Cary St.; Suite 126; Richmond; VA 23284; USA; Field Operations Division; Alabama Department of Environmental Management; P.O. Box 301463; Montgomery; AL 36130; USA
Decatur Field Office; Alabama Department of Environmental Management; 2715 Sandlin Rd SW; Decatur; AL 35603; USA
Geological Survey of Alabama; Walter B. Jones Hall; 420 Hackberry Lane; Tuscaloosa; AL 35487; USA
Department of Biology and Environmental Science; Auburn University at Montgomery; 301 Goodwyn Hall; Montgomery; AL 36124; USA
Department of Biological Sciences; Auburn University; 120 W Samford Ave; Auburn; AL 36849; USA
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, 1325 Hackberry Ln, Tuscaloosa, AL 35401, USA
Geological Survey of Alabama, Walter B. Jones Hall, 420 Hackberry Lane, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
Pisces ichthyofauna marine environments Mobile River Basin rivers and streams systematics taxonomy


Checklists are fundamental and important tools for organizing information about biodiversity that provide a basis for conservation and additional scientific research. While Alabama is recognized as an aquatic biodiversity ‘hotspot’ with the highest native freshwater fish diversity in the contiguous United States, we currently lack an up-to-date list of the state’s fishes. In particular, much has changed over the past ~20 years regarding our knowledge of fishes from Alabama and the Mobile River Basin, rendering past comprehensive treatments by Mettee et al. (1996) and Boschung and Mayden (2004) out of date. Here, we provide a revised checklist of marine and freshwater fishes known from the coastal and inland waters of Alabama that includes 463 species (335 primarily freshwater fishes, and 128 marine or diadromous fishes) in 35 orders, 78 families, and 176 genera. Extant, extirpated, and extinct species are included, as are putative candidate species. The checklist is based on prior work, searches of the literature and online sources, as well as parsing a large compilation of >140,000 fish records for Alabama and the Mobile River Basin from 37 data providers in the global Fishnet2 database ( and >4000 marine survey records from the SEAMAP database ( After editing and quality control checks, the final combined database contained 144,215 collection records, ~95% of which were georeferenced. We discuss the species descriptions, nomenclatural changes, and updates to marine species that account for changes to the state list, and we close with a discussion of ~13 candidate species forms that remain undescribed, which represent outstanding taxonomic issues in need of further research attention.



  1. April, J., Mayden, R.L., Hanner, R.H. & Bernatchez, L. (2011) Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America’s freshwater fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (26), 10602–10607.
  2. Arcila, D., Orti, G., Vari, R., Armbruster, J.W., Stiassny, M.L.J., Ko, K.D., Sabaj, M.H., Lundberg, J., Revell, L.J. & Betancur-R, R. (2017) Genome-wide interrogation advances resolution of recalcitrant groups in the tree of life. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1 (2), 1–10.
  3. Armbruster, J.W. (2012) Standardized measurements, landmarks, and meristic counts for cypriniform fishes. Zootaxa, 3586 (1), 8–16.
  4. Artüz, M.L. & Fricke, R. (2019) The marine teleost fishes of the Sea of Marmara; an updated and annotated checklist. Zootaxa, 4565 (4), 545–565.
  5. Bagley, J.C. (2023) Data for: Marine and freshwater fishes of Alabama: a revised checklist and discussion of taxonomic issues. Dataset. Mendeley Data accession.
  6. Bagley, J.C., Mayden, R.L. & Harris, P.M. (2018) Phylogeny and divergence times of suckers (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) inferred from Bayesian total-evidence analyses of molecules, morphology, and fossils. PeerJ, 6, e5168.
  7. Bagley, J.C., Mayden, R.L., Roe, K.J., Holznagel, W. & Harris, P.M. (2011) Congeneric phylogeographical sampling reveals polyphyly and novel biodiversity within black basses (Centrarchidae: Micropterus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104 (2), 346–363.
  8. Bailey, R.M., Winn, H.E. & Smith, C.L. (1954) Fishes from the Escambia River, Alabama and Florida, with ecologic and taxonomic notes. Proceedings of the Academy of natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 106, 109–164.
  9. Bailey, R.M., Latta, W.C. & Smith, G.R. (2004) An atlas of Michigan fishes with keys and illustrations for their identification. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 192, 1–215.
  10. Baker, W.H., Johnston, C.E. & Folkerts, G.W. (2008) The Alabama bass, Micropterus henshalli (Teleostei: Centrarchidae), from the Mobile River basin. Zootaxa, 1861 (1), 57–67.
  11. Baker, W.H., Blanton, R.E. & Johnston, C.E. (2013) Diversity within the Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) species group, with descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa, 3635 (4), 379–401.
  12. Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D. & Stribling, J.B. (1999) Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates, and Fish. 2nd Edition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C. [unknown pagination, EPA 841-B-99-002]
  13. Betancur-R., R., Broughton, R.E., Wiley, E.O., Carpenter, K., López, J.A., Li, C., Holcroft, N.I., Arcila, D., Sanciangco, M., Cureton Ii, J.C. & Zhang, F. (2013) The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents, 5. [published online]
  14. Blum, M.J., Neely, D.A., Harris, P.M. & Mayden, R.L. (2008) Molecular systematics of the cyprinid genus Campostoma (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes): disassociation between morphological and mitochondrial differentiation. Copeia, 2008 (2), 360–369.
  15. Boschung Jr., H.T. (1992) Catalog of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 14, 1–266.
  16. Boschung Jr., H.T. & Mayden, R.L. (2004) Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., 736 pp.
  17. Breiman, L. (2001) Random forests. Machine Learning, 45, 5–32.
  18. Breitman, M.F., Domingos, F.M.C.B., Bagley, J.C., Wiederhecker, H.C., Ferrari, T.B., Cavalcante, V.H., Pereira, A.C., Abreu, T.L., De-Lima, A.K.S., Morais, C.J.S., Del Prette, A.C.H., Paim, I.S., Mello, R., Carvalho, G., Lima, T.M., Silva, A.A., Azevedo, C., Carvalho, G.C., Pantoja, J.A., Monteiro, I., Paschoaletto, I.P., Rodrigues, G., Talarico, A., Barreto-Lima, A.F. & Colli, G.R. (2018) A new species of Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae) endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado. Herpetologica, 74 (4), 355–369.
  19. Brownstein, C.D., Kim, D., Orr, O.D., Hogue, G.M., Tracy, B.H., Pugh, M.W., Singer, R., Myles-McBurney, C., Mollish, J.M., Simmons, J.W., David, S.R., Watkins-Colwell, G., Hoffman, E.A. & Near, T.J. (2022) Hidden species diversity in an iconic living fossil vertebrate. Biology Letters, 18 (11), 20220395.
  20. Burr, B.M., Eisenhour, D.J. & Grady, J.M. (2005) Two new species of Noturus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) from the Tennessee R. drainage: description, distribution, and conservation status. Copeia, 2005 (4), 783–802.[0783:TNSONS]2.0.CO;2
  21. Caldwell, R.D. (1971) Interpopulation variation in the coldwater darter Etheostoma ditrema Ramsey and Suttkus. In: Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1971. [unknown pagination]
  22. Calloway, M.T., Roberts, M.E. & Taylor, C.M. (2017) Temporal and spatial patterns of fish distribution and diversity in the Noxubee River, Mississippi and Alabama. Copeia, 105 (1), 100–107.
  23. Cashner, M.F., Piller, K.R. & Bart, H.L. (2011) Phylogenetic relationships of the North American cyprinid subgenus Hydrophlox. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 59 (3), 725–735.
  24. Clemmer, G.H. (1971) The systematics and biology of the Hybopsis amblops complex. Ph.D. dissertation, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 158 pp.
  25. Deng, H. (2013) Guided random forest in the RRF package. arXiv, 1306.0237 (1), 1–2.
  26. Doosey, M.H., Bart Jr., H.L. & Piller, K.R. (2021) Checklist of the inland fishes of Louisiana. Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings, 1 (61), Article 3, 59–73.
  27. Drymon, J.M., Schweiss, K.E., Seubert, E.A., Lehman, R.N., Daly-Engel, T.S., Pfleger, M. & Phillips, N.M. (2021) Swimming against the flow—environmental DNA can detect bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) across a dynamic deltaic interface. Ecology and Evolution, 11 (1), 22–28.
  28. Eldridge, P.J. (1988) The southeast area monitoring and assessment program (SEAMAP): a state-federal-university program for collection, management, and dissemination of fishery-independent data and information in the southeastern United States. Marine Fisheries Review, 50, 29–39
  29. Faber, J.E., Rybka, J. & White, M.M. (2009) Intraspecific phylogeography of the stonecat madtom, Noturus flavus. Copeia, 2009 (3), 563–571.
  30. Fick, S.E. & Hijmans, R.J. (2017) WorldClim 2: new 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 37 (12), 4302–4315.
  31. Fluker, B.L., Jones, K.D. & Kuhajda, B.R. (2019) Genetic structure and diversity of the blueface darter Etheostoma cyanoprosopum, a microendemic freshwater fish in the southeastern USA. Endangered Species Research, 40, 133–147.
  32. Fricke, R. (Ed.) (2022) Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: References. Online version. Available from: (accessed 21 April 2022)
  33. Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & van der Laan, R. (Eds.), (2022) Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Online version. Available from: (accessed 1 April 2022)
  34. Gilbert, C.H. (1884) A list of fishes collected in the East Fork of White River, Indiana, with descriptions of two new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 7 (423), 199–205.
  35. Gilbert, C.R., Mayden, R.L. & Powers, S.L. (2017) Morphological and genetic evolution in eastern populations of the Macrhybopsis aestivalis complex (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with the descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa, 4247 (5), 501–555.
  36. Hamer, M., Victor, J. & Smith, G.F. (2012) Best practice guide for compiling, maintaining and disseminating national species checklists. Version 1.0. Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Copenhagen. Online version. Available from: (accessed 1 April 2022)
  37. Hartop, E., Srivathsan, A., Ronquist, F. & Meier, R. (2022) Large-scale Integrative Taxonomy (LIT): resolving the data conundrum for dark taxa. Systematic Biology, 71 (6), 1404–1422.
  38. Hobern, D., Barik, S.K., Christidis, L., Garnett, S.T., Kirk, P., Orrell, T.M., Pape, T., Pyle, R.L., Thiele, K.R., Zachos, F.E. & Bánki, O. (2021) Towards a global list of accepted species VI: The Catalogue of Life checklist. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 21 (4), 677–690.
  39. Hortal, J., de Bello, F., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., Lewinsohn, T.M., Lobo, J.M. & Ladle, R.J. (2015) Seven shortfalls that beset large-scale knowledge of biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 46, 523–549.
  40. Hubbs, C.L. & Bailey, R.M. (1940) A revision of the black basses (Micropterus and Huro) with descriptions of four new forms. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 48, 1–51.
  41. Hubbs, C.L. & Lagler, K.F. (1964) Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 213 pp.
  42. Hughes, L.C., Ortí, G., Huang, Y., Sun, Y., Baldwin, C.C., Thompson, A.W., Arcila, D., Betancur-R., R., Li, C., Becker, L. & Bellora, N. (2018) Comprehensive phylogeny of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) based on transcriptomic and genomic data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115 (24), 6249–6254.
  43. Jelks, H.L., Walsh, S.J., Burkhead, N.M., Contreras-Balderas, S., Diaz-Pardo, E., Hendrickson, D.A., Lyons, J., Mandrak, N.E., McCormick, F., Nelson, J.S. & Platania, S.P. (2008) Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries, 33 (8), 372–407.
  44. Karr, J.R. (1991) Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological Applications, 1 (1), 66–84.
  45. Keck, B.P. & Near, T.J. (2008) Assessing phylogenetic resolution among mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological datasets in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46 (2), 708–720.
  46. Keck, B.P. & Near, T.J. (2010) Geographic and temporal aspects of mitochondrial replacement in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae). Evolution, 64 (5), 1410–1428.
  47. Kim, D., Bauer, B.H. & Near, T.J. (2022a) Introgression and species delimitation in the longear sunfish Lepomis megalotis (Teleostei: Percomorpha: Centrarchidae). Systematic Biology, 71 (2), 273–285.
  48. Kim, D., Taylor, A.T. & Near, T.J. (2022b) Phylogenomics and species delimitation of the economically important Black Basses (Micropterus). Scientific Reports, 12 (1), 1–14.
  49. Kozal, L.C., Simmons, J.W., Mollish, J.M., MacGuigan, D.J., Benavides, E., Keck, B.P. & Near, T.J. (2017) Phylogenetic and morphological diversity of the Etheostoma zonistium species complex with the description of a new species endemic to the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 58 (2), 263–286.
  50. Kuhajda, B.R., George, A.L. & Chance, S. (2016) Recovery implementation strategy: Chucky Madtom (Noturus crypticus). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Washington, D.C., 15 pp. [see Supplemental Material, Reference S2]
  51. Kuhajda, B.R. & Mayden, R.L. (1995) Discovery of a new species of snubnose darter (Percidae, Etheostoma) endemic to the Cumberland Plateau in Alabama. Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin, 42, 111−112.
  52. Lacefield, J. (2013) Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: A Guide to the State’s Ancient Life and Landscapes. Revised Edition. Alabama Geological Society, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 276 pp.
  53. Lang, N.J., Roe, K.J., Renaud, C.B., Gill, H.S., Potter, I.C., Freyhof, J., Naseka, A.M., Cochran, P., Pérez, H.E., Habit, E.M., Kuhajda, B.R., Neely, D.A., Reshetnikov, Y.S., Salnikov, V.B., Stoumboudi, M.T. & Mayden, R.L. (2009) Novel relationships among lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) revealed by a taxonomically comprehensive molecular data set. In: Brown, L.R., Chase, S.D., Mesa, M.G., Beamish, R.J. & Moyle, P.B. (Eds.), Biology, Management, and Conservation of Lampreys in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 72, pp. 41–55.
  54. Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J. & Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. (2016) A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa, 4139 (3), 345–368.
  55. Lomolino, M.V. (2004) Conservation biogeography. In: Lomolino, M.V. & Heaney, L.R. (Eds.), Frontiers of Biogeography: New Directions in the Geography of Nature. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachsetts, pp. 293–296.
  56. Lydeard, C. & Mayden, R.L. (1995) A diverse and endangered aquatic ecosystem of the southeast United States. Conservation Biology, 9 (4), 800–805.
  57. McBride, R.S., Rocha, C.R., Ruiz-Carus, R. & Bowen, B. (2010) A new species of ladyfish, of the genus Elops (Elopiformes: Elopidae), from the western Atlantic Ocean. Zootaxa, 2346 (1), 29–41.
  58. MacGuigan, D.J. & Near, T.J. (2019) Phylogenomic signatures of ancient introgression in a rogue lineage of darters (Teleostei: Percidae). Systematic Biology, 68 (2), 329–346.
  59. Manooch, C.S. (1984) Fisherman’s Guide: Fishes of the Southeastern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina, 372 pp.
  60. Mayden, R.L. & Allen, J.S. (2015) Molecular systematics of the phoxinin genus Pteronotropis (Otophysi: Cypriniformes). BioMed Research International, 2015, 298658.
  61. Mayden, R.L., Knott, K.E., Clabaugh, J.P., Kuhajda, B.R. & Lang, N.J. (2005) Systematics and population genetics of the coldwater (Etheostoma ditrema) and watercress (Etheostoma nuchale) darters, with comments on the Gulf darter (Etheostoma swaini) (Percidae: subgenus Oligocephalus). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 33, 455–478.
  62. Mayden, R.L. & Kuhajda, B.R. (1989) Systematics of Notropis cahabae, a new cyprinid fish endemic to the Cahaba River of the Mobile Basin. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 9, 1–16.
  63. Mettee, M.F. (2008) Fishes of Alabama. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Online resource. Available from: (accessed 21 April 2022)
  64. Mettee, M.F., O’Neil, P.E. & Pierson, J.M. (1996) Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama, 820 pp.
  65. Mettee, M.F., O’Neil, P.E., Suttkus, R.D. & Pierson, J.M. (1987) Fishes of the lower Tombigbee River system in Alabama and Mississippi. Geological Survey of Alabama Bulletin, 107, 1–186.
  66. Mirande, J.M. (2017) Combined phylogeny of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) and the use of morphological characters in large-scale analyses. Cladistics, 33 (4), 333–350.
  67. Moritz, C. (1994) Defining ‘evolutionarily significant units’ for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9 (10), 373–375.
  68. Morton, T. (1989) Species Profile: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (mid-Atlantic): Bay Anchovy. US Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report, 82 (11.97), 1–13.
  69. Naseka, A.M. & Renaud, C.B. (2020) Morphology-based taxonomic re-assessment of the Arctic lamprey, Lethenteron camtschaticum (Tilesius, 1811) and taxonomic position of other members of the genus. ZooKeys, 991, 1–67.
  71. NatureServe (2013a) Cottus chattahoochee. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2013, e.T202657A15363801.
  72. NatureServe (2013b) Noturus crypticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2013, e.T202682A19035273.
  73. NatureServe (2013c) Percina kusha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2013, e.T202581A19032676.
  74. NatureServe (2013d) Percina sipsi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2013, e.T202594A19033831.
  75. NatureServe (2013e) Percina smithvanizi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2013, e.T202595A19033701.
  76. Near, T.J. & Keck, B.P. (2005) Dispersal, vicariance, and timing of diversification in Nothonotus darters. Molecular Ecology, 14 (11), 3485–3496.
  77. Near, T.J., Bossu, C.M., Bradburd, G.S., Carlson, R.L., Harrington, R.C., Hollingsworth Jr., P.R., Keck, B.P. & Etnier, D.A. (2011) Phylogeny and temporal diversification of darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae). Systematic Biology, 60 (5), 565–595.
  78. Neely, D.A., Williams, J.D. & Mayden, R.L. (2007) Two new sculpins of the genus Cottus (Teleostei: Cottidae) from rivers of eastern North America. Copeia, 2007 (3), 641–655.[641:TNSOTG]2.0.CO;2
  79. Padial, J.M., Miralles, A., De la Riva, I. & Vences, M. (2010) The integrative future of taxonomy. Frontiers in Zoology, 7 (1), 1–14.
  80. Page, L.M. (1983) Handbook of Darters. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey, 272 pp.
  81. Page, L.M. & Burr, B.M. (1991) A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts, 448 pp.
  82. Page, L.M. & Burr, B.M. (2011) A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts, 663 pp.
  83. Page, L.M., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.D., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N., Mandrak, N.E., Mayden, R.L. & Nelson, J.S. (2013) Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 7th Edition. Special Publication 34. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 384 pp.
  84. Page, L.M., MacFadden, B.J., Fortes, J.A., Soltis, P.A. & Riccardi, G. (2015) Digitization of biodiversity collections reveals biggest data on biodiversity. BioScience, 65 (9), 841–842.
  85. Pera, T.P. & Armbruster, J.W. (2006) A new species of Notropis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from the southeastern United States. Copeia, 2006 (3), 423–430.[423:ANSONC]2.0.CO;2
  86. Pereira, A.M., Levy, A., Vukić, J., Šanda, R., Levin, B.A., Freyhof, J., Geiger, M., Choleva, L., Francisco, S.M. & Robalo, J.I. (2021) Putting European lampreys into perspective: a global-scale multilocus phylogeny with a proposal for a generic structure of the Petromyzontidae. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 59 (8), 1982–1993.
  87. Potter, I.C. & Gill, H.S. (2003) Adaptive radiation of lampreys. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29, 95–112.
  88. Porter, T.M. & Hajibabaei, M. (2018) Scaling up: a guide to high-throughput genomic approaches for biodiversity analysis. Molecular Ecology, 27 (2), 313–338.
  89. Renaud, C.B. (1997) Conservation status of northern hemisphere lampreys (Petromyzontidae). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 13 (3), 143–148.
  90. Robins, R.H., Page, L.M., Williams, J.D., Randall, Z.S. & Sheehy, G.E. (2018) Fishes in the Fresh Waters of Florida: An Identification Guide and Atlas. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, 447 pp.
  91. Robins, C.R. & Ray, G.C. (1986) A Field Guide to Atlantic Coast Fishes: North America. Vol. 32. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, New York, 354 pp.
  92. Robison, H.W. & Buchanan, T.M. (2020) Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 994 pp.
  93. Ryder, O.A. (1986) Species conservation and systematics: the dilemma of subspecies. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 1, 9–10.
  94. Sabaj, M.H. (2020) Codes for Natural History Collections in Ichthyology and Herpetology. Copeia, 108 (3), 593–669.
  95. Sabaj, M.H. (2022) Codes for Natural History Collections in Ichthyology and Herpetology (online supplement). Version 9.0. 14 February 2022. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Washington, D.C. Available from: (accessed 25 July 2023)
  96. Schönhuth, S., Vukic, J., Sanda, R., Yang, L. & Mayden, R.L. (2018) Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Holarctic family Leuciscidae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinoidei). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 127 (5), 781–799.
  97. Smith, D.G. (2012) A checklist of the moray eels of the world (Teleostei: Anguilliformes: Muraenidae). Zootaxa, 3474 (1), 1–64.
  98. Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (1968) Freshwater Fishes of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experimental Station, Auburn, Alabama, 211 pp.
  99. Snelson Jr., F.F., Williams-Hooper, S.E. & Schmid, T.H. (1988) Reproduction and ecology of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, in Florida coastal lagoons. Copeia, 1988, 729–739.
  100. Soares, Y.F.F., Aquino, P.P.U., Bagley, J.C., Langeani, F. & Colli, G.R. (2021) Two new species of Hypostomus suckermouth armored catfishes (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from Central Brazil. Journal of Fish Biology, 99 (3), 905–920.
  101. Song, C.B., Near, T.J. & Page, L.M. (1998) Phylogenetic relations among percid fishes as inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 10 (3), 343–353.
  102. Southeastern Fishes Council (SFC) (2022) Southeastern Fishes Council List of Fishes. Available from: (accessed 16 June 2022)
  103. Stout, C., Schönhuth, S., Mayden, R., Garrison, N.L. & Armbruster, J.W. (2022) Phylogenomics and classification of Notropis and related shiners (Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) and the utility of exon capture on lower taxonomic groups. PeerJ, 10, e14072.
  104. Straight, C.A., Albanese, B. & Freeman, B.J. (2021) Fishes of Georgia. Georgia Museum of Natural History. Online. Available from: (accessed 17 April 2022)
  105. Tan, M. & Armbruster, J.W. (2018) Phylogenetic classification of extant genera of fishes of the order Cypriniformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Zootaxa, 4476 (1), 6–39.
  106. Thomerson, J.E., Thorson, T.B. & Hempel, R.L. (1977) The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, from the upper Mississippi River, near Alton, Illinois. Copeia, 1977, 166–168.
  107. Thorson, T.B. (1971) Movement of bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, between Caribbean Sea and Lake Nicaragua demonstrated by tagging. Copeia, 1971 (2), 336–338.
  108. Tringali, M.D., Strickland, P.A., Krause, R.A., Seyoun, S., Barthel, B.L., Alvarez, A. & Puchulutegui, C. (2015) Conservation status of Shoal Bass in the Chipola River, Florida: the threat of hybridization with native and nonnative congeners. In: Tringali, M.D., Long, J.M., Birdsong, T.W. & Allen, M.S. (Eds.), Black Bass Diversity: Multidisciplinary Science for Conservation. American Fisheries Society Symposium 82, Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 523–536.
  109. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] (2011) Endangered status for the Cumberland darter, rush darter, yellowcheek darter, chucky madtom, and laurel dace. Federal Register, 76, 48722–48741.
  110. Utter, P.S. (1984) A taxonomic review of the darters referred to Etheostoma swaini and E. ditrema (Pisces: Percidae) in the Coosa–Alabama River Drainage. M.Sc. Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.
  111. Valentini, A., Taberlet, P., Miaud, C., Civade, R., Herder, J., Thomsen, P.F., Bellemain, E., Besnard, A., Coissac, E., Boyer, F. & Gaboriaud, C. (2016) Next‐generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding. Molecular Ecology, 25 (4), 929–942.
  112. van der Laan, R., Fricke, R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (Eds.), (2023) Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes: Classification. Online version. Available from: (accessed 10 July 2023)
  113. Vladykov, V.D. & Kott, E. (1979) List of Northern Hemisphere lampreys (Petromyzontidae) and their distribution. Miscellaneous Special Publication 42. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa, 30 pp.
  114. Wang, Q., Dizaj, L.P., Huang, J., Sarker, K.K., Kevrekidis, C., Reichenbacher, B., Esmaeili, H.R., Straube, N., Moritz, T. & Li, C. (2022) Molecular phylogenetics of the Clupeiformes based on exon-capture data and a new classification of the order. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 175, 107590.
  115. Warren Jr., M.L., Burr, B.M., Walsh, S.J., Bart Jr., H.L., Cashner, R.C., Etnier, D.A., Freeman, B.J., Kuhajda, B.R., Mayden, R.L., Robison, H.W. & Ross, S.T. (2000) Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries, 25 (10), 7–31.;2
  116. Weigt, L.A., Baldwin, C.C., Driskell, A., Smith, D.G., Ormos, A. & Reyier, E.A. (2012) Using DNA barcoding to assess Caribbean reef fish biodiversity: expanding taxonomic and geographic coverage. PLoS One, 7 (7), e41059.
  117. Werneke, D.C. & Armbruster, J.W. (2015) Silversides of the genus Labidesthes (Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae). Zootaxa, 4032 (5), 535–550.
  118. Whittaker, R.J., Araújo, M.B., Paul, J., Ladle, R.J., Watson, J.E.M. & Willis, K.J. (2005) Conservation biogeography: assessment and prospect. Diversity and Distributions, 11, 3–23.
  119. Williams, J.D., Neely, D.A., Walsh, S.J. & Burkhead, N.M. (2007) Three new percid fishes (Percidae: Percina) from the Mobile Basin drainage of Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee. Zootaxa, 1549 (1), 1–2.