Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-09-07

Three new species of the Merodon ruficornis group (Diptera: Syrphidae) discovered at the edge of its range

Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russia.
Diptera COI gene endemicity hoverfly identification key morphology taxonomy

Abstract

Further revision of material from the Merodon ruficornis group (Diptera: Syrphidae) revealed three new species, M. acutus Vujić et Radenković sp. nov. from Russia, M. fulvitarsis Vujić et Radenković sp. nov. from Iran, and M. trispinus Vujić et Radenković sp. nov. from Turkey. We provide an upgraded and illustrated identification key for the species of the group, as well as distribution maps for the new species. Moreover, we describe the female of M. portschinskyi Stackelberg, 1924. These new descriptions extend the range of the M. ruficornis group in almost all directions and bolster the very high level of endemism previously observed within this group. Of the 21 taxa (including the three new species described herein), 15 are narrow-range endemics.

 

References

  1. Ačanski, J., Miličić, M., Likov, L., Milić, D., Radenković, S. & Vujić, A. (2016a) Environmental niche divergence of species from Merodon ruficornis group (Diptera: Syrphidae). Archives of Biological Sciences, 69, 247–259. https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS160303095A
    Ačanski, J., Vujiă, A., Djan, M., Obreht-Vidakoviă, D., Stĺhls, G. & Radenkoviă, S. (2016b) Defining species boundaries in the Merodon avidus complex (Diptera, Syrphidae) using integrative taxonomy, with the description of a new species. European Journal of Taxonomy, 237, 1–25. https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2016.237
    Akaike, H. (1974) A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE transactions on automatic control, 19 (6), 716–723. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705
    Andrić, A., Tubić, N.K., Djan, M., Vujić, A. & Vidaković, D.O. (2017) Assessment of genetic diversity within the Merodon ruficornis species group (Diptera: Syrphidae) by RAPD analysis. Archives of Biological Sciences, 69 (3), 553–560. https://doi.org/10.2298/ABS160729131A
    Andrić, A., Šikoparija, B., Obreht, D., Djan, M., Preradović, J., Radenković, S., Pérez-Bañón, C. & Vujić, A. (2014) DNA barcoding applied: identification of the larva of Merodon avidus (Diptera: Syrphidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 54 (2), 741–757.
    Barkalov, A.V. & Ståhls, G. (2015) Descriptions of three new species of the genus Cheilosia Meigen from China (Diptera, Syrphidae). Zootaxa, 3972 (2), 280–290. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3972.2.8
    Bickford, D., Lohman, D.J., Sodhi, N.S., Ng, P.K., Meier, R., Winker, K., Ingram, K.K. & Das, I. (2007) Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Trends in ecology & evolution, 22 (3), 148–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2006.11.004
    Chen, H., Rangasamy, M., Tan, S.Y., Wang, H. & Siegfried, B.D. (2010) Evaluation of five methods for total DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles. PLoS one, 5 (8), e11963. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011963
    Chroni, A., Djan, M., Vidaković, D.O., Petanidou, T. & Vujić, A. (2017) Molecular species delimitation in the genus Eumerus (Diptera: Syrphidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 107 (1), 126–138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485316000729
    Cognato, A. I. (2006) Standard percent DNA sequence difference for insects does not predict species boundaries. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99 (4), 1037–1045. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/99.4.1037
    Darvish, J., Mohammadi, Z., Mahmoudi, A. & Siahsarvie, R. (2014) Faunistic and taxonomic study of Rodents from northwestern Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics, 10 (2), 119–136. https://doi.org/10.22067/ijab.v10i2.44285
    Fabricius, J.C. (1794) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Tom. IV. C.G. Proft, Fil. et Soc., Hafniae [= Copenhagen], [6] + 472 + [5] pp.
    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology Biotechnology, 3 (5), 294–299.
    Goloboff, P.A. (1999) NONA computer program. Ver. 2.0. Tucuman, Argentina: Published by the author. Available from: https://www.softpedia.com/get/Science-CAD/NONA.shtml (accessed 15 May 2021)
    Haarto, A. & Ståhls, G. (2014) When mtDNA COI is misleading: congruent signal of ITS2 molecular marker and morphology for North European Melanostoma Schiner, 1860 (Diptera, Syrphidae). ZooKeys, 431, 93–134. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.431.7207
    Hadley, A. (2006) Combine Z, Ver. 5. Available from: http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/CZ5/combinez5.htm (accessed 21 May 2021)
    Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, 41, 95–98. Available from: https://bioedit.software.informer.com/7.2/ (accessed 10 May 2021)
    Hijmans, R.J., Guarino, L. &Mathur, P. (2012) DIVA GIS. Version 7.5.A geographic information system for the analysis of species distribution data. Available from: https://www.diva-gis.org (accessed 23 Jun 2021)
    Kaloveloni, A., Tscheulin, T., Vujić, A., Radenković, S. & Petanidou, T. (2015) Winners and losers of climate change for the genus Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae) across the Balkan Peninsula. Ecological Modelling 313, 201–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.06.032
    Kočiđ Tubiă, N., Stĺhls, G., Ačanski, J., Djan, M., Obreht Vidaković, D., Hayat, R., Khaghaninia, S., Vujić, A. & Radenković, S. (2018) An integrative approach in the assessment of species delimitation and structure of the Merodon nanus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 18 (4), 479–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-018-0381-7
    Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C. & Tamura, K. (2018) MEGA X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Molecular biology and evolution, 35(6), 1547–1549. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy096
    Likov, L., Vujić, A., Kočiš Tubić, N., Djan, M., Veličković, N., Rojo, S., Pérez-Bañón, C., Veselić, S., Barkalov, A., Hayat, R. & Radenković, S. (2020) Systematic position and composition of Merodon nigritarsis and M. avidus groups (Diptera, Syrphidae) with a description of four new hoverflies species. Contributions to Zoology, 89 (1), 74–125. https://doi.org/10.1163/18759866-20191414
    Loew, H. (1862) Uebergriechische Dipteren. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 6, 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.47918620107
    Manafzadeh, S., Staedler, Y.M. & Conti, E. (2017) Visions of the past and dreams of the future in the Orient: the Irano-Turanian region from classical botany to evolutionary studies. Biological Reviews, 92, 1365–1388. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12287
    Marcos-García, M.Á., Vujić, A. & Mengual, X. (2007) Revision of Iberian species of the genus Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae). European Journal of Entomology, 104, 531–572. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2007.073
    Marcos-García, M.A., Vujić, A., Ricarte, A. & Ståhls, G. (2011) Towards an integrated taxonomy of the Merodon equestris species complex (Diptera: Syrphidae) including description of a new species, with additional data on Iberian Merodon. The Canadian Entomologist, 143, 332–348. https://doi.org/10.4039/n11-013
    McAlpine, J.F. (1981) Morphology and terminology, adults. In: McAlpine, J.F. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera, 1. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, pp. 9–63.
    Meigen, J.W. (1822) Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Dritter Theil. Beaufort, pp. 22–32.
    Meigen, J.W. (1803) Versuch einer neuen Gattungs-Eintheilung der europäischen zweiflügligen Insekten. Magazin für Insektenkunde, 2, 259–281.
    Mengual, X., Bot, S., Chkhartishvili, T., Reimann, A., Thormann, J. & von der Mark, L. (2020) Checklist of hover flies (Diptera, Syrphidae) of the Republic of Georgia. ZooKeys, 916, 11–23. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.916.47824
    Mengual, X., Ståhls, G., Láska, P., Mazánek, L. & Rojo, S. (2018) Molecular phylogenetics of the predatory lineage of flower flies Eupeodes‐Scaeva (Diptera: Syrphidae), with the description of the Neotropical genus Austroscaeva gen. nov. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 56 (2), 148–169. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzs.12212
    Mengual, X., Stĺhls, G., Vujiă, A. & Marcos-García, M.A. (2006) Integrative taxonomy of Iberian Merodon species (Diptera: Syrphidae). Zootaxa, 1377, 1–26.
    Milankov, V., Stĺhls, G. & Vujiă, A. (2008) Molecular diversity of populations of the Merodon ruficornis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 46 (2), 143–152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0469.2007.00448.x
    Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCE), New Orleans, LA., 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1109/GCE.2010.5676129
    Nedeljković, Z., Ačanski, J., Djan, M., Obreht-Vidaković, D., Ricarte, A. & Vujić, A. (2015) An integrated approach to delimiting species borders in the genus Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803 (Diptera: Syrphidae), with description of two new species. Contributions to Zoology, 84 (4), 285–304. https://doi.org/10.1163/18759866-08404002
    Nedeljković, Z., Ricarte, A., Zorić, L.Š., Djan, M., Hayat, R., Vujić, A. & Marcos-García, M.Á. (2020). Integrative taxonomy confirms two new West-Palaearctic species allied with Chrysotoxum vernale Loew, 1841 (Diptera: Syrphidae). Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 20 (4), 821–833. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-020-00465-w
    Nixon, K.C. (2002) WinClada ver. 1.00. 08. Ithaca, New York: Published by the author. Available from: http://www.diversityoflife.org/winclada (accessed 9 May 2021)
    Popov, G.V. (2009) Merodon alexandri spec. nov.—a new species of hover-flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Nothern Black Sea Region. Studia Dipterologica, 16, 133–151.
    Popović, D., Ačanski, J., Djan, M., Obreht, D., Vujić, A. & Radenković, S. (2015) Sibling species delimitation and nomenclature of the Merodon avidus complex (Diptera: Syrphidae). European Journal of Entomology, 112 (4), 790–809. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2015.100
    Preradović, J., Andrić, A., Radenković, S., Šašić Zorić Lj., Pérez-Bañón, C., Campoy, A. & Vujić A. (2018) Pupal stages of three species of the phytophagous genus Merodon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae). Zootaxa, 4420 (2), 229–242. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4420.2.5
    Puillandre, N., Lambert, A., Brouillet, S. & Achaz, G. (2012) ABGD, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery for primary species delimitation. Molecular ecology, 21(8), 1864–1877. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05239.
    Radenković, S., Šašić Zorić, L.J., Djan, M., ObrehtVidakoviă, D., Ačanski, J., Stĺhls, G., Veličkoviă, N., Markov, Z., Petanidou, T., Kočiš Tubić, N. & Vujić, A. (2018) Cryptic speciation in the Merodon luteomaculatus complex (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 56 (2), 170–191. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzs.12193
    Radenkoviă, S., Vujiă, A., Stĺhls, G., Pérez-Bañón, C., Rojo, S., Petanidou, T. & Šimić, S. (2011) Three new cryptic species of the genus Merodon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the island of Lesvos (Greece). Zootaxa, 2735 (1), 35–56. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2735.1.5
    Radenković, S., Vujić, A., Vidaković, D.O., Djan, M., Milić, D., Veselić, S., Ståhls, G. & Petanidou, T. (2020) Sky island diversification in the Merodon rufus group (Diptera, Syrphidae) — recent vicariance in south-east Europe. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 20, 345–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-020-00440-5
    Ricarte, A., Marcos-García, M.Á. & Rotheray, G.E. (2008) The early stages and life histories of three Eumerus and two Merodon species (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Mediterranean region. Entomologica Fennica, 19, 129–141. https://doi.org/10.33338/ef.84424
    Ricarte, A., Souba-Dols, G.J., Hauser, M. & Marcos-García, M.Á. (2017) A review of the early stages and host plants of the genera Eumerus and Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae), with new data on four species. PLoS ONE, 12 (12), e0189852. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189852
    Richter, V.A. & Kuznetsov, S.Yu. (2007) Dipterous insects (Diptera). No. 5. Family Syrphidae, 1.Species-group taxa described by A.A. Stackelberg. In: Pugachov, O.N. (Ed.), Catalogue of type specimens in the collection of the Zoological Institute. Russian Academy of Sciences. Zoological Institute of RAS, St. Petersburg, pp. 1–27.
    Rondani, C. (1843) Diptères nouveaux d’Italie. Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne, 6, 43–44.
    Sack, P. (1913) Zwei neuepalaarktischen Merodon-Arten. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 11, 620–622.
    Đađiă, L., Ačanski, J., Vujiă, A., Stĺhls, G., Radenkoviă, S., Miliă, D., Obreht Vidaković, D. & Djan, M. (2016) Molecular and morphological inference of three cryptic species within the Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae). PLoS One, 11 (8), e0160001. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160001
    Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. (1994) Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the entomological Society of America, 87 (6), 651–701. https://doi.org/10.1093/aesa/87.6.651
    Speight, M.C.D. (2020) Species accounts of European Syrphidae, 2020. Syrph the Net, the database of European Syrphidae (Diptera) Vol. 104. Syrph the Net publications, Dublin, Ireland, 314 pp.
    Stackelberg, A.A. (1924) Syrphidarum novorum palaearcticorum diagnoses. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 41, 25–29.
    Stĺhls, G., Vujiă, A., Pérez-Bañón, C., Radenković, S., Rojo, S. & Petanidou, T. (2009) COI barcodes for identification of Merodon hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Lesvos Island, Greece. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9, 1431–1438. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02592.x
    Stĺhls, G., Vujiă, A., Petanidou, T., Cardoso, P., Radenković, S., Ačanski, J., Pérez-Bañón, C. & Santos, R. (2016) Phylogeographic patterns of Merodon hoverflies in the Eastern Mediterranean region: revealing connections and barriers. Ecology and Evolution, 6 (7), 2226–2245. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2021
    Stamatakis, A. (2014) RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics, 30 (9), 1312–1313. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033
    Strobl, P.G. (1900) Dipteren fauna von Bosnien, Herzegovina und Dalmatia. Bosnisch-Herzegowinischen Landesmuseums Sarajevo, 7, 552–670.
    Suturović, E. (2008) Povezanost taksona Merodon loewi van der Goot, 1964 (Diptera: Syrphidae) sa vrstama roda Ornithogalum L. 1753 (Amaryllidales, Hyacinthaceae) [Relationship between species Merodon loewi van der Goot, 1964 (Diptera: Syrphidae) and species from genus Ornithogalum L. 1753 (Amaryllidales, Hyacinthaceae)]. Završni rad, Prirodno-matematičkifakultet, Univerzitet u NovomSadu, Srbija [Master Thesis, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, In Serbian language]
    Thompson, F.C. (1999) A key to the genera of the flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the Neotropical Region including descriptions of new genera and species and a glossary of taxonomic terms. Contributions on Entomology International, 3, 321–378.
    Van der Goot, V.S. (1964) Fluke’s catalogue of Neotropical Syrphidae (Insecta, Diptera), a critical study with an appendix on new names in Syrphidae. Beaufortia, 10 (127), 212–221.
    Vujić, A., Likov, L., Popov, S., Radenković, S. & Hauser, M. (2021b) Revision of the Merodon aurifer group (Diptera: Syrphidae) with a new synonyms of M. testaceus Sack, 1913. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, 24 (4), 1301–1312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aspen.2021.08.014
    Vujić, A., Likov, L., Radenković, S., Kočiš, Tubić, N., Djan, M., Šebić, A., Pérez-Bañón, C., Barkalov, A., Hayat, R., Rojo, S., Andrić, A. & Ståhls, G. (2020b) Revision of the Merodon serrulatus group (Diptera, Syrphidae). ZooKeys, 909, 79–158. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.909.46838
    Vujić, A., Marcos-García, M.Á., Sarýbýyýk, S. & Ricarte, A. (2011) New data for the Merodon Meigen 1803 fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Turkey including a new species description and status changes in several taxa. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 47, 78–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2011.10697699
    Vujić, A., Pérez-Bañón, C., Radenkoviă, S., Stĺhls, G., Rojo, S., Petanidou, T. & Šimić, S. (2007) Two new species of genus Merodon Meigen, 1803 (Syrphidae: Diptera) from the island of Lesvos (Greece), in the eastern Mediterranean. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 43 (3), 319–326.
    https:// doi.org/10.1080/00379271.2007.10697527
    Vujić, A., Radenković, S., Ačanski, J., Grković, A., Taylor, M., Senol, G.S. & Hayat, R. (2015) Revision of the species of the Merodon nanus group (Diptera: Syrphidae) including three new species. Zootaxa, 4006 (3), 439–462. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4006.3.2
    Vujić, A., Radenković, S., Likov, L., Andrić, A., Gilasian, E. & Barkalov, A. (2019) Two new enigmatic species of the genus Merodon Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the north-eastern Middle East. Zootaxa, 4555 (2), 187–208. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4555.2.2
    Vujić, A., Radenković, S., Likov, L., Andrić, A., Janković, M., Ačanski, J., Popov, G., de Courcy Williams, M., Šašić Zorić, Lj. & Djan, M. (2020a) Conflict and congruence between morphological and molecular data: revision of the Merodon constans group (Diptera: Syrphidae). Invertebrate Systematics, 34 (4), 406–448. https://doi.org/10.1071/IS19047
    Vujić, А., Radenković, S., Likov, L., Trifunov, S. & Nikolić, T. (2013a) Three new species of the Merodon nigritarsisgroup (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Middle East. Zootaxa, 3640 (3), 442–464. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3640.3.7
    Vujić, A., Radenković, S., Likov, L. & Veselić, S. (2021a) Taxonomic complexity in the genus Merodon Meigen, 1803 (Diptera, Syrphidae). ZooKeys, 1031, 85–124. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1031.62125
    Vujiă, A., Radenkoviă, S., Stĺhls, G., Ačanski, J., Stefanoviă, A., Veseliă, S., Andriă, A. & Hayat, R. (2012) Systematics and taxonomy of the ruficornis group of genus Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae). Systematic Entomology, 37 (3), 578–602. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00631.x
    Vujiă, A., Stĺhls, G., Ačanski, J., Bartsch, H., Bygebjerg, R. & Stefanoviă, A. (2013b) Systematics of Pipizini and taxonomy of European Pipiza Fallén: molecular and morphological evidence (Diptera, Syrphidae). Zoologica Scripta, 42 (3), 288–305. https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12005
    Vujić, A., Šašić, Zorić, Lj., Ačanski, J., Likov, L., Radenković, S., Djan, M., Milić, D., Šebić, A., Ranković, M. & Khaghaninia, S. (2020c) Hide-and-seek with hoverflies: Merodon aureus—a species, a complex or a subgroup? Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 190, 974–1001. https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa016
    Vujiă, A., Stĺhls, G., Ačanski, J., Rojo, S., Pérez-Bañón, C. & Radenković, S. (2018) Review of the Merodon albifasciatus Macquart species complex (Diptera: Syrphidae): the nomenclatural type located and its provenance discussed. Zootaxa, 4374 (1), 25–48. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4374.1.2
    Zoriă, L.S., Ačanski, J., Vujiă, A., Stĺhls, G., Djan, M. & Radenkoviă, S. (2020) Resolving the taxonomy of the Merodon dobrogensis species subgroup (Diptera: Syrphidae), with the description of a new species. Canadian Entomologist, 152 (1), 36–59. https://doi.org/10.4039/tce.2019.72

  2.