Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-05-16

A new diminutive subterranean eel loach species of the genus Pangio (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from Southern India

Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS), Kochi, India
Malabar Awareness and Rescue Centre for Wildlife (MARC), Kannur, India
Faculty of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS), Kochi, India. Zoo Outreach Organization (ZOO), Coimbatore, India
Department of Life Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Delhi-NCR, India.
Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS), Kochi, India
Pisces freshwater fish groundwater taxonomy Western Ghats

Abstract

A second subterranean species of Pangio is described from an old dug-out well in Kerala, Southern India. The new species, Pangio pathala is unique within the genus in possessing the highest number (27) of caudal vertebrae. Pangio pathala is distinguished from P. bhujia, the only subterranean Pangio species known so far, in having four pectoral-fin rays (vs. three), five anal-fin rays (vs. six), 67 vertebrae (40 abdominal and 27 caudal vertebrae) (vs. 62–63), and a raw genetic distance of 8.1–8.7% in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. This paper also provides an additional record of Pangio bhujia from a location 40 km south of the type locality.

 

References

  1. Ali, A., Dahanukar, N., Kanagavel, A., Philip, S. & Raghavan, R. (2013) Records of the endemic and threatened catfish, Hemibagrus punctatus from the southern Western Ghats with notes on its distribution, ecology and conservation status. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 5, 4569–4578. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3427.4569-78
    Anoop, V.K., Britz, R., Arjun, C.P., Dahanukar, N. & Raghavan, R. (2019) Pangio bhujia, a new, peculiar species of miniature subterranean eel loach lacking dorsal and pelvic fins from India (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Zootaxa, 4683 (1), 144–150. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4683.1.8
    Bohlen, J., Šlechtová, V., Tan, H.H. & Britz, R. (2011) Phylogeny of the Southeast Asian freshwater fish genus Pangio (Cypriniformes; Cobitidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61, 854–865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.08.003
    Britz, R. & Maclaine, J. (2007) A review of the eel loaches, genus Pangio, from Myanmar (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 18, 17–30.
    Britz, R., Ali, A. & Raghavan, R. (2012) Pangio ammophila, a new species of eel-loach from Karnataka, southern India (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 23, 45–50.
    Britz, R., Anoop, V.K., Dahanukar, N. & Raghavan, R. (2019) The subterranean Aenigmachanna gollum, a new genus and species of snakehead (Teleostei: Channidae) from Kerala, South India. Zootaxa, 4603 (2), 377–388. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4603.2.10
    Britz, R., Dahanukar, N., Anoop, V. K., Philip, S., Clarke, B. & Rüber, L. (2020a) Aenigmachannidae, a new family of snakehead fishes (Teleostei: Channoidei) from subterranean waters of South India. Scientific Reports, 10, 16081. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73129-6
    Britz, R., Dahanukar, N., Standing, A., Philip, S., Kumar B. & Raghavan R. (2020b) Osteology of ‘Monopterus’ roseni with the description of Rakthamichthys, new genus, and comments on the generic assignment of the Amphipnous Group species (Teleostei: Synbranchiformes). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 30, 221–236.
    Britz, R., Standing, A., Kumar, B., Kripakaran, M., Katwate, U., Sundar, R.L. & Raghavan, R. (2021) Ophichthys fossorius, a poorly known South Indian swamp eel (Teleostei: Synbranchidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 31, 83–96.
    Chernomor, O., von Haeseler, A. & Minh. B.Q. (2016) Terrace aware data structure for phylogenomic inference from supermatrices. Systematic Biology, 65, 997–1008. https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syw037
    De Grave, S., Arjun, C.P. & Raghavan, R. (2018) The discovery of Euryrhynchidae (Crustacea: Decapoda) in India, with the description of a new genus and species. Zootaxa, 4462 (3), 367–378. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4462.3.4
    Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: Multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32, 1792–1797. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkh340
    Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & van der Laan, R. (Eds.) (2020) Eschmeyer’s Catalog of Fishes. Electronic Version. Available from: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp (accessed 20 December 2020)
    Hadiaty, R.K. & Kottelat, M. (2009) Pangio lidi, a new species of loach from eastern Borneo, Indonesia (Teleostei: Cobitidae). Zootaxa, 2171 (1), 65–68. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2171.1.4
    Hoang, D. T., Chernomor, O., von Haeseler, A., Minh, B. Q. & Vinh. L. S. (2018) UFBoot2: Improving the ultrafast bootstrap approximation. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35, 518–522. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msx281
    Kalyaanamoorthy, S., Minh, B.Q., Wong, T.K.F., von Haeseler, A. & Jermiin, L.S. (2017) ModelFinder: Fast model selection for accurate phylogenetic estimates. Nature Methods, 14, 587–589. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.4285
    Keskar, A., Raghavan, R., Paingankar, M.S., Kumkar, P., Katwate, U., Jadhav, S., Padhye, A.D. & Dahanukar, N. (2018) Molecular phylogeny unveils hidden diversity of hillstream loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitoidea) in the northern Western Ghats of India. Meta Gene, 17, 237–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mgene.2018.07.002
    Kottelat, M. & Lim, K.K.P. (1993) A review of the eel loaches of the genus Pangio (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from the Malay Peninsula, with descriptions of six new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 41, 203–249.
    Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura. K. (2016) MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33, 1870–1874. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw054
    Nguyen, L.-T., Schmidt, H.A., von Haeseler, A. & Minh, B.Q. (2015) IQ-TREE: A fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32, 268–274. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msu300
    Raghavan, R., Dahanukar, N., Anoop, V.K., Arjun, C.P. & Britz, R. (2022) Diversity and distribution of dragon snakeheads of the family Aenigmachannidae, and the identity of Aenigmachanna mahabali. Zootaxa, 5120 (2), 295–300. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5120.2.10
    Raghavan, R., Britz, R. & Dahanukar, N. (2021) Poor groundwater governance threatens ancient subterranean fishes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 36, 875–878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2021.06.007
    Rambaut, A. (2018) FigTree. Version 1.4.4. Available from; http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree (accessed 26 April 2022)
    Schwarz, G. (1978) Estimating the dimension of a model. The Annals of Statistics, 6, 461–464.
    Šlechtová, V., Musilova, Z., Tan, H.H., Kottelat, M. & Bohlen, J. (2021) One northward, one southward: Contrasting biogeographical history in two benthic freshwater fish genera across Southeast Asia (Teleostei: Cobitoidea: Nemacheilus, Pangio). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 161, 107139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107139
    Taylor, W.R. & Van Dyke, G.C. (1985) Revised procedures for staining and clearing small fishes and other vertebrates for bone and cartilage study. Cybium, 9, 107–120.
    Vincent, M. & Thomas, J. (2011) Kryptoglanis shajii, an enigmatic subterranean-spring catfish (Siluriformes, Incertae sedis) from Kerala, India. Ichthyological Research, 58, 161–165.
    Wang, T., Zhang, Y.P., Yang, Z.Y., Liu, Z. & Du, Y.Y. (2020) DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity in the underestimated genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae, Nemacheilinae) from the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 20 (1), 115. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01718-0
    Yi, S., Zhong, J., Huang, S., Wang, S. & Wang, W. (2017) Morphological comparison and DNA barcoding of four closely related species in the genera Misgurnus and Paramisgurnus (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 70, 50–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2016.10.019