Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2022-05-16

Hyporheic zone, a blind spot: Discovery of the larva of Kisaura (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) from Japan

Laboratory of Molecular Reproductive Biology, Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1, Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Japan. Idea Consultants Inc., 1334-5 Riemon, Yaizu City, Shizuoka, 421-0212, Japan.
Kasuga-chô 4-2-15-107, Chitose, Hokkaidô 066-0065, Japan.
Idea Consultants Inc., 1334-5 Riemon, Yaizu City, Shizuoka, 421-0212, Japan.
Idea Consultants Inc., 1334-5 Riemon, Yaizu City, Shizuoka, 421-0212, Japan.
Idea Consultants Inc., 1334-5 Riemon, Yaizu City, Shizuoka, 421-0212, Japan.
Laboratory of Molecular Reproductive Biology, Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1, Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Japan.
Trichoptera caddisflies taxonomy DNA barcoding COI philopotamids


Four genera of Philopotamidae (Trichoptera) are known from Japan: Chimara, Dolophilodes, Kisaura, and Wormaldia. Among them, adults of the genus Kisaura are known in the Oriental and East Palearctic region; but until now, larvae of this genus have not been observed. In this study, molecular evidence is presented to support the relationship between adults and larvae of Kisaura minakawai Arefina 2005 from hyporheic zones of Japanese rivers. Morphological features of the larva of K. minakawai, which include very small eyes and somewhat dorsoventrally flattened (depressed) head capsules, compared with those of other philopotamid species, are also suggested to be adapted to the hyporheic zone. Detailed morphology of K. minakawai larval characters are provided.



  1. Arefina, T.I. & Armitage, B.J. (2005) New findings of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Sakhalin Island. In: Tanida, K. & Rossiter, A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Trichoptera, 11, pp. 15–24.
    Banks, N. (1906) New Trichoptera from Japan. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 7, 106–112.
    Beaty, S.R. (2015) The Plecoptera of North Carolina: A Biologist’s Handbook for the Identification of Stonefly Nymphs with Standard Taxonomic Effort Levels. Version 4.0. North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Resources, Biological Assessment Branch, Raleigh, North Carolina, iv + 91 pp.
    Boulton, A.J., Datry, T., Kasahara, T., Mutz, M. & Stanford, J.A. (2010) Ecology and management of the hyporheic zone: Stream-groundwater interactions of running waters and their floodplains. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 26–40.
    Boulton, A.J., Findlay, S., Marmonier, P., Stanley, E.H. & Valett, H.M. (1998) The functional significance of the hyporheic zone in streams and rivers. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 29, 59–81.
    Boxshall, G.A, Kihara, T.C. & Huys, R. (2016) Collecting and processing non-planktonic copepods. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 36, 576–583.
    Caterino, M.S., Cho, S. & Sperling, F.A.H. (2000) The current state of insect molecular systematics: A thriving Tower of Babel. Annual Review of Entomology, 45, 1–54.
    Cartwright, D.I. (1997) Preliminary Guide to the Identification of Late Instar Larvae of Australian Ecnomidae, Philopotamidae and Tasimiidae (Insecta: Trichoptera). Identification guide No. 10. Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology, Albury, 33 pp.
    Clinton, S.M., Grimm, N.B. & Fisher, S.G. (1996) Response of a hyporheic invertebrate assemblage to drying disturbance in a desert stream. Journal of The North American Benthological Society, 15, 700–712.
    Cowley, D.R. (1978) Studies on the larvae of New Zealand Trichoptera, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 5, 639–750.
    Delamare-Debouteville, C. (1960) Biologie des Eaux Souterraines Littlorales et Continentales. Ed. Hermann, Paris, 740 pp.
    Delucchi, C.M. (1989) Movement patterns of invertebrates in temporary and permanent streams. Oecologia, 78, 199–207.
    Dole-Olivier, M.-J. (2011) The hyporheic refuge hypothesis reconsidered: A review of hydrological aspects. Marine and Freshwater Research, 62, 1281–1302.
    Edington, J.M. & Hildrew, A.G (1995) Caseless caddis larvae of the British Isles. A key with ecological notes. Freshwater Biological Association, Scientific Publication, 53. Cumblia. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, 134 pp.
    Fenoglio, S., Bo, T. & Bosi, G. (2006) Deep interstitial habitat as a refuge for Agabus paludosus (Fabricus) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) during summer droughts. Coleopterists Bulletin, 60, 37–41.
    Geller, J., Meyer, C., Parker, M. & Hawk, H. (2013) Redesign of PCR primers for mitochondrial cytochrome c subunit I for marine invertebrates and application in all-taxa biotic surveys. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13, 851–861.
    Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L. & deWaard, J.R. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 270, 313–321.
    Hester, E.T. & Gooseff, M.N. (2010) Moving beyond the banks: Hyporheic restoration is fundamental to restoring ecological services and functions of streams. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 1521–1525.
    Hickin, N.E. (1967) Caddis Larvae. Larvae of the British Trichoptera. Hutchinson, London, 476 pp.
    Hu, Y.L., Tsring, S., Wang, B.X. & Sun, C.H. (2020) Descriptions of larvae of three Philopotamidae species from China (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zootaxa, 4731 (4), 509–521.
    Jacobi, G.Z. & Cary, S.J. (1996) Winter stoneflies (Plecoptera) in seasonal habitats in New Mexico, USA. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 15, 690–699.
    Kasahara, T. & Hill A.R. (2006) Hyporheic exchange flows induced by constructed riffles and steps in lowland streams in southern Ontario, Canada, Hydrological Processes, 20, 4287–4305.
    Kobayashi, M. (1980) A revision of the family Philopotamidae from Japan (Trichoptera: Insecta). Bulletin of the Kanagawa Prefecture Museum, 12, 85–104.
    Kuhara, N. (2005) Taxonomic revision of the genus Dolophilodes subgenus Dolophilodes (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) of Japan. Entomological Science, 8, 91–107.
    Kuhara, N. (2011) Species compositions and flight periods of caddisflies (Trichoptera) at headwater streams in Hokkaidô, northern Japan. Biology of Inland Waters, 26, 47–76. [in Japanese with English abstract]
    Kuhara, N. (2017) Descriptions of philopotamid larvae (Trichoptera) in Japan. Biology of Inland Waters, 32, 49–60. [in Japanese with English abstract]
    Kuhara, N. (2019) The genus Kisaura (Philopotamidae) in Shikoku, western Japan, with descriptions of three new species. Zoosymposia, 14, 231–240.
    Kuhara, N. (2021) A catalog of Japanese Trichoptera. Family Philopotamidae Stephens. Available from: (accessed 30 October 2021)
    Lepneva, S.G. (1964) Larvae and Pupae of the Suborder Annulipalpia. Trichoptera. II (1). New Series. Zoologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moscow/Leningrad, 635 pp. [in Russian. Translated into English in 1970, Israel Program for Scientific Translations]
    Martynov, A.V. (1933) On the interesting collection of Trichoptera from Japan. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, 14, 139–156.
    Matsumoto, K. (1956) On the two new subterranean water isopods, Mackinia japonica gen. et sp. nov. and Asellus hubrichti, sp. nov. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for Science and Fisheries, 21, 1219–1225.
    Matsumoto, K. (1960) Subterranean isopods of the Kyushu district, with the descriptions of three new species. Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan, 22, 1–44.
    Matsumoto K. (1976) An introduction to the Japanese groundwater animals with reference to their ecology and hygienic significance. International Journal of Speleology, 8, 141–155.
    Morse, J.C. (Ed.) (2021) Trichoptera World Checklist. Available from: (accessed 30 Octover 2021)
    Mynott, J.H., Webb, J.M. & Suter, P.J. (2011) Adult and larval associations of the alpine stonefly genus Riekoperla McLellan (Plecoptera: Gripopterygidae) using mitochondrial DNA. Invertebrate Systematics, 25, 11–21.
    Ross, H.H. (1944) The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey, 23, 1–326.
    Ross, H.H. (1956) Evolution and Classification of the Mountain Caddisflies. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 213 pp.
    Stubbington, R. (2012) The hyporheic zone as an invertebrate refuge: A review of variability in space, time, taxa and behavior. Marine and Freshwater Research, 63, 293–311.
    Smit, H. (2007) New records of hyporheic water mites from Australia, with a description of two new genera and ten new species (Acari: Hydrachnidia). Records of the Australian Museum, 59, 97–116.
    Tomikawa, K., Kobayashi, N., Morino, H. & Mawatari, S.F. (2007) New gammaroid family, genera and species from subterranean waters of Japan, and their phylogenetic relationships (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 149, 643–670.
    Torii, T. & Hattori, T. (2006) Trichoptera fauna of the Seto River system, Shizuoka, central Japan. Biology of Inland Waters, 21, 31–41. [in Japanese with English abstract]
    Uéno, M. (1955) Occurrence of a freshwater gammarid (Amphipoda) of the Niphargus group in Japan. Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan, 16, 146–152.
    Weaver, III. J.S., Wojtowicz, J.A. & Etnier, D.A. (1981) Larval and pupal descriptions of Dolophilodes (Fumonta) major (Banks) (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae). Entomological News, 92, 85–90.
    Wiggins, G.B. (1996) Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), 2nd Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 557 pp.
    Zhou, X., Kjer, K.M. & Morse, J.C. (2007) Associating larvae and adults of Chinese Hydropsychidae caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) using DNA sequences. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 26, 719–742.