Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2022-05-05

A revision of the spider genus Orthobula Simon, 1897 (Araneae: Trachelidae) in the Afrotropical Region. I. Continental species

Department of Zoology & Entomology, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.
School of Landscape and Ecological Engineering, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056038, P. R. China.
Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, U.S.A.
Araneae Africa endemic epigeal pitfalls

Abstract

The continental Afrotropical species of the spider genus Orthobula Simon, 1897 are revised. The three currently known species, O. calceata Simon, 1897 (West Africa and western Congo Basin), O. milloti Caporiacco, 1949 (Kenya) and O. radiata Simon, 1897 (southern Africa), are redescribed, including the first descriptions of the males of O. calceata and females of O. radiata. Three new species are described from both sexes: O. aethiopica sp. nov. from Ethiopia, O. arca sp. nov. from South Africa, and O. marusiki sp. nov. from West Africa and the western Congo Basin. All of the species are obligate ground-dwellers, being particularly common in the leaf litter of woody plants, except for O. arca sp. nov., which prefers open grasslands.

 

References

  1. Álvarez-Padilla, F. & Hormiga, G. (2007) A protocol for digesting internal soft tissues and mounting spiders for scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Arachnology, 35, 538–542. https://doi.org/10.1636/Sh06-55.1
    Azevedo, G.H.F, Bougie, T., Carboni, M., Hedin, M. & Ramírez, M.J. (2022) Combining genomic, phenotypic and sanger sequencing data to elucidate the phylogeny of the two-clawed spiders (Dionycha). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 166 (107327), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107327
    Butler, V.P. & Haddad, C.R. (2011) Spider assemblages associated with leaf litter of three tree species in central South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae). African Journal of Ecology, 49, 301–310. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01265.x
    Bosselaers, J. & Jocqué, R. (2000) Studies in Corinnidae: transfer of four genera and description of the female of Lessertina mutica Lawrence 1942. Tropical Zoology, 13, 305–325. https://doi.org/10.1080/03946975.2000.10531138
    Bosselaers, J. & Jocqué, R. (2002) Studies in Corinnidae: cladistic analysis of 38 corinnid and liocranid genera, and transfer of Phrurolithinae. Zoologica Scripta, 31, 241–270. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1463-6409.2002.00080.x
    Brignoli, P.M. (1983) A catalogue of the Araneae described between 1940 and 1981. Manchester University Press, 755 pp.
    Caporiacco, L. di (1949) Aracnidi della colonia del Kenya raccolti da Toschi e Meneghetti negli anni 1944–1946. Commentationes Pontificia Academia Scientiarum, 13, 309–492.
    Deeleman-Reinhold, C.L. (2001) Forest spiders of South East Asia: with a revision of the sac and ground spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae, Corinnidae, Liocranidae, Gnaphosidae, Prodidomidae and Trochanterriidae [sic]). Brill, Leiden, 591 pp. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004475588
    Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. & Jocqué, R. (1997) African spiders: an identification manual. Plant Protection Research Institute handbook No. 9. Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, 392 pp.
    Haddad, C.R. (2005) Ecology of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) inhabiting Themeda triandra Forskål grassland in semi-arid South Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein, 21, 25–36.
    Haddad, C.R. & Butler, V.P. (2018) Ground-dwelling spider assemblages in contrasting habitats in the central South African Grassland Biome. Koedoe, 60, a1482. https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v60i1.1482
    Haddad, C.R., De Jager, L. & Foord, S.H. (2019) Habitats and cardinal directions are key variables structuring spider leaf litter assemblages under Searsia lancea. Pedobiologia, 73, 10–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedobi.2019.01.002
    Haddad, C.R., Foord, S.H., Fourie, R. & Dippenaar-Schoeman, A.S. (2015) Effects of a fast-burning spring fire on the ground-dwelling spider assemblages (Arachnida: Araneae) in a central South African grassland habitat. African Zoology, 50, 281–292. https://doi.org/10.1080/15627020.2015.1088400
    Haddad, C.R., Jin, C., Platnick, N.I. & Booysen, R. (2021) Capobula gen. nov., a new Afrotropical dark sac spider genus related to Orthobula Simon, 1897 (Araneae: Trachelidae). Zootaxa, 4942 (1), 41–71. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4942.1.2
    Hadley, A. (2008) Combine ZM imaging software. Available from: http://www.hadleyweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk (accessed 24 June 2014)
    Jacquot, M., Derepas, B. & Deguine, J.-P. (2016) Seven newly recorded species and families of spiders from Reunion Island (Malagasy region) (Araneae, Araneomorphae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 121, 421–430. https://doi.org/10.3406/bsef.2016.2779
    Lehtinen, P.T. (1967) Classification of cribellate spiders and some allied families, with notes on the evolution of the suborder Araneomorpha. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 4, 199–463.
    Platnick, N.I. (1977) On East Asian Orthobula (Araneae, Clubionidae). Acta Arachnologica, 27, 43–47. https://doi.org/10.2476/asjaa.27.43
    Piñanez Espejo, Y.M.G., Munévar, A. & Kochalka, J.A. (2022) A new species of Orthobula Simon, 1897 (Araneae: Trachelidae) from South America. Zootaxa, 5124, 75–80. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5124.1.5
    Ramírez, M.J. (2014) The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 390, 1−374. https://doi.org/10.1206/821.1
    Roewer, C.F. (1955) Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940, bzw. 1954. 2. Band, Abt. a (Lycosaeformia, Dionycha [excl. Salticiformia]). 2. Band. Abt. b (Salticiformia, Cribellata) (Synonyma-Verzeichnis, Gesamtindex). Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, 1751 pp.
    Saaristo, M.I. (2010) Araneae. In: Gerlach, J. & Marusik, Y.M. (Eds.), Arachnida and Myriapoda of the Seychelles islands. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester, pp. 8–306.
    Shorthouse, D.P. (2010) SimpleMappr, an online tool to produce publication-quality point maps. Available from: http://www.simplemappr.net (accessed 18 February 2022).
    Simon, E. (1897a) Histoire naturelle des araignées. Tome Second. Premier Fascicule. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 192 pp.
    Simon, E. (1897b) Etudes arachnologiques. 27e Mémoire. XLII. Descriptions d’espèces nouvelles de l’ordre des Araneae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 65, 465–510.
    Simon, E. (1903) Descriptions d’arachnides nouveaux. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique, 47, 21–39. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.25299
    Ubick, D. & Platnick, N.I. (1991) On Hesperocranum, a new spider genus from western North America (Araneae, Liocranidae). American Museum Novitates, 3019, 1–12.
    Wheeler, W.C., Coddington, J.A., Crowley, L.M., Dimitrov, D., Goloboff, P.A., Griswold, C.E., Hormiga, G., Prendini, L., Ramírez, M.J., Sierwald, P., Almeida-Silva, L.M., Álvarez-Padilla, F., Arnedo, M.A., Benavides, L.R., Benjamin, S.P., Bond, J.E., Grismado, C.J., Hasan, E., Hedin, M., Izquierdo, M.A., Labarque, F.M., Ledford, J, Lopardo, L., Maddison, W.P., Miller, J.A., Piacentini, L.N., Platnick, N.I., Polotow, D., Silva-Dávila, D., Scharff, N., Szűts, T., Ubick, D., Vink, C., Wood, H.M. & Zhang, J. (2017) The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics, 33, 576–616. https://doi.org/10.1111/cla.12182
    World Spider Catalog (2022) World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern. Version 23.0. Available from: http://wsc.nmbe.ch (accessed 22 February 2022)

  2.