Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2022-04-01
Page range: 139-154
Abstract views: 331
PDF downloaded: 16

A new species of Galene de Haan, 1833 (Galenidae: Brachyura) from the middle Miocene of Zagros Mountains, Iran

School of Biology and Centre of Excellence in Phylogeny, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
School of Biology and Centre of Excellence in Phylogeny, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Departments of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
Departments of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Hormozgan, Bandar-Abbas, Iran.
Department of Geology and Paleontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Ilkovičova 6, SVK-842 15, Bratislava 4, Slovakia. Department of Geology and Paleontology, Natural History Museum, Vienna, Burgring 7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria.
School of Biology and Centre of Excellence in Phylogeny, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Crustacea Fossil Crabs Pilumnoidea Mishan Formation Langhian Tethys Sea Hormozgan Province


A new species of Galene de Haan, 1833 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Galenidae) is described from the Mid Miocene (Langhian) strata of the Mishan Formation exposed at two localities in Hormozgan Province, Zagros Mountains, Iran. The galenid species, Galene dashtbani n. sp. is considered as the oldest representative of the genus and simultaneously the westernmost occurrence of all fossil and extant congeners known to date. The genus is currently limited to the Indo-West Pacific region. The present fossil occurrence of the genus suggests a Tethyan origin and subsequent migration eastward.



  1. Adams, A. & White, A. (1849) Crustacea. In: Adams, A., The Zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Samarang under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher during the years 1843–1846, pp. 1–66, pls. 5–11.
    Aghanabati, S.A. (2004) Geology of Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 640 pp. [In Farsi]
    Bachmayer, F. & Mohanti, M. (1973) Neue fossile Krebse aus dem Tertiär von Ost-Indien. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 77, 63–67.
    Balss, H. (1957) Decapoda. In: H. G. Bronn’s, Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, Fünfter Band, I. Abteilung 7, Buch 12. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Geest & Portig K.-G, Leipzig, pp. 1505–1672.
    Böhm, J. (1922) Arthropoda. Crustacea. In: Martin, K. (Ed.), Die Fossilien von Java auf Grund einer Sammulung von Dr. R. D. M. Verbeek und von anderen Vol. 1. Sammlungen des Geologischen Reichs-Museums in Leiden, Neue Folge, Leiden, pp. 521–535, pl. 63.
    Böhme, M. (2003) The Miocene climatic optimum: evidence from ectothermic vertebrates of Central Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 195, 389–401.
    Collins, J.S., Lee, C. & Noad, J. (2003) Miocene and Pleistocene crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Sabah and Sarawak. Journal of Systematic Paleontology, 1 (3), 187–226.
    Daneshian, J., Derakhshani, M. & Moalemi, A. (2016) Relative dating of deposits of the Mishan Formation based on foraminifera and Strontium isotope in northwest and west of Bandar Abbas, south Iran. Journal of Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches, 32 (63), 35–54.
    Davie, P.F., Guinot, D. & Ng, P.K.L. (2015a) Anatomy and Functional morphology of Brachyura. In: Castro, P., Davie, P.J., Guinot, D., Schram, F. & von Vaupel Klein, C. (Eds.), Treatise on Zoology – Anatomy, Taxonomy, Biology – The Crustacea, complementary to the volumes translated from the French of the Traité de Zoologie, 9(C) (I), Decapoda: Brachyura (Part 2). Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, pp. 11–163.
    Davie, P.F., Guinot, D. & Ng, P.K.L. (2015b) Systematics and classification of Brachyura. In: Castro, P., Davie, P.J., Guinot, D., Schram, F. & von Vaupel Klein, C. (Eds.), Treatise on Zoology – Anatomy, Taxonomy, Biology – The Crustacea, complementary to the volumes translated from the French of the Traité de Zoologie, 9(C) (I), Decapoda: Brachyura (Part 2). Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, pp. 1049–1130.
    De Grave, S., Pentcheff, N.D., Ahyong, S.T., Chan, T.-Y., Crandall, K.A., Dworschak, P.C., Felder, D.L., Feldmann, R.M., Fransen, C.H.J.M., Goulding, L.Y.D., Lemaitre, R., Low, M.E.Y., Martin, J.W., Ng, P.K.L., Schweitzer, C.E., Tan, S.H., Tshudy, D. & Wetzer, R. (2009) A classification of living and fossil decapod crustaceans. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 21, 1–109.
    De Haan, W. (1833–1850) Crustacea. In: Siebold, P. F. (ed.), Fauna Japonica sive Descriptio Animalium, Quae in Itinere per Japoniam, Jussu et Auspiciis Superiorum, qui Summum in India Batava Imperium Tenent, Suscepto, Annis 1823–1830 Collegit, Noitis, Observationibus et Adumbrationibus Illustravit, Lugduni-Batavorum, Leiden, 243 pp, pls.1–55, A–Q.
    De Man, J.G. (1895) Bericht über die von Herrn Schiffscapitän Storm zu Atjeh, an den westlichen Küsten von Malakka, Borneo und Celebes sowie in der Java-See gesammelten Decapoden und Stomatopoden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abtheilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Thiere, 8 (4), 485–609.
    Defrance, J.L.M. (1822) Lenticulite aplatie. In: De Blainville, M., Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. Vol. 25, p. 453.
    Deshayes, G.P. (1832) Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des Vers et Mollusques, Vol. 3, pp. 595–1152.
    Desmarest, A.G. (1822) Des Crustacés Fossiles. In: Brongniart, A. & Desmarest, A. G. (Eds.), Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés Fossiles sous les Rapports Zoologiques et Géologiques. Savoir: Les Trilobites. F. G. Levrault, Paris, pp. 67–154, pls. 5–11.
    Etheridge, R.E. & McCulloch, A.R. (1916) Sub-fossil crustaceans from the coasts of Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 11, 1–14, pls. 1–7.
    Fanati-Rashidi, R., Vaziri, S.H., Khaksar, K. & Gholamalian, H. (2014) Lithostratigraphy of the Mishan Formation in North and West of Hormozgan province (South of Iran). MAGNT Research Report, 2 (7), 490–499.
    Fashki, A., Kani, A. & Ghalavand, H. (2003) Re-evaluation of the Mishan Formation age in the type section based on calcareous nanofossils. In: Proceedings of the 7th symposium of the Geological society of Iran, University of Esfahan, Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, pp. 444–450.
    Fornasini, C. (1904) Illustrazione di specie orbignyane di foraminiferi istituite nel 1826. Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, 6 t. 1.
    Gharabeigli, G.R. (2005) Geological map of Fin, scale: 1/100000. National Iranian Oil Company, sheet no. 36-7145.
    Gholamalian, H., Fanati-Rashidi, R. & Sajadi, S. (2015) Miocene (Mishan Formation) Echinoidea from Gohreh section, North of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan Province. Geosciences Scientific Quarterly Journal, 25 (98), 73–82. [In Persian with English abstract]
    Glaessner, M.F. (1929) Crustacea Decapoda. In: Pompeckji, J.F. (Ed.), Fossilium Catalogus 41. W. Junk, Berlin, 1–464 pp.
    Glaessner, M.F. (1933) New Tertiary Crabs in the Collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 10, 12 (67), 1–28.
    Glaessner, M.F. (1960) The Fossil Decapod Crustacea of New Zealand and the Evolution of the Order Decapoda. New Zealand Geological Survey Paleontological Bulletin, 31, pp. 1–79.
    Glaessner, M.F. (1969) Decapoda. In: Moore, R.C. (Ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part R (Vol. 2). Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, Kansas, R399–R566 pp.
    Greig, D.A. (1935) Rotalia viennoti, an important foraminiferal species from Asia Minor and western Asia. Journal of Paleontology, 9 (6), 523–526.
    Guinot, D. (1969a) Les Goneplacidae: Recherches préliminaires sur les groupements naturels chez les Crustacés Décapodes Brachyoures, VII. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 2 (41), 241–265.
    Guinot, D. (1969b) Les Goneplacidae (suite): Recherches prélimi- naires sur les groupements naturels chez les Crustacés Décapodes Brachyoures, VII. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 2 (41), 507–528.
    Guinot, D. (1969c) Les Goneplacidae (suite): Recherches prélimi- naires sur les groupements naturels chez les Crustacés Décap odes Brachyoures, VII. Bulletin du Muséum national d' Histoire naturelle, Paris, 2 (41), 688–724.
    Guinot, D. (1971) Synthèse et bibliographie: Recherches préliminaires sur les groupements naturels chez les Crustacés Décapodes Brachyoures, VIII. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, 2 (42), 1063–1090. [Dated 1970, published 1971]
    Guinot, D., Tavares, M. & Castro, P. (2013) Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa. Zootaxa, 3665 (1), 001–414.
    Harzhauser, M., Kroh, A., Mandic, O., Piller, W.E., Göhlich, U., Reuter, M. & Berning, B. (2007) Biogeographic responses to geodynamics: a key study all around the Oligo-Miocene Tethyan Seaway. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 246, 241–256.
    Harzhauser, M., Piller, W.E., Müllegger, S., Grunert, P. & Micheels, A. (2011) Changing seasonality patterns in Central Europe from Miocene Climate Optimum to Miocene Climate Transition deduced from the Crassostrea isotope archive. Global and Planetary Change, 76 (1–2), 77–84.
    Heidari, A., Feldmann, R.M. & Moussavi-Harami, R. (2012) Miocene decapod crustacean from the Guri Member of the Mishan Formation, Bandar-Abbas, Southern Iran. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, 38, 1–7.
    Herbst, J.F. (1782–1804) Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse: nebst einer systematischen Beschreibung ihrer verschiedenen Arten.Bei Gottlieb August Lange, Berlin & Stralsund, 274 pp., pls. 1–21.
    Hollis, C., Beu, A., Crampton, J., Crundwell, M., Morgans, H., Raine, J., Jones, C.M. & Boyes, A.F. (2010) Calibration of the New Zealand Cretaceous – Cenozoic Timescale to GTS2004. GNS Science Report, Lower Hutt.
    Hsueh, P. & Huang, J. (2002) Crabs of The Family Goneplacidae (Decapoda, Brachyura) From Taiwan. Crustaceana, 75 (2), 111–136.
    Hu, C.H. & Tao, H.J. (1979) Studies on Quaternary fossil crabs and associated faunas from Hainan Island, southern China. Proceedings of Geological Society of China, 22, 145–158.
    Hu, C.H. & Tao, H.J. (1996) Crustacean fossils of Taiwan. Tai-jen printers Pty Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan. [in Chinese]
    Hu, C.H. & Tao, H.J. (2004) Studeis on the Neogene crabs from South-Western foot hills of Taiwan. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 43 (4), 537–555.
    Hyžný, M. & Gross, M. (2016) A new iphiculid crab (Crustacea, Brachyura, Leucosioidea) from the Middle Miocene of Austria, with notes on palaeobiogeography of Iphiculus. Zootaxa, 4179 (2), 263–270.
    James, G. & Wynd, J. (1965) Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreement area. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 49, 2182–2245.
    Kalantari, A. (1992) Lithostratigraphy and microfacies of Zagros orogenic area South-West Iran,National Iranian Oil Company, Exploration and Production, Geological Laboratories Publication 12, Tehran, 421 pp.
    Karasawa, H. & Kato, H. (2003) The family Goneplacidae MacLeay 1838 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura): systematics, phylogeny, and fossil records. Paleontological Research, 7 (2), 129–151.
    Karasawa, H., Kato, H., Kase, T., Maac-Aguilar, Y., Kurihara, Y., Hayashi, H. & Hagino, K. (2008) Neogene and Quaternary ghost shrimps and crabs (Crustacea Decapoda) from the Philippines. Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series C, Geology & Paleontology, (34), 51–76.
    Kashfi, M.S. (1982) Guri Limestone, a New Hydrocarbon Reservoir in South Iran. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 5 (2), 161–171.
    Key, M.M., Hyžný, M., Khosravi, E., Hudáčková, N., Robin, N. & Mirzaie Ataabadi, M. (2017) Bryozoan epibiosis on fossil crabs: a rare occurrence from the Miocene of Iran. Palaios, 32 (8), 491–505.
    Khodaverdi Hassan-vand, M., Bahrami, A., Yazdi, M., Ossó, À., Safari, A., Martínez, J.L. & Vega F.J. (2016) Occurrence of Retrocypoda almelai Vía Boada, 1959 (Decapoda: Retroplumidae) in the Eocene of Central Iran. Paleontología Mexicana, 5 (1), 21-31.
    Kroh, A., Gholamalian, H., Mandic, O., Coric, S., Harzhauser, M., Reuter, M. & Piller, W.E (2011) Echinoids and pectinid bivalves from the Early Miocene Mishan Formation of Iran. Acta Geologica Polonica, 61, 419–439.
    Lamarck, (1804) Suite des mémoires sur les fossiles des environs de Paris. Annales du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 5, 349–357. [publ. 1807 in vol. 9]
    Lin, C. (1947) On a new xanthid crab from the Neogene Formation of Taiwan. Acta Geologica Taiwanica, 1 (2), 139–154.
    McCoy, F. (1849) XIX. On the classification of some British Fossil Crustacea, with notices of new forms in the University Collection at Cambridge. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4 (21), 161–179.
    Milne-Edwards, H. (1852) Observations sur les affinities zoologiques et la classification naturelle des Crustacés. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, (18), 109–166.
    Milne-Edwards, A. (1865) Monographie des crustacés fossiles de la famille des cancériens. Annales des Sciences naturelles, Zoologie, 5 (3), 297–351.
    Morris, S.F. & Collins, J.S. (1991) Neogene crabs from Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology, 47 (1), 1–33.
    Motiei, H. (1993) Stratigraphy of Zagros. Geological Survey of Iran Publication, Tehran, 536 pp.
    Mouthereau, F., Lacombe, O. & Meyer, B. (2006) The Zagros folded belt (Fars, Iran): constraints from topography and critical wedge modelling. Geophysical Journal International, 165 (1), 336–356.
    Naderloo, R. (2017) Atlas of Crabs of the Persian Gulf. Springer, Cham, xxii + 444 pp.
    Ng, P.K.L. (1998) Crabs. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (Eds.), The living marine resources of the western Central Pacific. Volume 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians, and sharks. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp. 1046–1155.
    Ng, P.K.L. & Guinot, D. (2021) Parapanope De Man, 1895: revisited and revised (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pilumnoidea: Galenidae), with descriptions of two new species. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 41 (2), 1–22.
    Ng, P.K.L., Guinot, D. & Davie, P.J. (2008) Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant brachyuran crabs of the world. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 17, 1–286.
    Ng, P.K.L. & Mitra, S. (2021) Hoploxanthus cultripes Alcock, 1898: a senior synonym of Dentoxanthus iranicus Stephensen, 1946 (Decapoda, Brachyura, Galenidae). Crustaceana, Leiden, 94 (6), 723–730. https://doi: 10.1163/15685403-bja10122.
    Ng, P.K.L., Shih, H.T., Ho, P.H. & Wang, C.H. (2017) An updated annotated checklist of brachyuran crabs from Taiwan (Crustacea: Decapoda). Journal of the National Taiwan Museum, 70 (3&4), 1–185.
    Ng, P.K.L., Wang, C.H., Ho, P.H. & Shih, H.T. (2001) An annotated checklist of brachyuran crabs from Taiwan (Crustacea: Decapoda). National Taiwan Museum Special Publication Series no. 11, 86.
    d’Orbigny, A.D. (1832) In: Guérin-Méneville, F.E. (Ed.), Iconographie du Règne Animal de G. Cuvier, ou représentation d'après nature de l'une des espèces les plus remarquables, et souvent non encore figurées, de chaque genre d'animaux, avec un texte descriptif mis au courant de la science. Ouvrage pouvant servi. J.B. Baillière, Paris and London, pl. 3, fig. 11.
    d’Orbigny, A.D. (1839) Foraminifères des îles Canaries. Histoire naturelle des Iles Canaries, 2 (2), 120–146.
    Renema, W., Bellwood, D.R., Braga, J.C., Bromfield, K., Hall, R., Johnson, K.G., Lunt, W.P., Meyer, C.P., McMonagle, L.B., Morley, R.J., O’Dea, A., Todd, J.A., Wesselingh, F.P., Wilson, M.E.J. & Pandolfi, J.M. (2008) Hopping hotspots: global shifts in marine biodiversity. Science, 321 (5889), 654–7.
    Rögl, F. (1999) Mediterranean and Paratethys. Facts and hypotheses of an Oligoncene to Miocene paleogeography (short overview). Geologica Carpathica, 50 (4), 330–349.
    Rögl, F. (1998) Palaeogeographic considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 99A, 279–310.
    Reuss, A. E. (1850) Neue Foraminiferen aus den Schichten des österreichischen Tertiärbeckens. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1, 365–390.
    Samouelle, G. (1819) The entomologist’s useful compendium; or an introduction to the knowledge of British insects, comprising the best means of obtaining and preserving them, and a description of the apparatus generally used; together with the genera of Linné, and the modern method of arranging the classes Crustacea, Myriapoda, Spiders, Mites and Insects, from their affinities and structure, according to the views of Dr. Leach. Also an explanation of the terms used in entomology; a calendar of the times of appearance and usual situations of near 3,000 species of British insects; with instructions for collecting and fitting up objects for the microscope. London, 496 pp.
    Schweitzer, C.E. (2000) Tertiary Xanthoidea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from the west coast of North America. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 20, 715–742.
    Schweitzer, C.E., Feldmann, R.M., Garassino, A., Karasawa, H. & Schweigert, G. (2010) Systematic List of Fossil Decapod Crustacean Species, Crustaceana Monographs, 10. Brill, Leiden, 230 pp.
    Stephensen, K. (1946) The Brachyura of the Iranian Gulf. With an appendix: the male pleopoda of the Brachyura. Danish Scientific Investigations in Iran, 4, 57–237.
    Števčić, Z. (2005) The reclassification of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Natura Croatica: Periodicum Musei Historiae Naturalis Croatica, 14 (Supplement 1), 1–159.
    Stöcklin, J. (1968) Structural History and Tectonic of Iran: A Review. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 52, 1229–1258.
    Takeda, M. (1976) Studies on the Crustacea Brachyura of the Palau Islands, III. Xanthidae (1). Researches on Crustacea, 7, 69–99.
    Talebi, A. (2006) Geological map of Khoshangan, scale: 1/100000. National Iranian Oil Company, sheet no. 37–7245.
    Toraby, H. & Yazdi, M. (2002) First report on Miocene decapod fauna (Crustacea) from central Iran, a preliminary study on their environmental and ecological factors. Geological Society of Australia Abstracts, 68, p. 156.
    Valinassab, T., Fatemi, S. & Ghotbeddin, N. (2012) First record of Galene bispinosa Herbst, 1783 [Decapoda; Brachyura; Galenidae] from the Gulf of Oman, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 17 (4), 439–441.
    Vega, F.J., Gholamalian, H. & Bahrami, A. (2010) First record of Miocene crustaceans from Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 84 (4), 485–493.
    Vega, F.J., Gholamalian, H., Hassani, M.J., Sajadi, S.H. & Schaaf, P. (2012) Miocene Crustacea from northern Bandar Abbas, South Iran. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Geologie und Palaontologie, 265 (3), 221–234.
    Vía Boada, L. (1959) Decápodos fósiles del Eoceno español. Boletín del Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, 70, 1–72.
    Withers, H.T. (1932) Some Eocene crabs from Persia and India. Journal of Natural History, Series 10, 9 (53), 467–472.
    Yazdi, M., Bahrami, A., Abbasi, P., Sadeghi, R. & Vega, F.J. (2013) Miocene brachyuran Crustacea from Konar-Takhteh and Ahram sections, southwestern Iran. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 65 (2), 225–233.
    Zachos J.C., Dickens G.R. & Zeebe R.E. (2008) An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature, 451, 279–283.