Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-10-18

A new species of Polyophthalmus (Annelida, Opheliidae) from the Arabian Gulf, with an insight on internal anatomy and diversity of the genus

Departamento de Bioloxía, Universidade da Coruña, Spain
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, 22107 Salmiya, Kuwait.
REBUSC-Estación de Bioloxía Mariña da Graña, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Departamento de Biología (Zoología) & Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Cambio Global (CIBC-UAM), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.
Annelida taxonomy distribution Kuwait Saudi Arabia SEM micro-CT identification key

Abstract

Polyophthalmus zhadanae sp. nov. (Annelida, Opheliidae), is described from the coast of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia (Arabian Gulf) after specimens collected in the intertidal and shallow subtidal. This new species is characterised by the body pigmentation pattern, distribution of lateral eyes, presence of small dorsal and ventral parapodial cirri and pygidial features. External and internal anatomy was described after examination with SEM and micro-CT. The presence of several body structures in the genus such as a cephalic palpode-like papilla is discussed. Furthermore, the diversity of genus Polyophthalmus and the presence of Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin, 1839) in the Indo-Pacific is reviewed and a key to species is provided.

 

References

  1. Alba-Tercedor, J. & Sánchez-Tocino, L. (2011) The use of the SkyScan high-resolution micro-CT to elucidate if the spicules of the sea slugs (Mollusca: Nudibranchia, Opisthobranchia) have a structural or a defensive function. SkyScan Users Meeting, 2011, 113–121.
    Al-Kandari, M., Sattari, Z., Hussain, S., Radashevsky, V.I. & Zhadan, A. (2019) Checklist of intertidal polychaetes (Annelida) of Kuwait, Northern part of the Arabian Gulf. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 32, 100872. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100872
    Al-Omari, N.H.A. (2011) A guide to Polychaetes (Annelida) in Qatar marine sediments. Environmental Studies Center, Qatar University, 182 pp.
    Al-Rifaie, K., Al-Yamani, F., Lennox, A., Boltachova, N., Revkov, N., Grintsov, V. & Murina, V. (2012) Macrozoobenthos community structure during four seasons in Kuwait Bay. International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography, 6, 45–67.
    Al-Yamani, F.Y., Skryabin, V., Boltachova, N., Revkov, N., Makarov, M., Grintsov, V. & Kolesnikova, E. (2012) Illustrated atlas of the benthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat, 401 pp.
    Amoureux, L., Rullier, F. & Fishelson, L. (1978) Systématique et écologie d’annélides polychètes d’a Presqu’il du Sinaï. Israel Journal of Zoology, 27, 57–163.
    Amoureux, L., Josef, G. & O’Connor, B. (1980) Annélides Polychètes de l’éponge Fasciospongia cavernosa Schmidt. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 21, 387–392.
    Amoureux, L. (1983) Annélides Polychètes du golfe d’Aqaba (Mer Rouge). Description d’un genre nouveau et de deux espèces nouvelles. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Series 4, 5 (3), 723–742.
    Augener, H. (1914) Polychaeta II, Sedentaria. In: Michaelsen, W. & Hartmeyer, R. (Eds.), Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens. Ergebnisse der Hamburger südwest-australischen Forschungsreise 1905. Vol. 5. Gustav Fischer, Jena, pp. 1–72.
    Augener, H. (1922) Ueber litorale Polychaeten von Westindien. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschende Freunde zur Berlin, 1922 (3–5), 38–53.
    Augener, H. (1927) Papers from Dr. Th. Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914–1916. No. 38. Polychaeten von Südost un Süd-Australien. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Førening i Kjøbenhavn, 83, 71–275.
    Barroso, R. & Paiva, P.C. (2013) Deep sea Ophelina (Polychaeta: Opheliidae) from southern Brazil. Marine Biodiversity Records, 6 (e51), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755267213000201
    Blake, J.A. (2000) Chapter 7. Family Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867. In: Blake, J.A., Hilbig, B. & Scott, P.V. (Eds.), Taxonomic atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and the Western Santa Barbara Channel. Vol. 7. The Annelida. Part 4. Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae to Sternaspidae. Santa Barbara Museum Natural History, Santa Barbara, California, pp. 145–168.
    Blake, J.A. & Maciolek, N.J. (2020) 7.6.1 Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (Ed.), Handbook of Zoology. Annelida: Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria II. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 285–302. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291681-008
    Bonyadi-Naeini, A., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Rastegar-Pouyani, E., Glasby, C.J. & Rahimian, H. (2018) Intertidal polychaetes from Abu Musa Island, Persian Gulf, with a new species from the Perinereis cultrifera species complex (Annelida: Nereididae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 98 (8), 1965–1976. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315417001564
    Cantone, G. (1987) Ricerche sur littorale della Somalia. Popolamento polichetologico delle coste Somale. Monitore Zoologico Italiano, 7, 73–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/03749444.1987.10736722
    Caullery, M. (1944) Polychètes Sédentaires de l’Expédition du Siboga: Ariciidae, Spionidae, Chaetopteridae, Chlorhaemidae, Opheliidae, Oweniidae, Sabellariidae, Sternaspidae, Amphictenidae, Ampharetidae, Terebellidae. Siboga Expeditie, Leiden, 24 (2 bis), 1–204.
    Choi, H.K., Jung, T.W. & Yoon, S.M. (2015) New record of two Opheliid Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) from Korea. Korean Journal of Environmental Biology, 33 (2), 98–104.
    https://doi.org/10.11626/KJEB.2015.33.2.098
    Czerniavsky, V. (1881) Materialia ad zoographiam Ponticam comparatam. Fasc. III Vermes [Second part]. Byulletin’ Moskovskogo obshchestva ispytatelei prirody, 56 (2), 338–420.
    Day, J.H. (1967) A monograph on the Polychaeta of Southern Africa. Part 2: Sedentaria. The British Museum of Natural History, 656, 459–878. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.8596
    Day, J.H. & Hutchings, P. (1979) An annotated check-list of Australian and New Zealand Polychaeta, Archiannelida and Myzostomida. Records of the Australian Museum, 32 (3), 80–161. https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.32.1979.203
    Dujardin, F. (1839) Observations sur quelques Annélides marines. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 11, 287–294.
    Elías, R. & Bremec, C.S. (2003) First record of the genus Armandia (Opheliidae, Polychaeta) in Argentine waters, with the description of Armandia loboi sp. n. Bulletin of Marine Science, 72, 181–186.
    Faulwetter, S., Dailianis, T., Vasileiadou, A. & Arvanitidis, C. (2013) Contrast enhancing techniques for the application of micro-CT in marine biodiversity studies. Microscopy and Analysis, 27 (2), S4–S7.
    Fauvel, P. (1902) Annélides Polychètes de la Casamance rapportées par M. Aug. Chevalier. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Normandie, 5 (5), 59–105.
    Fauvel, P. (1911) Annélides Polychètes du Golfe Persique recueillies par M. N. Bogoyawlensky. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale, 5e Série, 6, 353–439.
    Fauvel, P. (1914) Annélides Polychètes non pélagiques provenant des campagnes de l’Hirondelle et de la Princesse-Alice (1885–1910). Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert Ier Prince Souverain de Monaco, 46, 1–432.
    Fauvel, P. (1918) Annélides Polychètes des côtes d’Arabie. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 5, 329–344.
    Fauvel, P. (1919) Annélides Polychètes de Madagascar, de Djibouti et du Golfe Persique. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale, 58, 315–473. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.8154
    Fauvel, P. (1925) Sur les Ophéliens des côtes de France. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 50, 77–88.
    Fauvel, P. (1927) Polychètes sédentaires Addenda aux errantes, Archiannélides, Myzostomaires. Faune de France, 16, 1–494.
    Fauvel, P. (1932) Annelida Polychaeta of the Indian Museum. Calcutta Memoirs of the Indian Museum, 12 (1), 1–262.
    Fauvel, P. (1933a) Annélides Polychètes. Mission Robert Ph. Dollfus en Égypte. Mémoires de l‘Institut d’Égypte, 21, 31–83.
    Fauvel, P. (1933b) Résumé analytique du mémoire sur les Polychètes. Bulletin de l’Institut d’Égypte, 15, 131–144.
    Fauvel, P. (1951) Annélides Polychètes du Golfe de Tadjoura recueillies par M. J.-L. Dantan en 1934, au cours de pêches nocturnes á la lumière (suite). Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, 23, 630–640.
    Fauvel, P. (1953) The fauna of India including Pakistan, Ceylon, Burma and Malaya. The Indian Press, Allahabad, 507 pp.
    Fiege, D. (1992) Polychaeta of the Intertidal Zone in the Ras Az-Zawr Marduma Bay Region, Saudi Arabia. Unpublished Progress Report of the Senckenbergische Forschungsinstitut, Frankfurt am Main, 23 pp.
    Filippi, F. de (1861) Armandia nuovo genere di Annelidi nel Mediterraneo. Archivio per la Zoologia, l’Anatomia e la Fisiologia, 1, 215–219.
    Gravier, C. (1905) Sur les Annélides Polychètes de la Mer Rouge (Flabelligériens, Ophéliens, Capitelliens, Chétoptériens). Bulletin du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 11 (2), 89–94.
    Gravier, C. (1906) Contribution à l’étude des Annélides Polychètes de la Mer Rouge (suite). Nouvelles Archives du Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 4eme Série, 8 (1), 123–236.
    Grube, A.E. (1869) Familie der Opheliaceen. Schlesische gesellschaft für vaterlandische kultur Breslau Jahresbericht, 46, 59–68.
    Grube, A.E. (1878) Annulata Semperiana. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Annelidenfauna der Philippinen nach den von Herrn Prof. Semper mitgebrachten Sammlungen. Mémoires l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 7, 25 (8), 1–300. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.85345
    Hadiyanto, H. (2018) Fouling Polychaetes in Tanjung Priok Port of Jakarta, Indonesia. ASEAN Journal on Science & Technology for Development, 35 (1–2), 79–87. https://doi.org/10.29037/ajstd.477
    Harris, T. (1994) The functional significance of blood plexuses in the ecology of Ophelia bicornis Savigny. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série A, Zoologie, 162, 57–63.
    Hartman, O. (1959) Catalogue of the polychaetous annelids of the world. Parts 1 and 2. Allan Hancock Foundation Occasional Paper, 23, 1–628.
    Hartman, O. (1960) Systematic account of some marine invertebrate animals from the deep basins off southern California. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 22 (2), 69–216.
    Hartman, O. (1969) Atlas of the sedentariate polychaetous annelids from California. Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California Press, Los Angeles, California, 812 pp.
    Hartman, O. (1974) Polychaetous annelids of the Indian Ocean including an account of species collected by members of the International Indian Ocean Expeditions, 1963-1964 and a catalogue and bibliography of the species from India. I. Journal of Marine Biological Association of India, 16 (1), 191–252.
    Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1958) Zur morphologie der Opheliiden (Polychaeta, Sedentaria). Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 161, 84–143.
    Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1960) Polychaeten aus dem Roten Meer. Kieler Meeresforschungen, 16 (1), 69–125.
    Hartmann-Schröder, G. & Parker, S.A. (1995) Four new species of the family Opheliidae (Polychaeta) from Southern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, 28, 1–12.
    Jimi, N. & Fujiwara, Y. (2016) Reproductive swarming of Polyophthalmus pictus (Annelida: Opheliidae) observed at Okinawa Island and adjacent island, Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. Fauna Ryukyuana, 28, 29–35. [in Japanese with English abstract].
    Joydas, T.V., Qurban, M.A., Manikandan, K.P., Ashraf, T.T.M., Ali, S.M., Al- Abdulkader, K., Qasemb, A. & Krishnakumar, P.K. (2015) Status of macrobenthic communities in the hypersaline waters of the Gulf of Salwa, Arabian Gulf. Journal of Sea Research, 99, 34–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2015.01.006
    Kisseleva, M.I. (1971) Qualitative composition and quantitative distribution of polychaetes in the Red Sea. In: Vodyanitzkii, V.A. (Ed.), Benthos of the Red Sea shelf. s.n., Kiev, pp. 44–76. [in Russian]
    Kükenthal, W. (1887) Die Opheliaceen der expedition der Vettore Pisani. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 21, 361–373.
    Maciolek, N.J. & Blake, J.A. (2006) Opheliidae (Polychaeta) collected by the R/V Hero and the USNS Eltanin cruises from the Southern Ocean and South America. Scientia Marina, 70 (S3), 101–113. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.2006.70s3101
    Magalhães, W.F., Rizzo, A.E. & Bailey-Brock, J.H. (2019) Opheliidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the western Pacific islands, including five new species. Zootaxa, 4555 (2), 209–235. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4555.2.3
    Malmgren, A.J. (1867) Annulata Polychaeta Spetsbergiae Groenlandiae, Islandiae et Scandinaviae hactenus cognita. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, 24, 127–235. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.13358
    Michaelsen, W. (1892) Polychaeten von Ceylon. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen wissenschaftlichen Anstalten, 9 (2), 1–23.
    Minot, C.S. (1883) Anatomy and histology of Polyophthalmus. Science, 1 (4), 96–97. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.ns-1.4.96.
    McIntosh, W.C. (1908) A monograph of the British annelids. Vol. 2. Part. I. Polychaeta. Nephtyididae to Syllidae. Ray Society, London, 232 pp.
    Mohammad, M.-B.M. (1971) Intertidal polychaetes from Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, with descriptions of three new species. Journal of Zoology, 163, 285–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1971.tb04536.x
    Mohammad, M.-B.M. (1980) Polychaete annelids from Kuwaitian islands, Arabian Gulf, with descriptions of four new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 69 (1), 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1980.tb01931.x
    Mohammad, M.-B.M. (1981) Malformations in some polychaete annelids from Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Hydrobiologia, 78, 129–131. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00007586
    Moreira, J. & Parapar, J. (2017) New data on the Opheliidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia): five new species of the genus Armandia Filippi, 1861. Zootaxa, 4290 (3), 483–502. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4290.3.4
    Neave, M.J. & Glasby, C.J. (2013) New species of Ophelina (Annelida: Opheliidae: Ophelininae) from northern Australia. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 13 (2), 331–347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-013-0130-x
    Örsted, A.S. (1843). Annulatorum danicorum conspectus. Fasc. 1. Maricolae. Librarie wahliannae, Hafniae, 52 pp.
    Parapar, J., Moreira, J. & Helgason, G.V. (2011) Distribution and diversity of the Opheliidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the continental shelf and slope of Iceland, with a review of the genus Ophelina in northeast Atlantic waters and description of two new species. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 11 (2), 83–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-011-0046-2
    Parapar, J. (2012) Familia Opheliidae. In: Parapar, J., Alós, C., Núñez, J., Moreira, J., López, E., Aguirrezabalaga, F., Besteiro, C., Martínez, A. & Ramos, M.A. (Eds.), Fauna Ibérica-Annelida Polychaeta III. Vol. 36. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Madrid, pp. 284–332.
    Parapar, J. & Moreira, J. (2015) Six new species of the genus Armandia Filippi, 1861 (Polychaeta, Opheliidae) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Zootaxa, 4019 (1), 577–603. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.19
    Parapar, J., Martínez, A. & Moreira, J. (2021) On the systematics and biodiversity of the Opheliidae and Scalibregmatidae. Diversity, 13 (2), 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020087
    Potts, F.A. (1928) Zoological results of the Cambridge expedition the Suez Canal, 1924 Report on the annelids (sedentary polychaetes). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 22 (5), 693–705. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1928.tb00210.x
    Purschke, G., Ding, Z. & Müller, M.C. (1995) Ultrastructural differences as a taxonomic marker: the segmental ocelli of Polyophthalmus pictus and Polyophthalmus qingdaoensis sp. n. (Polychaeta, Opheliidae). Zoomorphology, 115 (4), 229–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00393803
    Quatrefages, A. de (1850) Études sur les types inferieurs de l’embranchement des Annelés. Mémoire sur la famille des Polyphthalmiens (Polyphthalmea Nob.). Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, Séries 3, 13, 5–46.
    Radashevsky, V.I. & Al-Kandari, M. (2020) Morphology and reproductive biology of a new Pseudopolydora (Annelida: Spionidae) species from the Arabian Gulf. Marine Biodiversity, 50, 112. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12526-020-01123-2
    Rathke, H. (1843) Beiträge zur Fauna Norwegens. Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum, 20, 1–264. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.120119
    Read, G. & Fauchald, K. (Eds.) (2021) World Polychaeta database. Accessed from: http://www.marinespecies.org/polychaeta (accessed 13 June 2021)
    Rioja, E. (1931) Estudios de los poliquetos de la península Ibérica. Memorias de la Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales de Madrid, 2, 1–471.
    Röder, H. (1971) Gangsysteme von Paraonis fulgens Levinsen 1883 (Polychaeta) in ökologischer, ethologischer und aktuopaläontologischer Sicht. Senckenbergiana Maritima, 3, 3–51.
    Rouse, G.W. (2001) Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867. In: Rouse, G.W. & Pleijel, F. (Eds.), Polychaetes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 53–56.
    Savigny, J.-C. (1822) Système des annélides, principalement de celles des côtes de l’Égypte et de la Syrie, offrant les caractères tant distinctifs que naturels des Ordres, Familles et Genres, avec la Description des Espèces. Description de l’Égypte ou Recueil des Observations et des Recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l’Expédition de l’Armée Française, publié par les Ordres de sa Majesté l’Empereur Napoléon le Grand, Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 1 (3), 1–128.
    Sene Silva, G. (2007) Filogenia de Opheliidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Unpublished Thesis presented for the degree, Doctor of Sciences, in Zoology, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, 95 pp.
    Støp-Bowitz, C. (1948) Sur les polychètes arctiques des families des Glycériens des Ophéliens, des Scalibregmiens et des Flabelligériens. Tromsø Museums Årshefte, Avdeeling 35, 66, 21–58.
    Tampi, P.R.S. (1958) Pelagic swarming of Polyophthalmus (family Opheliidae-Polychaeta). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 55, 371–374.
    Treadwell, A.L. (1936) Polychaetous annelids from the vicinity of Nonsuch Island, Bermuda. Zoologica, 21 (1), 49–68. https://doi.org/10.5962/p.190351
    Treadwell, A.L. (1943) Polychaetous annelids from Africa in the collections of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates, 1221, 1–6.
    Tzetlin, A. & Zhadan, A. (2009) Morphological variation of axial non-muscular proboscis types in the Polychaeta. Zoosymposia, 2, 415–427. https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.2.1.29
    Uebelacker, J.M. (1984) Chapter 17. Family Opheliidae Malmgren, 1867. In: Uebelacker, J.M. & Johnson, P.G. (Eds.), Taxonomic guide to the polychaetes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Final report to the Minerals Management service, contract 14-12-001-29091. Barry M. Vittor & Associates, Mobile, pp. 1–15.
    Wehe, T. & Fiege, D. (2002) Annotated Checklist of the Polychaete Species of the Seas Surrounding the Arabian Peninsula: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Gulf. Fauna of Arabia, 19, 7–238.
    Wesenberg-Lund, E. (1949) Polychaetes of the Iranian Gulf. Danish Scientific Investigations in Iran, 4, 247–400.
    Willey, A. (1905) Report on the Polychaeta collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar by W.A. Herdman, with supplementary reports upon the Marine Biology of Ceylon, by Other Naturalists. Part IV. Supplementary Reports, 30, 243–324.