Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2021-08-17

A new species of Pelagobia (Lopadorrhynchidae, Annelida), with some notes on literature records of Pelagobia longicirrata Greeff, 1879

N. A. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1-12, Moscow, 119234, Russia.
N. A. Pertsov White Sea Biological Station, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 1-12, Moscow, 119234, Russia.
Annelida holopelagic polychaetes zooplankton taxonomy marine biodiversity molecular systematics Vietnam


Since the second half of the XX century, almost all Pelagobia samples from the Arctic, Antarctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans had been identified as cosmopolitan P. longicirrata. The indistinct nuchal organs in P. longicirrata samples from the South China Sea (Spratly Islands and Taiwan) were considered a morphological feature of the Pacific population. Our morphological and genetic investigation of Pelagobia specimens from the Nhatrang Bay, Vietnam reveals a new species in this region. Pelagobia rubromaculata sp. nov. differs from P. longicirrata by its triangle head, with nuchal organs closely adjacent to the lateral sides of prostomium, by short tentacular cirri reaching only the posterior edge of the third segment, and by a specific colouration pattern with red spots. Using nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA markers reveals that P. rubromaculata sp. nov. forms a well-supported clade, confirming the validity of the new species. Phylogenetic analysis of all available P. longicirrata sequences using both single 18S and concatenated 18S and 28S genes shows at least three distinct clades: Central Atlantic, Arctic and South Atlantic. Antarctic specimens do not form any distinct clade and fall between other clades with low support.



  1. Altschul, S.F., Gish, W., Miller, W., Myers, E.W. & Lipman, D.J. (1990) Basic local alignment search tool, Journal of Molecular Biology, 215 (3), 403–410.
    Augener, H. (1929) Beitrage zur Planktonbevolkerung der Weddellsee nach dem Ergebnissen der Deutschen Antarktischen Expedition 1911–1912. V. Die Polychaeten der Weddellsee, Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 22, 273–312.
    Benham, W. (1921) Polychaeta. Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911–14, Scientific Reports Series C. Zoology and Botany, 6 (3), 1–128.
    Böggemann, M. (2009) Polychaetes (Annelida) of the abyssal SE Atlantic, Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 9, 251–428.
    Castresana, J. (2000) Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17 (4), 540–552.
    Chamberlin, R.V. (1919) The Annelida Polychaeta [Albatross Expeditions], Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 48, 1–514.
    Claparède, É. (1870) Les Annélides Chétopodes du Golfe de Naples, Ce travail est еire dès Memoires de la Société de Physique, 20 (2), 365–542.
    Dales, R.P. (1957) Pelagic polychaetes of the Pacific Ocean, Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanogaphy, 7 (2), 99—168.
    Dales, R.P. & Peter, G. (1972) A synopsis of the pelagic polychaeta, Journal of Natural History, 6, 55–92.
    Day, J.H. (1967) Polychaeta of Southern Africa, Part 1. Errantia. British Museum of the Natural History, London, 458 pp.
    Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput, Nucleic Acid Research, 32 (5), 1792–1797.
    Ehlers, E.H. (1913) Die Polychaetern-Sammlungen der Deutschen Sudpolar-Expedition 1901–1903, Deutschen Sudpolar Expedition, 13, 397–598.
    Fauvel, P. (1916) Annélides polychètes des Iles Falkland recueilles par M. Rupter Vallentin Esqre (1902–1910), Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale, 55, 417–482.
    Fernandez-Alamo, M.A. & Sanvicente-Anorve, L. (2005) Holoplanktonic polychaetes from the Gulf of Tehantepec, Mexico. Cahiers de biologie marine, 46 (3), 227–239.
    Friedrich, H. (1949) Lebensformtypen bei pelagischer Polychaeten. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 13, 188–204.
    Giribet, G., Carranza, S., Baguna, J., Riutort, M. & Ribera, C. (1996) First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada+Arthropoda clade, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13, 76–84.
    Giribet, G., Carranza, S., Baguna, J., Riutort, M. & Ribera, C. (1999) Internal phylogeny of the Chilopoda (Myriapoda, Arthropoda) using complete 18S DNA and partial 28S DNA sequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 354, 215–222.
    Glez-Peña, D., Gómez-Blanco, D., Reboiro-Jato, M., Fdez-Riverola, F. & Posada, D. (2010) ALTER: program-oriented format conversion of DNA and protein alignments, Nucleic Acids Research, 38 (Supplement 2), W14–W18.
    Gravier, C. (1911) Expédition Antarctique Française du “Pourquoi-Pas”, dirigée par le Dr. J.-B. Charcot (1908–1910). Espèces nouvelles d’annélides polychètes, Bulletin de Museum d’Histoire naturelle, 17, 310–316.
    Greeff, R. (1879) Ueber pelagische Anneliden von der Küste der Canarischen Inseln, Zeitschrift Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 32, 237–284.
    Grube, A.E. (1855) Beschriebungen neuer oder weniger bekannten Anneliden. Archive für Naturgeschichte, Berlin, 21, 81–136.
    Guglielmo, R., Gambi, M. C., Granata, A., Guglielmo, L. & Minutoli, R. (2014) Composition, abundance and distribution of holoplanktonic polychaetes within the Strait of Magellan (southern America) in austral summer. Polar Biology, 37 (7), 999–1015.
    Hartmann-Schröder, G. & Rosenfeldt, P. (1992) Die Polychaetender “Polarstern” Reise ANT V/1 in die Antarktis 1986. Teil1: Euphrosinidae bis Iphitimidae, Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen zoologischen Museum und Institut, 89, 85–124.
    Holznagel, W.E., Colgan, D.J. & Lydeard, C. (2010) Pulmonate phylogeny based on 28S rRNA gene sequences: A framework for discussing habitat transitions and character transformation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 57 (3), 1017–1025.
    Hopkins, T.L. & Torres, J.J. (1988) The zooplankton community in the vicinity of the ice edge, western Weddell Sea, March 1986. Polar Biology, 9 (2), 79–87.
    Idris, I. & Arshad, A. (2013) Checklist of polychaetous annelids in Malaysia with redescription of two commercially exploited species. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8 (3), 409–436.
    Isaychev, A.N., Konovalova, O.P., Stupnikova, A.N. & Zhadan, A.E. (2013) On the morphology and phylogeny of Pelagobia longicirrata (Polychaeta, Annelida), Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 92 (7), 790–801. [in Russian]
    Isaychev, A.N. (2015) Morphology and biology of the planktonic polychaete Pelagobia cf. longicirrata Greeff, 1879 (Annelida, Lopadorrhynchidae). Dissertation, Moscow State University, Moscow, 114 pp. [in Russian]
    Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16 (2), 111–120.
    Knox, G.A. (1959) Pelagic and benthic polychaetes of the central Arctic basin. Geophysical Research Paper, N63, Scientific Studies at Fletcher’s Ice Island T-3, 1, 105–114.
    Kozlov, A.M., Darriba, D., Flouri, T., Morel, B. & Stamatakis, A. (2018) RAxML-NG: A fast, scalable, and user-friendly tool for maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference. Bioinformatics, 35 (21), 4453–4455.
    Lê, H.L.V., Lecointre, G. & Perasso, R. (1993) A 28S rDNA based phylogeny of the Gnathostomes: first steps in the analysis of conflict and congruence with morphologically based cladograms. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, 2, 31–51.
    Maurer, D. & Reish, D.J. (1984) Pelagic polychaetes from Ice Stations (Arlis I and II) in the Arctic Basin. Journal of Natural History, 18, 381–387.
    Mileikovsky, S.A. (1962) Distribution of pelagic polychaetes in the Norwegian and Barents Sea. Okeanologia, 2 (6), 1060–1074. [in Russian]
    Mileikovsky, S.A. (1969) Vertical distribution, breeding and abundance of pelagic polychaetes in the northwestern Pacific, Okeanologia, 9 (4), 676–685. [in Russian]
    Mileikovsky, S.A. (1970) The larvae of the pelagic polychaete Pelagobia longicirrata from the plankton of the Kurile-Kamchatka trench, Trudy Instituta Okeanologii, 86, 249–251. [in Russian]
    Muus, B.J. (1953) Polychaeta. Families: Aphroditidae, Phyllodocidae and Alciopidae. Zooplankton, Conseil International Pour L’Exploration de la Mer, 32, 1–6.
    Nolte, W. (1938) Anneliden larven, Nordisches Plankton, 24, 171–282.
    Palumbi, S.R. & Kessing, B.D. (1991) Population biology of the trans-Arctic exchange: MtDNA sequence similarity between Pacific and Atlantic sea urchins. Evolution, 45, 1790–1805.
    Quatrefages, A. (1866) Histoire naturelle des Annelés marins et d’eau douce. Annélides et Géphyrien, 2, 337–794.
    Rambaut, A. (2006) FigTree. Version 1.3.1. Available from: (accessed 17 July 2021)
    Rambaut, A., Drummond, A.J. & Suchard, M.A. (2017) Tracer. Version 1.6. Available from: (accessed 17 July 2021)
    Read, G. & Fauchald, K. (2021) World Polychaeta database. Pelagobia serrata Southern, 1909. Available from: (accessed 4 July 2021)
    Read, G. & Fauchald, K. (2021) World Polychaeta database. Lopadorrhynchidae Claparède, 1870. Available from: (accessed 4 July 2021)
    Reibisch, J. (1893) Die Phyllodociden der Plankton-Expedition. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 16, 248–255.
    Reibisch, J. (1895) Die pelagischen Phyllodociden und Typhloscoleciden der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der Deutschen Plankton-Expedition. Verlag von Lipsius und Tisher, Kiel and Leipzig, 64 pp.
    Ronquist, F., Huelsenbeck, J. & Teslenko, M. (2011) Draft MrBayes version 3.2 manual: tutorials and model summaries. Distributed with the software. Available from: http://brahms. (accessed 17 July 2021)
    Roussett,V., Pleijel, F., Rouse, G.W., Erséus, C. & Siddall, M.E. (2007) A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics, 23, 41–63.
    Ruiping, W.B.S. (1978) Preliminary studies on geographical distribution and evolution of pelagic polychaetes from South China Sea islands (Guangdong province, China), Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 2, 215–223. [abstract]
    Sarda, R., Gil, J., Taboada, S. & Gili, J.M. (2009) Polychaete species captured in sediment traps moored in northwestern Mediterranean submarine canyons. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155, 1–21.
    Sigovini, M., Keppel, E. & Tagliapietra, D. (2016) Open Nomenclature in the biodiversity era. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 7 (10), 1217–1225.
    Siciński, J. (1988) Pelagic Polychaeta in the Scotia Front west of Elephant Island (BIOMASS III, October-November 1986). Polish Polar Research, 9 (2–3) 277–282.
    Sjölin, E., Erséus, C. & Källersjö, M. (2005) Phylogeny of Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata) based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution, 35 (2), 431–441.
    Southern, R. (1909) The marine worms (Annelida) of Dublin Bay and the adjoining district. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science, 215–246.
    Støp-Bowitz, C. (1948) Polychaeta from the Michael Sars north Atlantic deep-sea expedition 1910. “Michael Sars” North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910, 5 (8), 1–91.
    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30 (12), 2725–272.
    Tebble, N. (1958) Distribution of pelagic polychaetes in the South Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 182, 162–167.
    Tebble, N. (1962) The distribution of pelagic polychaetes across the North Pacific Ocean. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology, 7, 371–492.
    Treadwell, A.L. (1943) Polychaetous annelids. Scientific Results of Cruise VII of the Carnegie during 1928–1929 under Command of Captain J. P. Ault, 4, 29–58.
    Ushakov, P.V. (1972) Polychaete worms. 1. Fauna SSSR. Izdatelstvo AN SSSR, Moscow, 237 pp. [in Russian]
    Viguier, C. (1886) Etudes sur les animaux inferieurs de la Baie d’Alger. Recherches sur les Annéelides pelagiques. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale, 2 (4), 347–442.
    Wilson, R.S. (2000) Family Lopadorhynchidae. In: Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Glasby, C.J. (Eds.), Polychaetes and Allies: the Southern Synthesis. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp. 134–136.
    Yingst, D.R. (1974a) Taxonomic guides to Arctic zooplankton I. Pelagic Polychaetes of the Central Arctic Basin. Technical Report N1 to the Office of Naval Research. Dept Of Biological Sciences, University Of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 42 pp.
    Yingst, D.R. (1974b) The Vertical Distribution and Reproductive Biology of Pelagobia longicirrata (Annelida) in the Central Arctic Ocean. Biological Bulletin, 147 (2), 457–465.
    Zhaoli, X.U. (2008) Environmental Adaptation of Pelagic Polychaeta in the East China Sea. Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology, 1, 53–58. [abstract]


How to Cite

KOLBASOVA, G. ., & NERETINA, T. . (2021). A new species of <em>Pelagobia</em> (Lopadorrhynchidae, Annelida), with some notes on literature records of <em>Pelagobia</em> <em>longicirrata</em> Greeff, 1879. Zootaxa, 5023(1), 77–92.