Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Review
Published: 2021-05-28
Page range: 190–211
Abstract views: 940
PDF downloaded: 327

Segmented worms (Phylum Annelida): a celebration of twenty years of progress through Zootaxa and call for action on the taxonomic work that remains

Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, 40170-115, Bahia, Brazil.
Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW. Australia. Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2019, Australia.
Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Tercer circuito s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico City, Mexico.
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Taxonomy and Phylogeny, 29 rue Vautier, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
IfAB Institute for Applied Soil Biology, Hamburg, Germany.
Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Forbes Natural History Building, MC-652, 1816 S. Oak Street, Champaign, Illinois 61820 USA.
Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Aquatic Research & Consulting, Duxbury, Massachusetts 02332 USA.
Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Brazil.
Department of Biology, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 02125 USA.
Annelida biodiversity polychaetes oligochaetes leeches sipunculans echiurans

Abstract

Zootaxa has been the leading journal on invertebrate systematics especially within Annelida. Our current estimates indicate annelids include approximately 20,200 valid species of polychaetes, oligochaetes, leeches, sipunculans and echiurans. We include herein the impact of Zootaxa on the description of new annelid species in the last two decades. Since 2001, there have been over 1,300 new annelid taxa published in about 630 papers. The majority of these are polychaetes (921 new species and 40 new genera) followed by oligochaetes (308 new species and 10 new genera) and leeches (21 new species). The numerous papers dealing with new polychaete species have provided us a clear picture on which polychaete families have had the most taxonomic effort and which authors and countries have been the most prolific of descriptions of new taxa. An estimated additional 10,000+ species remain to be described in the phylum, thus we urge annelid workers to continue their efforts and aid in training a new generation of taxonomists focused on this ecologically important group.

 

References

  1. Açik S. (2008) Sipunculans along the Aegean coast of Turkey. Zootaxa, 1852(1), 21–36.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1852.1.2

    Açik S., Murina, G.V., Çinar M.E., & Ergen, Z. (2005) Sipunculans from the coast of northern Cyprus (eastern Mediterranean Sea). Zootaxa, 1077(1), 1–23.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1077.1.1

    Açik S. (2009) Soft-bottom sipunculans in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, eastern Mediterranean). Zootaxa, 2136(1), 40–48.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2136.1.3

    Adrianov A.V. & Maiorova A.S. (2012) Peanut worms of the phylum Sipuncula from the Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea) with a key to species. Zootaxa, 3166(1), 41–58.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3166.1.3

    Anderson, F.E., Williams, B.W., Horn, K.M., Erseus, C., Halanych, K.M., Santos, S.R. & James, S.W. (2017) Phylogenomic analyses of Crassiclitellata support major Northern and Southern Hemisphere clades and a Pangaean origin for earthworms. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-0973-4

    Apakupakul, K., Siddall, M.E. & Burreson, E.M. (1999) Higher level relationships of leeches (Annelida: Clitellata: Euhirudinea) based on morphology and gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 12, 350–359.

    https://doi.org/10.1006/mpev.1999.0639

    Bartolomaeus, T., Purschke, G. & Hausen, H. (2005) Polychaete phylogeny based on morphological data–a comparison of current attempts. Hydrobiologia, 535, 341–356.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3240-4_19

    Beckers, P., Helm, C. & Bartolomaeus, T. (2019a) The anatomy and development of the nervous system in Magelonidae (Annelida)–insights into the evolution of the annelid brain. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, 1–21.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-019-1498-9

    Beckers, P., Helm, C., Purschke, G., Worsaae, K., Hutchings, P. & Bartolomaeus, T. (2019b) The central nervous system of Oweniidae (Annelida) and its implications for the structure of the ancestral annelid brain. Frontiers in Zoology, 16, 1–21.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12983-019-0305-1

    Blake, J.A. (2011) The origin and history of the International Polychaetology Association and the triennial International Polychaete Conferences together with a summary of other polychaete symposia and meetings. Italian Journal of Zoology, 78, 2–18.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/11250003.2011.579447

    Blake, J.A. (2015) New species of Chaetozone and Tharyx (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic and the Northeastern Pacific, including a description of the lectotype of Chaetozone setosa Malmgren from Spitsbergen in the Norwegian Arctic. Zootaxa, 3919(3), 501–552.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3919.3.5

    Blake, J.A. (2016) Kirkegaardia (Polychaeta, Cirratulidae), new name for Monticellina Laubier, preoccupied in the Rhabdocoela, together with new records and descriptions of eight previously known and sixteen new species from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Zootaxa, 4146(1), 1–93.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4166.1.1

    Blake, J.A. (2017) Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America. Zootaxa, 4218(1), 1–145.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4218.1.1

    Blake, J.A. (2018) Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected chiefly during cruises of the R/V Anton Bruun, USNS Eltanin, USCG Glacier, R/V Hero, RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer, and R/V Polarstern from the Southern Ocean, Antarctica, and off Western South America. Zootaxa, 4537(1), 1–130.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4537.1.1

    Blake, J.A. (2019) New species of Cirratulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from abyssal depths of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, North Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Zootaxa, 4629(2), 151–187.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4629.2.1

    Blake, J.A. & Magalhães, W. (2019) 7.3.1.5 Cirratulidae, Ryckholt, 1851. In: Purschke, G., Böggemann, M. & Westheide, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoology. Annelida. Volume 1: Annelida Basal groups and Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria I, De Gruyter, pp. 339–397.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291681-001

    Bleidorn, C. (2019) Recent progress in reconstructing lophotrochozoan (spiralian) phylogeny. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 19, 557–566.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-019-00412-4

    Bondarenko, N., Bondarenko, A., Starunov, V. & Slyusarev, G. (2019) Comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of Orthonectida: insights into the evolution of an invertebrate parasite species. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 294, 715–727.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00438-019-01543-1

    Boore, J.L. & Staton, J.L. (2002) The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 19(2), 127–137.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004065

    Brinkhurst, R.O. (1982) Evolution in the Annelida. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 60, 1043–1059.

    https://doi.org/10.1139/z82-145

    Brinkhurst, R.O. (1991) Ancestors. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 88(1), 97–110.

    Britz, R., Hundsdörfer, A. & Fritz, U. (2020) Funding, training, permits—the three big challenges of taxonomy. Megataxa, 1, 49–52.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/megataxa.1.1.10

    Capa, M. & Hutchings, P. (2021) Annelid diversity: Historical overview and future perspectives. Diversity, 13, 129.

    https://doi.org/10.3390/d13030129

    Carrera-Parra, L.F. (2006a) Phylogenetic analysis of Lumbrineridae Schmarda, 1861 (Annelida: Polychaeta). Zootaxa, 1332, 1–36.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1332.1.1

    Carrera-Parra, L.F. (2006b) Revision of Lumbrineris de Blainville, 1828 (Polychaeta: Lumbrineridae). Zootaxa, 1336, 1–64.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1336.1.1

    Carrerette, O. & Nogueira, J.M.M. (2013) Four new species of Polycirrus grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, Southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 3626, 146–172.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3626.1.6

    Chang, C.H., Lin, S.M. & Chen, J.H. (2008) Molecular systematics and phylogeography of the gigantic earthworms of the Metaphire formosae species group (Clitellata, Megascolecidae). Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution, 49, 958–968.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.08.025

    Chen, H., Parry, L.A., Vinther, J., Zhai, D., Hou, X. & Ma, X. (2020) A Cambrian crown annelid reconciles phylogenomics and the fossil record. Nature, 583, 249–252.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2384-8

    Cutler, E.B. (1994) The Sipuncula. Their Systematics, Biology and Evolution. Cornell University Press Ithaca, 453 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.7591/9781501723643

    Cutler, E.B., Schulze A. & Dean H.K. (2004) The Sipuncula of sublittoral New Zealand, with a key to all New Zealand species. Zootaxa, 525(1), 1–19.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.525.1.1

    Csuzdi, C., Chang, C.-H., Pavlicek, T., Szederjesi, T., Esopi, D. & Szlavecz, K. (2017) Molecular phylogeny and systematics of native North American lumbricid earthworms (Clitellata: Megadrili). Plos One, 12.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181504

    Dagli, E. & Çinar, M.E. (2009) Species of the subgenera Aquilaspio and Prionospio (Polychaeta: Spionidae: Prionospio) from the southern coast of Turkey (Levantine Sea, eastern Mediterranean), with description of a new species and two new reports for the Mediterranean fauna. Zootaxa, 2275, 1–20.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2275.1.1

    Daglio, L.G., & Dawson, M.N. (2019) Integrative taxonomy: ghosts of past, present and future. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 99, 1237–1246.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315419000201

    Darabi-Darestani, K., Sari, A. & Sarafrazi, A. (2016) Five new records and an annotated checklist of the leeches (Annelida: Hirudinida) of Iran. Zootaxa, 4170, 41–70.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4170.1.2

    Darwin, C.R. (1881) The formation of vegetable mould through the actions of worms with observations on their habits. London: John Murray, London, 326 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.107559

    Dean, H.K., Hernández-Ávila I. & Cutler E.B. (2007). Sipunculans of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Curaçao. Zootaxa, 1431(1), 45–54.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1431.1.2

    Dean, H.K., Sibaja–Cordero, J.A., Cortés, J., Vargas, R. & Kawauchi, G.Y. (2010) Sipunculans and Echiurans of Isla del Coco (Cocos Island), Costa Rica. Zootaxa, 2557(1), 60–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2557.1.6

    DriloBASE (2021) The World earthworm database. Drilobase Project. Available from: http://drilobase.org (accessed 12 April 2021).

    Dunn, C.W., Giribet, G., Edgecombe, G.D. & Hejnol, A. (2014) Animal phylogeny and its evolutionary implications. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 45, 371–395.

    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-120213-091627

    Dunn, C.W., Hejnol, A., Matus, D.Q., Pang, K., Browne, W.E., Smith, S.A., Seaver, E., Rouse, G.W., Obst, M., Edgecombe G.D., Sørensen, M.V., Haddock, S.H.D., Schmidt-Rhaesa, A., Okusu, A., Kristensen, RM., Wheeler, W., Martindale, M.Q. & Giribet, G. (2008) Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature, 452(7188), 745–749.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06614

    Envall, I., Källersjö, M. & Erséus, C. (2006) Molecular evidence for the non-monophyletic status of Naidinae (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 570-584.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.03.021

    Erséus, C. (2005) Phylogeny of oligochaetous Clitellata. Hydrobiologia, 535/536, 357–372.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-4426-x

    Erséus, C., Wetzel, M.J. & Gustavsson, L. (2008) ICZN rules - a farewell to Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata). Zootaxa, 1744, 66–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1744.1.7

    Erséus, C., Envall, I., Marchese, M. & Gustavsson, L. (2010) The systematic position of Opistocystidae (Annelida, Clitellata) revealed by DNA data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54, 309–313.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2009.09.037

    Erséus, C., Williams, B.W., Horn, K.M., Halanych, K.M., Santos, S.R., James, S.W., Creuzé des Châtelliers, M. & Anderson, F.E. (2020) Phylogenomic analyses reveal a Palaeozoic radiation and support a freshwater origin for clitellate annelids. Zoologica Scripta, 49, 614–640.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12426

    Evenhuis, N.L. (2007) Helping solve the “other” taxonomic impediment: completing the eight steps to total enlightenment and taxonomic nirvana. Zootaxa, 1407, 67–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1494.1.3

    Ferrero-Vicente L.M., De-La-Ossa-Carretero J.A., Del-Oilar-Ruso Y. & Sánchez-Lizaso, J.L. (2013) Distribution of Sipuncula in the Gulf of Valencia and Cape Nao (western Mediterranean). Zootaxa, 3646 (3), 235–250.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3646.3.3

    Fisher W.K. (1952) The sipunculid worms of California and Baja California. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 102, 371–450.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.102-3306.371

    Glasby, C.J., Erséus, C. & Martin, P. (2021) Annelids in extreme aquatic environments: diversity, adaptations and evolution. Diversity, 13, 98.

    https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020098

    Han, J., Morris, S.C., Cuthill, J.F.H. & Shu, D. (2019) Sclerite-bearing annelids from the lower Cambrian of South China. Scientific Reports, 9, 1–11.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40841-x

    Helm, C., Bernhart, S.H., zu Siederdissen, C.H., Nickel, B. & Bleidorn, C. (2012) Deep sequencing of small RNAs confirms an annelid affinity of Myzostomida. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64, 198–203.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.03.017

    Hutchings, P. & Kupriyanova, E. (2015) Coral reef-associated fauna of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef: polychaetes and allies. Zootaxa, 4019(1), 1–801.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.1

    Hutchings, P., Carrerette, O., Nogueira, J.M.M., Hourdez, S. & Lavesque, N. (2021) The Terebelliformia-recent developments and future directions. Diversity, 13, 60.

    https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020060

    Hutchings, P., Nogueira, J.M.M. & Carrerette, O. (2015) Telothelepodidae, Thelepodidae and Trichobranchidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from the Lizard Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Zootaxa, 4019, 240–274.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.12

    Hylleberg, J. (2013) Classification and identification of sipunculans from Thailand, with description of new species, and a new subgenus. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication, 32, 53–82.

    James, S. & Davidson, S.K. (2012) Molecular phylogeny of earthworms (Annelida: Crassiclitellata) based on 28S, 18S and 16S gene sequences. Invertebrate Systematics, 26, 213–229.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/IS11012

    James, S.W. (2012) Re-erection of Rhinodrilidae Benham, 1890, a senior synonym of Pontoscolecidae James, 2012 (Annelida: Clitellata). Zootaxa, 3540, 67–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3540.1.6

    Jamieson, B.G.M. (1988) On the phylogeny and higher classification of the Oligochaeta. Cladistics, 4, 367–410.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1988.tb00520.x

    Jiménez Pinadero, S., Marchán, D.F., Novo, M., Trigo, D., Domínguez, J. & Díaz Cosín, D.J. (2021) Sorry atlanticus, you are not my type: molecular assessment splits Zophoscolex (Lumbricidae: Crassiclitellata) into French and Iberian genera. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, zlab011

    https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlab011

    Kawauchi, G.Y. & Rice, M.E. (2009) Two new species of Nephasoma (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from the Western Atlantic Ocean. Proceedings of Biological Society of Washington, 122(1), 1–13.

    https://doi.org/10.2988/08-32.1

    Kawauchi, G.Y., Sharma, P.P. & Giribet, G. (2012) Sipunculan phylogeny based on six genes, with a new classification and the descriptions of two new families. Zoologica Scripta, 41(2), 186–210.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00507.x

    Kocot, K.M., Struck, T.H., Merkel, J., Waits, D.S., Todt, C., Brannock, P.M., Weese, D.A., Cannon, J.T., Moroz, L.L., Lieb, B. & Halanych, K.M. (2017) Phylogenomics of Lophotrochozoa with consideration of systematic error. Systematic Biology, 66, 256–282.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syw079

    Kolbasova, G.D. & Mekhova, E.S. (2019) Myzostoma khanhkhoaensis (Myzostomida), a new myzostomid species from the Nhatrang Bay, Vietnam. Zootaxa, 4691(3), 235–249.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4691.3.4

    Kostyuchenko, R.P. & Kozin, V.V. (2020) Morphallaxis versus epimorphosis? Cellular and molecular aspects of regeneration and asexual reproduction in annelids. Biology Bulletin, 47, 237–246.

    https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359020030048

    Kvist, S., Manzano-Marín, A., de Carle, D., Trontelj, P. & Siddall, M.E. (2020) Draft genome of the European medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida, Clitellata, Hirudiniformes) with emphasis on anticoagulants. Scientific Reports, 10, 1–11.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66749-5

    Lana, P. da C., Pagliosa, P., Paiva, P.C., Carrerette, O., Paresque, K., Nogueira, J. M. de M., Amaral, A.C.Z., Steiner, T.M., Christoffersen, M.L., Garraffoni, A.R.S., Di Domenico, M., Barroso, R., Rizzo, A.E. & Fukuda, M.V. (2017) Polychaetes in Brazil: people and places, past, present and future. Boletín del Instituto Oceanográfico de Venezuela, 24–50.

    Larsen, B.B., Miller, E.C., Rhodes, M.K. & Wiens, J.J. (2017) Inordinate fondness multiplied and redistributed: the number of species on earth and the new pie of life. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 92, 229–265.

    https://doi.org/10.1086/693564

    Laumer, C.E., Fernández, R., Lemer, S., Combosch, D., Kocot, K.M., Riesgo, A., Andrade, S.C., Sterrer, W., Sørensen, M.V. & Giribet, G. (2019) Revisiting metazoan phylogeny with genomic sampling of all phyla. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 286, 20190831.

    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0831

    Lemer, S., Kawauchi, G.Y., Andrade, S.C.S., González, V.L., Boyle, M.J. & Giribet, G. (2015) Re-evaluating the phylogeny of Sipuncula through transcriptomics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 83, 174–183.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.10.019

    Lindon, H. L., Gardiner, L. M., Brady, A., & Vorontsova, M. S. (2015) Fewer than three percent of land plant species named by women: Author gender over 260 years. Taxon, 64(2), 209–215.

    https://doi.org/10.12705/642.4

    Maciolek, N.J. (2020) Anguillosyllis (Annelida: Syllidae) from multiple deep-water locations in the northern and southern hemispheres. Zootaxa, 4793(1), 1–73.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4793.1.1

    Maciolek, N.J. & Blake, J.A. (2009) Proceedings of the Ninth International Polychaete Conference. Zoosymposia, 2, 1–600.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.2.1.0

    Martin, P. (2001) On the origin of the Hirudinea and the demise of the Oligochaeta. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 268(1471), 1089–1098.

    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1616

    Martin, P. (2015) L’arbre du vivant: classification phylogénétique des Annélides. In: Martin, P., Nadot, S. & Daugeron, C. (Eds.), L’arbre du vivant, trente ans de systématique. Paris, France: Editions Matériologiques, pp. 49–67.

    Martinsson, S. & Erseus, C. (2021) Cryptic Clitellata: Molecular species delimitation of clitellate worms (Annelida): An overview. Diversity-Basel, 13.

    https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020036

    Maxmen, A.B., King, B.F., Cutler, E.B. & Giribet, G. (2003) Evolutionary relationships within the protostome phylum Sipuncula; a molecular analysis of ribosomal genes and histone H3 sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 27(3), 489–503.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00443-8

    Michaelsen, W. (1922) Die Verbreitung der Oligochäten im Lichte der Wegener’schen Theorie der Kontinentenverschiebung und andere Fragen zur Stammesgeschichte und Verbreitung dieser Tiergruppe. Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, 29, 45–79.

    Michaelsen, W. (1928-1934) Dritte Klasse der Vermes Polymera (Annelida) Clitellata = Gürtelwürmer. In: T. Krumbach (Ed), Vermes Polymera. de Gruyter, Leipzig, pp. 1–118.

    Mwinyi, A., Meyer, A., Bleidorn, C., Lieb, B., Bartolomaeus, T. & Podsiadlowski, L. (2009) Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida. BMC Genomics, 10, 27.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-27

    Molina-Acevedo, I.C. (2018) Morphological revision of the Subgroup 1 Fauchald, 1970 of Marphysa de Quatrefages, 1865 (Eunicidae: Polychaeta). Zootaxa, 4480(1), 1–125.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4480.1.1

    Nanglu, K. & Caron, J.B. (2018) A new Burgess Shale polychaete and the origin of the annelid head revisited. Current Biology, 28, 319–326.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.12.019

    Nguyen, V.M., Haddaway, N.R., Gutowsky, L.F.G., Wilson, A. D. M., Gallagher, A.J., Donaldson, M.R., Hammerschlag, N. & Cooke, S.J. (2015) How long is too long in contemporary peer review? Perspectives from authors publishing in Conservation Biology journals. PLoS ONE, 10, e0132557.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132557

    Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, A.D., Tran, B.T.T. & Blakemore, R.J. (2016) A comprehensive checklist of earthworm species and subspecies from Vietnam (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta: Almidae, Eudrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Octochaetidae). Zootaxa, 4140, 1–92.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4140.1.1

    Nogueira, J.M., Hutchings, P.A. & Fukuda, M.F. (2010) Morphology of terebelliform polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta: Terebelliformia). Zootaxa, 2460, 1–185.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2460.1.1

    Nogueira, J.M.M., Hutchings, P. & Carrerette, O. (2015a) Polycirridae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from Lizard Island Group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Zootaxa, 4091, 437–483.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.17

    Nogueira, J.M.M., Hutchings, P.A., Carrerette, O. (2015b) Terebellidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Zootaxa, 4019, 484–576.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4019.1.18

    Novo, M., Almodovar, A., Fernandez, R., Giribet, G. & Diaz Cosin, D. J. (2011) Understanding the biogeography of a group of earthworms in the Mediterranean basin-The phylogenetic puzzle of Hormogastridae (Clitellata: Oligochaeta). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61, 125–135.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.05.018

    Nxele, T.C., Plisko, J.D., Mwabvu, T. & Zishiri, T.O. (2016) A new family Kazimierzidae for the genus Kazimierzus, earlier recorded to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta). African Invertebrates, 57(2), 111–117.

    https://doi.org/10.3897/AfrInvertebr.57.10042

    Nygren, A. (2004) Revision of Autolytinae (Syllidae: Polychaeta). Zootaxa, 680, 1–314.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.680.1.1

    Nygren, A. (2014) Cryptic polychaete diversity: a review. Zoologica Scripta, 43 (2), 172–183.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/zsc.12044

    Ohtaka, A., Hirabayashi, K., Wetzel, M.J., Schenková, J. & Pinder, A. (2020) Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta. Zoosymposia, 17, 1–189.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.17.1

    Omodeo, P. (1998) History of Clitellata. Italian Journal of Zoology, 65, 51–73.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/11250009809386726

    Pamungkas, J., Glasby, C.J., Read, G.B., Wilson, S.P. & Costello, M.J. (2019) Progress and perspectives in the discovery of polychaete worms (Annelida) of the world. Helgoland Marine Research, 73:4, 1–10.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s10152-019-0524-z

    Pan-Wen, H. & Chia-Ming, K. (2009) New records of sipunculan worms from Taiwan. Zootaxa, 2067(1), 51–61.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2067.1.3

    Parry, L.A., Eriksson, M.E. & Vinther, J. (2019) 3. The Annelid Fossil Record. In: Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., & Westheide, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoology, Annelida, volume 1: Annelida Basal Groups and Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria I. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 69–88.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291582-003

    Paterson, G.L., Lenka, J., Altamira, I., Soto, E.H., Smith, C.R., Menot, L., Billett, D.S.M., Cunha, M.R., Marchais-Laguionie, C. & Glover, A.G. (2016) New Prionospio and Aurospio Species from the Deep Sea (Annelida: Polychaeta). Zootaxa, 4092(1), 1–32.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4092.1.1

    Peixoto, A.J.M. & Paiva, P.C. (2020) New apinnate Prionospio (Annelida: Spionidae) species from southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa, 4853(4), 451–508.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4853.4.1

    Phillips, A.J., Dornburg, A., Zapfe, K.L., Anderson, F.E., James, S.W., Erséus, C., Moriarty Lemmon, E., Lemmon, A.R. & Williams, B.W. (2019) Phylogenomic analysis of a putative missing link sparks reinterpretation of leech evolution. Genome Biology and Evolution, 11, 3082–3093.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz120

    Phillips, A.J. & Siddall, M.E. (2009) Poly-paraphyly of Hirudinidae: many lineages of medicinal leeches. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 246.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-9-246

    Phillips, A.J, Arauco-Brown, R., Oceguera-Figueroa, A., Gomez, G.P., Beltrán, M., Lai, Y-T. & Siddall, M.E. (2010) Tyrannobdella rex n. gen. n. sp. and the evolutionary origins of mucosal leech infestations. PLoS ONE, 5, e10057.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010057

    Phillips, H.R., Guerra, C.A., Bartz, M.L., Briones, M.J., Brown, G., Crowther, T.W., Ferlian, O., Gongalsky K.B., Van den Hoogen, J., Krebs, J., Orgiazzi, A., Routh, D., Schwarz, B., Bach, E.M., Bennett, J.M., Brose, U., Decaëns, T., König-Ries, B., Loreau, M., Mathieu, J., Mulder, C., Van der Putten, H., Ramirez, K.S., Rillig, M.C., Russell, D., Rutgers, M., Thakur, M.P., de Vries, F.T., Wall, D.H., Wardle, D.A., Arai, M., Ayuke, F.O., Baker, G.H., Beauséjour, R., Bedano, J.S., Birkhofer, B., Blanchart, E., Blossey, B., Bolger, T., Bradley, R.L., Callaham, M.A., Capowiez, Y., Caulfield, M.E., Choi, A., Crotty, F.V., Crumsey, J.M., Crumsey, A., Cosin, D.J.D., Dominguez, A., Duhour, A.E., Van Eekeren, N., Emmerling, C., Falco, L.B., Fernández, R., Fonte, S.J., Fragoso, C., Franco, A.L.C., Fugère, M., Gholami. L., Gundale, M.J., López, M.G., Hackenberger, D.K., Hernández, L.M., Hishi, T., Holdsworth, A.R., Holmstrup, M., Hopfensperger, K.N., Lwanga, E.H., Huhta, V., Hurisso, T.T., Iannone III, B.V., Iordache, M., Joschko, M., Kaneko, N., Kanianska, R., Keith, A.M., Kelly, C.A., Kernecker, M.L., Klaminder, J., Koné, A.W., Kooch, Y., Kukkonen, S.T., Lalthanzara, H., Lammel, D.R., Lebedev, I.M., Li, Y., Lidon, J.B.J., Lincoln, N.K., Loss, S.R., Marichal, R., Matula, R., Moss, J.H., Moreno, G., Morón-Ríos, A., Muys, B., Neirynck, J., Norgrove, L., Novo, M., Nuutinen, V., Nuzzo, V., Rahman P, M., Pansu, J., Paudel, S., Pérèz, G., Pérez-Camacho, L., Piñeiro, R., Ponge, J.F., Rashid, M.I., Rebollo, S., Rodeiro-Iglesias, J., Rodriguéz, M.A., Roth, A.M., Rousseau, G.X., Rozen, A., Sayad, E., Van Schaik, L., Scharenbroch, B.C., Shirrmann, M., Schmidt, O., Schröder, B., Seeber, J., Shashkov, M.P., Singh, J., Smith, S.M., Steinwandter, M., Talavera, J.A., Trigo, D., Tsukamoto, K., de Valença, A.W., Vanek, S.J., Virto, I., Wackett, A.A., Warren, M.W., Wehr, N.H., Whalen, J. K., Wironen, M.B., Wolters, V., Zenkova, I.V., Zhang, W., Cameron, E.K. & Eisenhauer, N. (2019) Global distribution of earthworm diversity. Science, 366, 480–485.

    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax4851

    Pinder, A., Arslan, N. & Wetzel, M. (2014) Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Aquatic Oligochaeta. Zoosymposia, 9, 1–102.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.9.1

    Pinto, A.P., Mejdalani, G., Mounce, R., Silveira, L.F., Marinoni, L. & Rafael, J.A. (2021) Are publications on zoological taxonomy under attack? Royal Society Open Science, 8, 201617.

    https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201617

    Plisko, J. D. (2013) A new family Tritogeniidae for the genera Tritogenia and Michalakus, earlier accredited to the composite Microchaetidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta). African Invertebrates, 54, 69–92.

    https://doi.org/10.5733/afin.054.0107

    Purschke, G. (2003) Ultrastructure of phaosomous photoreceptors in Stylaria lacustris (Naididae, ‘Oligochaeta’, Clitellata) and their importance for the position of the Clitellata in the phylogenetic system of the Annelida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 41(2), 100–108.

    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0469.2003.00203.x

    Purschke, G., Bleidorn, C. & Struck, T. (2014) Systematics, evolution and phylogeny of Annelida–a morphological perspective. Memoires of Museum Victoria, 71, 247–269.

    https://doi.org/10.24199/j.mmv.2014.71.19

    Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., Westheide, W. (Eds.) (2019a) Basal Groups and Pleistoannelica, Sedentaria. In: Handbook of Zoology; Annelida; De Gruyter: Berlin, Germany, Volume 1, pp. 1–472.

    Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., Westheide, W. (Eds.) (2019b) Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria II. In: Handbook of Zoology; Annelida; De Gruyter: Berlin, Germany, Volume 2, pp. 1–465.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291582

    Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., Westheide, W. (Eds.) (2021) Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria III and Errantia I. In: Handbook of Zoology; Annelida; De Gruyter: Berlin, Germany, Volume 3, pp. 1–480.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291704

    Read, G. & Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2021) World Polychaeta Database. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/polychaeta (accessed 17 February 2021).

    Read, G.B. (2019) 1. A History of Annelida Research. In: Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., & Westheide, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoology, Annelida, volume 1: Annelida Basal Groups and Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria I. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 3–36.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291582

    Reynolds, J.W. & Wetzel, M.J. (2021) Nomenclatura Oligochaetologica – A catalogue of names, descriptions and type specimens. Editio Secunda. Available from: https://www.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/nomenoligo (accessed 16 March 2021).

    Rouse, G.W. & Grygier, M.J. (2005) Myzostoma seymourcollegiorum n.sp. (Myzostomida) from southern Australia, with a description of its larval development. Zootaxa, 1010, 53–64.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1010.1.5

    Rouse, G.W., Lindsay, S. & Pernet, B. (2020) 13th International Polychaete Conference (IPC13). Zoosymposia, 19, 1–221.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.19.1

    Saiz Salinas, J.I., Bustamante, M., Tajadura, J., Vijapure, T. & Sukumaran, S. (2015) A new subspecies of Phascolion Théel, 1875 (Sipuncula: Golfingiidae) from Indian waters. Zootaxa, 3931(3), 433–437.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3931.3.7

    Salazar-Vallejo, S.I. (2011) Revision of Piromis Kinberg, 1867 and Pycnoderma Grube, 1877 (Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae). Zootaxa, 2819, 1–50.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2819.1.1

    Salazar-Vallejo, S.I. (2012a) Revision of Flabelligera Sars, 1829 (Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae). Zootaxa, 3203, 1–64.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3203.1.1

    Salazar-Vallejo, S.I. (2012b) Revision of Semiodera Chamberlin, 1919 (Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae). Zootaxa, 3562, 1–62.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3562.1.1

    Salazar-Vallejo, S.I. (2014) Revision of Pherusa Oken, 1807 (Polychaeta: Flabelligeridae). Zootaxa, 3886(1), 1–61.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3886.1.1

    Saunders, T. E. (2020) Taxonomy at a crossroads: Communicating value, building capability, and seizing opportunities for the future. Megataxa, 1, 63–66.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/megataxa.1.1.13

    Schiffer, P.H., Robertson, H.E. & Telford, M.J. (2018) Orthonectids are highly degenerate annelid worms. Current Biology, 28, 1970–1974.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.088

    Schmelz, R.M. (2003) Taxonomy of Fridericia (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae). Revision of species with morphological and biochemical methods. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg (Neue Folge) 38, 415 pp. + 73 fig.

    Schmelz, R.M. (Ed.) (2012) Global diversity of earthworms and other Oligochaeta (Annelida): collected papers. Zootaxa, 3458(1), 1–165.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3458.1.1

    Schmelz, R.M. (Ed.) (2018) Global diversity of earthworms and enchytraeids (Clitellata): papers in honor of András Zicsi (1928-2015). Zootaxa, 4496(1), 1–575.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4496.1.3

    Schmelz, R.M. & Collado, R. (2010) A guide to European terrestrial and freshwater species of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta). Soil Organisms, 82, 1–176.

    Schulze, A., Cutler, E.B. & Giribet, G. (2005) Reconstructing the phylogeny of the Sipuncula. Hydrobiologia, 535/536, 277–296.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-4404-3

    Schulze, A., Cutler, E.B. & Giribet, G. (2007) Phylogeny of sipunculan worms: A combined analysis of four gene regions and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42(1), 171–192.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.012

    Schulze, A. & Kawauchi, G.Y. (2021) How many sipunculan species are hiding in our ocean? Diversity, 13(2), 1–15.

    https://doi.org/10.3390/d13020043

    Selenka, E., de Man, J. G., & Bulow, C. (1883) Die Sipunculiden, eine systematische Monographie. Semper Reisen in Archipel Phillippinen, 2, 4, 1–131.

    Silva-Morales, I., López-Aquino, M.J., Islas-Villanueva, V., Ruiz-Escobar, F.J. & Bastida-Zavala, R. (2019) Morphological and molecular differences between the Amphiamerican populations of Antillesoma (Sipuncula: Antillesomatidae), with the description of a new species. Revista de Biología Tropical, 67, S101–S109.

    https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v67iS5.38934

    Sjölin, E., Erséus, C. & Källersjö, M. (2005) Phylogeny of Tubificidae (Annelida, Clitellata) based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 35, 431–441.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.018

    Sket, B. & Trontelj, P. (2008) Global diversity of leeches (Hirudinea) in freshwater. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment, 595, 129–137.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8259-7_15

    Staton J.L. (2003) Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from 13 sipunculan genera: Intra-and interphylum relationships. Invertebrate Biology. 122(3), 252–264.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7410.2003.tb00089.x

    Stephen, A.C. (1965) Echiura and Sipuncula from the Israel South Red Sea Expedition. Sea Fisheries Reserach Station Haifa Bulletin, 40, 79–83.

    Stephen, A.C. & Edmonds, S.J. (1972) The Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura; Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) London UK, 528 pp.

    Stephenson, J. (1930) The Oligochaeta. The Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. iv + 978 pp. [reprinted in 1972, In: Historiae Naturalis Classica, Vol. XCII, by J. Cramer et H.K. Swann, Wheldon & Wesley, Ltd. - Stechert-Hafner Service Agency, Inc., New York, NY, USA]

    Stojanovic, M., Sekulic, J. & Trakic, T. (2018) Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Serbia: a review. Zootaxa, 4496(1), 124–155.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4496.1.9

    Struck, T.H. (2019) 2. Phylogeny. In: Purschke, G., Böggemann, M., & Westheide, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Zoology, Annelida, volume 1: Annelida Basal Groups and Pleistoannelida, Sedentaria I. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 37–68.

    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291582

    Struck, T. H., Paul, C., Hill, N., Hartmann, S., Hösel, C., Kube, M., Lieb, B., Meyer, A., Tiedemann, R., Purschke, G., & Bleidorn, C. (2011) Phylogenomic analyses unravel annelid evolution. Nature, 471(7336), 95–98.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09864

    Summers, M.M. & Rouse, G.W. (2014) Phylogeny of Myzostomida (Annelida) and their relationships with echinoderm hosts. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14, 170.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-014-0170-7

    Summers, M.M., Al-Hakim, I.I. & Rouse, G.W. (2014) Turbo-taxonomy: 21 new species of Myzostomida (Annelida). Zootaxa, 3873(4), 301–344.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3873.4.1

    Szederjesi, T., Vavoulidou, E., Chalkia, C., Danyi, L. & Csuzdi, C. (2017) An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili). Zootaxa, 4272(1), 57–82.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4272.1.3

    Szederjesi, T., Pavlicek, T., Marton, O., Krizsik, V. & Csuzdi, C. (2019) Integrative taxonomic revision of Dendrobaena veneta (Rosa, 1886) sensu lato with description of a new species and resurrection of Dendrobaena succinta (Rosa, 1905) (Megadrili: Lumbricidae). Journal of Natural History, 53, 301–314.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1593537

    Szederjesi, T., Pop, V.V., Pavlicek, T., Marton, O., Krizsik, V. & Csuzdi, C. (2018) Integrated taxonomy reveals multiple species in the Dendrobaena byblica (Rosa, 1893) complex (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 182, 500–516.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx049

    Tessler, M., de Carle, D., Voiklis, M.L., Gresham, O.A., Neumann, J.S., Cios, S. & Siddall, M.E. (2018) Worms that suck: Phylogenetic analysis of Hirudinea solidifies the position of Acanthobdellida and necessitates the dissolution of Rhynchobdellida. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 127, 129–134.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.05.001

    Telford, M.J., Wise, M.J. & Gowri-Shankar, V. (2005) Consideration of RNA secondary structure significantly improves likelihood-based estimates of phylogeny: Examples from the Bilateria. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 22(4), 1129–1136.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msi099

    ten Hove, H.A. & Kupriyanova, E.K. (2009) Taxonomy of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta): The state of affairs. Zootaxa, 2036, 1–126.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2036.1.1

    Timm, T. (1981) On the origin and evolution of aquatic Oligochaeta. Eesti NSV Teaduste Akademia Toimetised Koide Bioloogia, 3, 174–181.

    Timm, T. & Martin, P. (2015) Clitellata: Oligochaeta. In: Thorp, J. & Rogers, D.C. (Eds), Ecology and General Biology: Thorp and Covich’s Freshwater Invertebrates. Elsevier, Academic Press, pp. 529–549.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385026-3.00021-8

    Tiwari, N., Paliwal, R., Rashid, A., Yadav, S. (2020) Checklist of earthworm species (Oligochaeta) of the North Eastern Region of India. Zootaxa, 4772(2), 277–305.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4772.2.3

    Tsai, C-F., Shen, H-P., Tsai, S-C., Lin, K-J., Hsieh, H-L. & Yo, S-P. (2009) A checklist of oligochaetes (Annelida) from Taiwan and its adjacent islands. Zootaxa, 2133, 33–48.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2133.1.3

    Vinarski, M.V. (2020) The roots of the taxonomic impediment: Is the ‘integrativeness’ a remedy? Integrative Zoology, 15, 2–15.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12393

    Weigert, A. & Bleidorn, C. (2016) Current status of annelid phylogeny. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 16, 345–362.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-016-0265-7

    Weigert, A., Helm, C., Meyer, M., Nickel, B., Arendt, D., Hausdorf, B., Santos, S.R., Halanych, K.M., Purschke, G., Bleidorn, C. & Struck, T.H. (2014) Illuminating the base of the annelid tree using transcriptomics. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 31, 1391–1401.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msu080

    Weigert, A., Golombek, A., Gerth, M., Schwarz, F., Struck, T.H. & Bleidorn, C. (2016) Evolution of mitochondrial gene order in Annelida. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 94(A), 196–206.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2015.08.008

    Wetzel, M.J. (2020) Citations for the published proceedings of our 14 International Symposia on Aquatic Oligochaetes (1979–2018). Zoosymposia, 17, 188–189.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zoosymposia.17.1.15

    Wetzel, M.J., Kathman, R.D., Fend, S.V. & Coates, K.A. (2021) Classification and checklist of the freshwater oligochaetes occurring in North America north of Mexico. https://www.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/fwoligonachecklist (accessed 23 March 2021)

    Wetzel, M.J., Govedich, F. R., Moser, W.E. & Klemm, D.J. (2021) Classification and checklist of the leeches (Phylum Annelida: Class Clitellata: Subclass Hirudinida) occurring in North America north of Mexico. https://www.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/FWLeechesNA (accessed 23 March 2021)

    Wheeler, Q. (2020) A taxonomic renaissance in three acts. Megataxa, 1, 4–8.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/megataxa.1.1.2

    Wiklund, H., Glover, A.G. & Dahlgren, T.G. (2009) Three new species of Ophryotrocha (Annelida: Dorvilleidae) from a whale-fall in the North-East Atlantic. Zootaxa, 2228, 43–56.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2228.1.3

    Williams, B.W. & Weaver, P.G. (2019) Two new species of Xironogiton (Clitellata: Branchiobdellida) from western North America. Journal of Natural History, 53, 285–300.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222933.2019.1589009

    WoRMS Editorial Board (2021) World Register of Marine Species. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org at VLIZ. (accessed 05 April 2021).

    https://doi.org/10.14284/170

    Zverkov, O.A., Mikhailov, K.V., Isaev, S.V., Rusin, L.Y., Popova, O.V., Logacheva, M.D., Penin, A.A., Moroz, L.L., Panchin, Y.V., Lyubetsky, V.A. & Aleoshin, V.V. (2019) Dicyemida and Orthonectida: two stories of body plan simplification. Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 443.

    https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00443