Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2021-05-20

A new karst-dwelling, colorful pitviper (Viperidae: Trimeresurus) from northern Peninsular Thailand

Ranong Marine Fisheries Station, 157 Saphanpla Rd., Paknam, Muang, Ranong 85000, Thailand.
Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross Society, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium. opauwels@naturalsciences.be,
University of Phayao, Phayao, Thailand.
54 M. 2 Tha Pha, Ban Pong, Ratchaburi 70110, Thailand.
59 Soi Onnut 19 Suanluang, Bangkok 10250, Thailand. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7286-3604
Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross Society, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.
Reptilia Thai-Malay Peninsula Gulf of Thailand Trimeresurus kuiburi sp. nov. taxonomy limestone

Abstract

We describe a colorful and distinctively patterned, karst-dwelling pitviper, Trimeresurus kuiburi sp. nov., from the isolated, coastal massif of Khao Sam Roi Yot in Kui Buri District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, in northern Peninsular Thailand. The new species, member of the ‘Cryptelytrops group’ sensu Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) and morphologically and genetically allied to Trimeresurus kanburiensis and T. venustus, differs from all pitviper taxa by a combination of red/purple bands on a green dorsum; a white concave suborbital stripe in males (straight and less visible in females); white, spaced vertebral dots in males (absent in females); pale green belly lacking dark dots or stripe on the lateral sides of the ventrals; partially fused first supralabial and nasal scale; 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody; 164–171 ventrals; 63–65 subcaudals in males, 51–53 in females; maximal known SVL of 451 mm; and long, papillose hemipenes.

 

References

  1. Anonymous (2010) Venomous snakes of Thailand and the Red Cross Snake Farm & Institute in Bangkok. ACT Herpetological Association Newsletter, August–September, 2–3.

    Chan, K.O., Grismer, L.L., Shahrul, A., Quah, E., Grismer, J.L., Wood, P.L.Jr., Muin, M.A. & Norhayati, A. (2011) A new species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Perlis State Park in extreme northern Peninsular Malaysia with additional herpetofaunal records for the park. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 18 (4), 253–259.

    Chan-ard, T. (2002) Kheeowphetchakhat [Green killers]. Advanced Thailand Geographic, 7 (51), 114–132. [in Thai]

    Chan-ard, T., Grossmann, W., Gumprecht, A. & Schulz, K.-D. (1999) Amphibians and reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. An illustrated checklist. Amphibien und Reptilien der Halbinsel Malaysia und Thailands. Eine illustrierte Checkliste. Bushmaster Publications, Wuerselen, 240 pp.

    Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. (2015) A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, New York, xxix + 314 pp.

    Chandramouli, S.R., Campbell, P.D. & Vogel, G. (2020) A new species of green pit viper of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) from the Nicobar Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation, 14 (3), Taxonomy Section, e264, 169–176.

    Chanhome, L., Cox, M.J., Vasaruchapong, T., Chaiyabutr, N. & Sitprija, V. (2011) Characterization of venomous snakes of Thailand. Asian Biomedicine, 5 (3), 311–328.

    Chen, Z., Shi, S., Gao, J., Vogel, G., Song, Z., Ding, L. & Dai, R. (2020a) A new species of Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southwestern China, Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar. Asian Herpetological Research, 11 (4), 1–11.

    https://doi.org/ 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.200084

    Chen, Z., Yu, J., Vogel, G., Shi, S., Song, Z., Tang, Y., Yang, J., Ding, L. & Chen, C. (2020b) A new pit viper of the genus Trimeresurus (Lacépède, 1804) (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southwest China. Zootaxa, 4768 (1), 112–128.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4768.1.7

    Cox, M.J. (1991) The snakes of Thailand and their husbandry. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, xxxviii + 526 pp.

    Cox, M.J., Hoover, M.F., Chanhome, L. & Thirakhupt, K. (2012) The snakes of Thailand. Chulalongkorn University Museum of Zoology, Bangkok, xx + 845 pp.

    Cox, M.J., van Dijk, P.P., Nabhitabhata, J. & Thirakhupt, K. (1998) A photographic guide to snakes and other reptiles of Thailand and Southeast Asia. Asia Books, Bangkok, 144 pp.

    David, P., Cox, M.J., Pauwels, O.S.G., Chanhome, L. & Thirakhupt, K. (2004a) When a book review is not sufficient to say all: an in-depth analysis of a recent book on the snakes of Thailand, with an updated checklist of the snakes of the Kingdom. The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 4 (1), 47–80.

    David, P. & Vogel, G. (2000) On the occurrence of Trimeresurus albolabris (Gray 1842) on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Senckenbergiana biologica, 80 (1/2), 225–232.

    David, P. & Vogel, G. (2015) An updated list of Asian pitvipers and a selection of recent publications. In: Visser, D. (Ed.), Asian Pitvipers. Breeding experience & wildlife. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, pp. 545–565.

    David, P., Vogel, G. & Dubois, A. (2011) On the need to follow rigorously the rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa, 2992 (1), 1–51.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2992.1.1

    David, P., Vogel, G., Sumontha, M., Pauwels, O.S.G. & Chanhome, L. (2004b) Expanded description of the poorly known pitviper Trimeresurus kanburiensis Smith, 1943, with confirmation of the validity of Trimeresurus venustus Vogel, 1991 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Crotalidae). Russian Journal of Herpetology, 11 (2), 81–90.

    David, P., Vogel, G. & Vidal, N. (2003) On Trimeresurus fasciatus (Boulenger, 1896) (Serpentes: Crotalidae), with a discussion on its relationships based on morphological and molecular data. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 51 (1), 149–157.

    Dowling, H.G. (1951a) A proposed standard system of counting ventrals in snakes. British Journal of Herpetology, 1, 97–99.

    Dowling, H.G. (1951b) A proposed method of expressing scale reductions in snakes. Copeia, 2, 131–134.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1437542

    Fuchs, J., Bessire, K. & Weiler, S. (2019) A confirmed bite by a Beautiful Pit Viper (Trimeresurus venustus) resulting in local symptoms. Toxicon, 163, 44–47.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.03.019

    Grismer, L.L., Ngo, V.T. & Grismer, J.L. (2008) A new species of insular pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from southern Vietnam. Zootaxa, 1715 (1), 57–68.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1715.1.4

    Grismer, L.L., Youmans, T.M., Wood, P.L. Jr., Ponce, A., Wright, S.B., Jones, B.S., Johnson, R., Sanders, K.L., Gower, D.J., Yaakob, N.S. & Lim, K.K.P. (2006) Checklist of the herpetofauna of Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia, with comments on taxonomy. Hamadryad, 1 & 2, 61–74.

    Gumprecht, A. & Ryabov, S. (2002) Die Gattung Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 - Zu Kenntnisstand der Forschung. Draco, 12 (3), 31–44.

    Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

    Jintakune, P. (2000) Ngoophit nai Prathet Thai [Venomous snakes of Thailand]. Samnakphimmatichon, Bangkok, 176 pp. [in Thai]

    Jintakune, P. & Chanhome, L. (1995) Ngoophit nai Prathet Thai [Venomous snakes of Thailand]. Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Thai Red Cross, Bangkok, 175 pp. [in Thai]

    Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33 (7), 1870–1874.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msw054

    Kundert, F. (1984) De mysterieuze wereld van de slangen. Van Holema & Warendorf, Weesp, 39 pp., 132 pls.

    Lim, F.L.K. & Lee, M.T.-M. (1989) Fascinating snakes of Southeast Asia - an introduction. Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, xvii + 124 pp.

    Magalhães, A.L.B. & São Pedro, V.A. (2012) Illegal trade on non-native amphibians and reptiles in southeast Brazil: the status of e-commerce. Phyllomedusa, 11 (2), 155–160.

    https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-9079.v11i2p155-160

    Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. (2004a) A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pit vipers Trimeresurus and Ovophis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32, 83–100.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2004.02.008

    Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. (2004b) Reassessment of the validity and diagnosis of the pitviper Trimeresurus venustus Vogel, 1991. Herpetological Journal, 14, 21–33.

    Malhotra, A., Thorpe, R.S., Mrinalini & Stuart, B.L. (2011) Two new species of pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops Cope 1860 (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Southeast Asia. Zootaxa, 2757, 1–23.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2757.1.1

    Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. (1997) Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier - Verlag, Münster, 512 pp.

    McDiarmid, R.W., Campbell, J.A. & Touré, T.A. (1999) Snake species of the World; a taxonomic and geographic reference. Vol. 1. The Herpetologists’ League, Washington, 511 pp.

    Mirza, Z.A., Bhosale, H.S., Phansalkar, P.U., Sawant, M., Gowande, G.G. & Patel, H. (2020) A new species of green pit vipers of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Viperidae) from western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Zoosystematics and Evolution, 96 (1), 123–138.

    https://doi.org/10.3897/zse.96.48431

    Nabhitabhata, J. (1989) Species diversity of Thai herpetofauna. In: Biodiversity in Thailand. Biological Science Seminar 7. Chiang Mai University & Science Society of Thailand, Bangkok, pp. 169–204. [in Thai, English summary]

    Nutphand, W. (2001) Patterns of the snakes in Thailand. Amarin Printing and Publishing Public Co. Ltd., Bangkok, 319 pp. [in Thai]

    Oliveri, M., Čermáková, E. & Knotek, Z. (2016) The viper fangs: clinical anatomy, principles of physical examination and therapy (a review). Acta Veterinaria Brno, 85, 247–250.

    https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201685030247

    O’Shea, M. (2013) The trouble with Trims! The Herptile, 38 (1), 18–23.

    Parr, J.W.K., Mahannop, N. & Charoensiri, V. (1993) Khao Sam Roi Yot—one of the World’s most threatened parks. Oryx, 27 (4), 245–249.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605300028167

    Pauwels, O.S.G. (2008) Book review. Venomous snakes of Asia. Giftschlangen Asiens. Hamadryad, 33, 130–132.

    Pauwels, O.S.G., Chomngam, N., Larsen, H. & Sumontha, M. (2020) A new limestone-dwelling leaf-toed gecko (Gekkonidae: Dixonius) from coastal hills in Cha-am, peninsular Thailand. Zootaxa, 4845 (1), 97–108.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4845.1.7

    Pauwels, O.S.G., Larsen, H., Suthanthangjai, W., David, P. & Sumontha, M. (2017) A new kukri snake (Colubridae: Oligodon) from Hua Hin District, and the first record of O. deuvei from Thailand. Zootaxa, 4291 (3), 531–548.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4291.3.6

    Pauwels, O.S.G. & Sumontha, M. (2014) Cyrtodactylus samroiyot, a new limestone-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, peninsular Thailand. Zootaxa, 3755 (6), 573–583.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3755.6.4

    Pauwels, O.S.G., Sumontha, M., Latinne, A. & Grismer, L.L. (2013) Cyrtodactylus sanook (Squamata: Gekkonidae), a new cave-dwelling gecko from Chumphon Province, southern Thailand. Zootaxa, 3635 (3), 275–285.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3635.3.7

    Quah, E.S.H. & Shahrul, A.M.S. (2018) Herpetofauna of the northern corridor: a review of recent herpetological discoveries around the Malaysian-Thai border regions. Journal of Wildlife and Parks, 33, 15–29.

    Sanders, K.L., Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. (2006) Evidence for a Müllerian mimetic radiation in Asian pitvipers. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 273, 1135–1141.

    https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3418

    Sawasdee, C., Phongkhieo, N.T. & Nieamsup, T. (2012) Bird conservation behavior of local people within the communities surrounding Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 33 (3), 419–428. [in Thai, English summary]

    Sumontha, M., Chomngam, N., Phanamphon, E., Pawangkhanant, P., Viriyapanon, C., Thanaprayotsak, W. & Pauwels, O.S.G. (2017a) A new limestone-dwelling leaf-toed gecko (Gekkonidae: Dixonius) from Khao Sam Roi Yot massif, peninsular Thailand. Zootaxa, 4247 (5), 556–568.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4247.5.2

    Sumontha, M., Kunya, K., Dangsri, S. & Pauwels, O.S.G. (2017b) Oligodon saiyok, a new limestone-dwelling kukri snake (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Zootaxa, 4294 (3), 316–328.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4294.3.2

    Sumontha, M., Kunya, K., Pauwels, O.S.G., Nitikul, A. & Punnadee, S. (2011) Trimeresurus (Popeia) phuketensis, a new pitviper (Squamata: Viperidae) from Phuket Island, southwestern Thailand. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 18 (3), 185–194.

    Sumontha, M., Vasararuchapong, T., Chomngam, N., Suntrarachun, S., Pawangkhanant, P., Sompan, W., Smits, T., Kunya, K. & Chanhome, L. (2020) Protobothrops kelomohy sp. nov. (Squamata: Viperidae), the second known species of Lance-headed Pit Viper from Thailand. Tropical Natural History, 20 (1), 43–59.

    Surakiatchai, P., Choowong, M., Charusiri, P., Charoentitirat, T., Chawchai, S., Pailoplee, S., Chabangborn, A., Phantuwongraj, S., Chutakositkanon, V., Kongsen, S., Nimnate, P. & Bissen, R. (2018) Paleogeographic reconstruction and history of the sea level change at Sam Roi Yot National Park, Gulf of Thailand. Tropical Natural History, 18 (2), 112–134.

    Suteparuk, S. & Vasaruchapong, T. (2016) A report of a confirmed case of Beautiful pit viper (Trimeresurus venustus) bite. 15th Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology International Scientific Conference, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, 17–20 November 2016, poster.

    Tanabe, A.S. (2011) Kakusan4 and Aminosan: two programs for comparing nonpartitioned, proportional and separate models for combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of multilocus sequence data. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11 (5), 914–921.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03021.x

    Thumwipat, B. & Nutphand, W. (1982) Treatment of patients bitten by venomous snakes and venomous snakes of Thailand. Thai Zoological Center, Bangkok, viii + 162 pp. [in Thai]

    Visser, D. (2015) Asian Pitvipers. Breeding experience & wildlife. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 576 pp.

    Vogel, G. (1991) Eine neue Trimeresurus-Art aus Thailand, Trimeresurus venustus sp. nov. (Reptilia: Serpentes: Crotalidae). Sauria, 13 (1), 23–28.

    Vogel, G. (2006) Venomous snakes of Asia. Giftschlangen Asiens. Terralog 14, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 148 pp.

    Vogel, G., David, P. & Chandramouli, S.R. (2014) On the systematics of Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner, 1867, a pitviper from the Nicobar Islands (India), with revalidation of Trimeresurus mutabilis Stoliczka, 1870 (Squamata, Viperidae, Crotalinae). Zootaxa, 3786 (5), 557–573.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3786.5.4

    Vogel, G., David, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G. (2004) A review of morphological variation in Trimeresurus popeiorum (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species. Zootaxa, 727 (1), 1–63.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.727.1.1

    Warrell, D.A., Looareesuwan, S., Stimson, A.F. & Hutton, R.A. (1992) Rediscovery and redefinition of Malcolm Smith’s Trimeresurus kanburiensis in Thailand, with a report of envenoming. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 86, 95–99.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(92)90461-K

    Wood, P.L.Jr., Grismer, L.L., Aowphol, A., Aguilar, C.A., Cota, M., Grismer, M.S., Murdoch, M.L. & Sites, J.W. (2017) Three new karst-dwelling Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata; Gekkoniade [sic]) from Peninsular Thailand and the phylogenetic placement of C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri. PeerJ, 5, e2884.

    https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2884