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Type: Article
Published: 2021-03-26
Page range: 499–520
Abstract views: 181
PDF downloaded: 12

Two new annual fishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) unexpectedly discovered in the highlands of southern Brazil

Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS). Laboratório de Ecologia e Conservação de Ecossistemas Aquáticos (LECEA), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia—Diversidade e Manejo da Vida Silvestre. Av. Unisinos, 950, Bairro Cristo Rei, CEP 93022-000, São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Instituto Pró-Pampa (IPPampa). Rua Uruguay, 1242. Bairro Centro, CEP 96010-630, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 3Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS). Laboratório de Fisiologia da Conservação, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução da Biodiversidade. Avenida Ipiranga, 6681. Bairro Partenon, CEP 90619-900, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Instituto Pró-Pampa (IPPampa). Rua Uruguay, 1242. Bairro Centro, CEP 96010-630, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS). Laboratório de Ecologia e Conservação de Ecossistemas Aquáticos (LECEA), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia—Diversidade e Manejo da Vida Silvestre. Av. Unisinos, 950, Bairro Cristo Rei, CEP 93022-000, São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Pisces Acrolebias killifish temporary wetlands high-altitude grasslands


Two new species of Austrolebias are described based on specimens collected from temporary pools located in natural grassland landscape within the Araucaria Forest domain at exceptionally high altitudes (~1000 meters a.s.l.). Austrolebias botocudo sp. n. and Austrolebias nubium sp. n. occur, respectively, in drainages of upper rio Apuaê-Inhandava (upper rio Uruguay basin) and upper rio Taquari-Antas (upper rio Jacuí, Laguna dos Patos basin), in the Meridional Plateau of southern Brazil. Despite an intensive survey conducted in the area, only two populations of each species were recorded. Both new species occurs at altitudes that are among the higher recorded for species of the genus, and both are assigned to the subgenus Acrolebias. The new species described herein are easily distinguished for its congeners by the colour pattern of males, by presence of melanophores irregularly distributed in different parts of the body, contact organs cover the body and anal fins, position of fins related with vertebrae, by preopercular and mandibular series of neuromasts united, by a series of morphometric features and by larger maximum standard length. Austrolebias botocudo and A. nubium are distinguished from each other by colour pattern of males, length of contact organs in the flank and number of contact organs in scales of lateral line, dorsal profile of head, number of neuromasts in the preopercular + mandibular series, body depth in females, and by basihyal cartilage length. Additionally, we discuss the conservation status of the new species, and provided an identification key for the species of the subgenus Acrolebias.



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