Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2021-02-10
Page range: 547–558
Abstract views: 118
PDF downloaded: 64

The larvae of Chinese Hydropsychidae (Insecta: Trichoptera), Part II: Potamyia chinensis and Cheumatopsyche trifascia

College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 100193.
Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 100193.
caddisfly life-stage association China DNA barcoding COI 28S D2 Trichoptera


The larvae of Chinese caddisflies Potamyia chinensis and Cheumatopsyche trifascia were successfully associated with identifiable adults using independent DNA markers, mitochondrial COI barcodes and nuclear ribosomal 28S D2 genes. A total of 49 specimens collected in China were employed in the molecular analyses. The two markers were congruent on species boundaries for 11 distinctive haplogroups, while D2 failed in differentiating two closely related species. A brief summary for larval studies of both genera is given, followed by an introduction to the generic morphological characteristics, and detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the two successfully associated species. The larva of P. chinensis is re-described here based on Chinese materials, following the previous larval description for P. echigoensis, which was recently synonymized with P. chinensis.


  1. Banks, N. (1900) New genera and species of Nearctic neuropteroid insects. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 26, 239–260.

    Dudgeon, D. (1997) Life histories, secondary production and microdistribution of hydropsychid caddisflies (Trichoptera) in a tropical forest stream. Journal of Zoology, 243, 191–210.

    Dudgeon, D. (1999) Tropical Asian streams: Zoobenthos, ecology and conservation. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong, 844 pp.

    Erasmus, D.J., Yurkowski, E.A. & Huber, D.P.W. (2018) DNA barcode-based survey of Trichoptera in the Crooked River reveals three new species records for British Columbia. PeerJ, 6 (e4221), 15.

    Ge, X., Wang, Y., Wang, B. & Sun, C. (2020) Descriptions of larvae of three species of Hydropsyche Pictet 1834 (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) from China. Zootaxa, 4858 (3), 358–374.

    Geraci, C.J., Al-Saffar, M.A. & Zhou, X. (2011) DNA barcoding facilitates description of unknown faunas: A case study on Trichoptera in the headwaters of the Tigris River, Iraq. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 30 (1), 163–173.

    Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L. & deWaard, J.R. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270 (1512), 313–321.

    Hjalmarsson, A.E., Graf, W., Jähnig, S.C., Vitecek, S. & Pauls, S.U. (2018) Molecular association and morphological characterisation of Himalopsyche larval types (Trichoptera, Rhyacophilidae). ZooKeys, 773, 79–108.

    Hoang, D.T., Chernomor, O., Haeseler, A. von, Minh, B.Q. & Vinh, L.S. (2017) UFBoot2: Improving the ultrafast bootstrap approximation. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 35 (2), 518–522.

    Hu, Y., Wang, B. & Sun, C. (2018) A new species of Chimarra from China (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) with description of its larva. Zootaxa, 4504 (2), 253–260.

    Hu, Y., Tsring, S., Wang, B. & Sun, C. (2020) Descriptions of larvae of three Philopotamidae species from China (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zootaxa, 4731 (4), 509–521.

    Kalyaanamoorthy, S., Minh, B.Q., Wong, T.K.F., Haeseler, A. von & Jermiin, L.S. (2017) ModelFinder: Fast model selection for accurate phylogenetic estimates. Nature Methods, 14, 587–589.

    Li, Y. & Dudgeon, D. (1988) Four new species of the genus Cheumatopsyche from China (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 11, 41–45.

    Minh, B.Q., Schmidt, H.A., Chernomor, O., Schrempf, D., Woodhams, M.D., Haeseler, von, A. & Lanfear, R. (2020) IQ-TREE 2: New models and efficient methods for phylogenetic inference in the genomic era. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 37, 1530–1534.

    Morinière, J., Hendrich, L., Balke, M., Beermann, A.J., König, T., Hess, M., Koch, S., Müller, R., Leese, F., Hebert, P.D.N., Hausmann, A., Schubart, C.D. & Haszprunar, G. (2017) A DNA barcode library for Germany′s mayflies, stoneflies and caddisflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera). Molecular Ecology Resources 17, 1293–1307.

    Oláh, J., Barnard, P.C. & Malicky, H. (2006) A revision of the lotic genus Potamyia BANKS 1900 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) with the description of eight new species. Linzer Biologische Beiträge, 38 (1), 739–777.

    Oláh, J., Morse, J.C. & Sun, C. (2008) Status of four Chinese species of Hydropsychinae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Braueria, 35, 9–10.

    Pauls, S.U., Blahnik, R.J., Blahnik, R.J., Zhou, X., Wardwell, C.T. & Holzenthal, R.W. (2010) DNA barcode data confirm new species and reveal cryptic diversity in Chilean Smicridea (Smicridea) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29 (3), 1058–1074.

    Ross, H.H. (1941) Descriptions and records of North American Trichoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 67, 35–126.

    Ruiter, D.E., Boyle, E.E. & Zhou, X. (2013) DNA barcoding facilitates associations and diagnoses for Trichoptera larvae of the Churchill (Manitoba, Canada) area. BMC Ecology, 13, 5.

    Ross, H.H. (1944) The caddis flies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey, 23 (1), 1–326.

    Ross, H.H. (1959) Trichoptera. In: Edmondson, W.T. & Ward, H.B. (Eds.), Freshwater Biology. 2nd Edition. Wiley, New York, pp. 1024–1049.

    Schefter, P.W. & Wiggins, G.B. (1987) Setal characters in larval diagnosis for some Nearctic species of Cheumatopsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). In: Bournaud, M. & Tachet, H. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, pp. 39–42.

    Schmid, F. (1965) Quelques Trichopteres de Chine II. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 16 (1–2), 127–154.

    Scott, K.M.F. (1983) On the Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera) of Southern Africa with keys to African genera of imagos, larvae and pupae and species lists. Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History), 14, 299–422.

    Sun, C.H., Yang, L.F. & Morse, J.C. (2009) A new record genus and two new species of Arctopsychinae (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) from China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 34 (4), 912–916.

    Statzner, B. (1984) Keys to adult and immature Hydropsychinae in the Ivory Coast (West-Africa) with notes on their taxonomy and distribution (Insecta: Trichoptera). Spixiana, 7, 23–50.

    Tanida, K. (2005) Family Arctopsychidae and Family Hydropsychidae. In: Kawai, T. & Tanida, K. (Eds.), Aquatic Insects of Japan: Manual with Keys and Illustrations. Tokai University Press, Hadano, Kanagawa, pp. 478–492.

    Tian, L., Yang, L. & Li, Y. (1996) Economic Insect Fauna of China, Fasc. 49: Trichoptera (1): Hydroptilidae, Stenopsychidae, Hydropychidae, Leptoceridae. Science Press, Beijing, 196 pp.

    Tsuda, M. (1949) Zwei neue Hydropsyche-Arten (Trichoptera) aus Japan. Transactions of the Kansai Entomological Society, 14, 20–22.

    Ulmer, G. (1915) Trichopteren des Ostens, besonders von Ceylon und Neu-Guinea. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1, 41–75.

    Wallengren, H.D.J. (1891) Skandinaviens Neuroptera, andra afdelningen, Neuroptera Trichoptera (Phryganea L.). Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, 24 (10), 1–173.

    Wiggins, G.B. (1996) Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), Second Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, 457 pp.

    Xie, Y., Xu, J., Wang, B. & Sun, C. (2017) Descriptions of pupae of two Hydropsyche species from China (Insecta, Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae). Zootaxa, 4341 (4), 539–553.

    Xu, J., Sun, C. & Wang, B. (2015) A new species of Stenopsyche, with descriptions of larvae and females of some species associated by gene sequences (Insecta: Trichoptera). Zootata, 4057 (1), 63–78.

    Xu, J., Sun, C. & Wang, B. (2018) Descriptions of larvae of three species of Hydropsyche (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) from China. Zootaxa, 4374 (1), 1–24.

    Yang, L., Sun, C. & Morse, J.C. (2016) An amended checklist of the caddisflies of China (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zoosymposia, 10, 451–479.

    Zhou, X. (2009) The larvae of Chinese Hydropsychidae (Insecta: Trichoptera), Part I: Arctopsyche shimianensis, Parapsyche sp. A, and Diplectrona obscura. Zootaxa, 2174 (1), 1–17.

    Zhou, X., Kjer, K.M. & Morse, J.C. (2007) Associating larvae and adults of Chinese Hydropsychidae caddisflies (Insecta:Trichoptera) using DNA sequences. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 26, 719–742.

    Zhou, X., Adamowicz, S.J., Jacobus, L.M., DeWalt, R.E. & Hebert, P.D. (2009) Towards a comprehensive barcode library for arctic life - Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Frontiers in Zoology, 6 (1), 30.

    Zhou, X., Jacobus, L.M., DeWalt, R.E., Adamowicz, S.J. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2010) Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera fauna of Churchill (Manitoba, Canada): insights into biodiversity patterns from DNA barcoding. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 814–837.

    Zhou, X., Robinson, J.L., Geraci, C.J., Parker, C.R., Flint, O.S. Jr., Etnier, D.A., Ruiter, D., DeWalt, R.E., Jacobus, L.M. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2011) Accelerated construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library: caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 30, 131–162.

    Zhou, X., Frandsen, P.B., Holzenthal, R.W., Beet, C.R., Bennett, K.R., Blahnik, R.J., Bonada, N., Cartwright, D., Chuluunbat, S., Cocks, G.V., Collins, G.E., deWaard, J., Dean, J., Flint, O.S., Jr., Hausmann, A., Hendrich, L., Hess, M., Hogg, I.D., Kondratieff, B.C., Malicky, H., Milton, M.A., Morinière, J., Morse, J.C., Mwangi, F.N., Pauls, S.U., Gonzalez, M.R., Rinne, A., Robinson, J.L., Salokannel, J., Shackleton, M., Smith, B., Stamatakis, A., StClair, R., Thomas, J.A., Zamora-Muñoz, C., Ziesmann, T. & Kjer, K.M. (2016) The Trichoptera barcode initiative: a strategy for generating a species-level Tree of Life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371, 20160025.