Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2020-12-15

Review of the genus Shilovia Makarchenko (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae: Boreoheptagyiini) from the mountains of Central Asia, with morphological description and DNA barcoding of known species

1Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 100 let Vladivostoku 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia.
Laboratory of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Aquatic Organisms, Far Eastern Federal University, Suhanova St. 8, 690950 Vladivostok, Russia.
A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskij prosp. 33, 119071 Moscow, Russia.
Diptera Chironomidae Diamesinae Boreoheptagyiini Shilovia taxonomy new species DNA barcoding Central Asia


Chironomids of the genus Shilovia Makarchenko (Diamesinae, Boreoheptagyiini) from the mountains of Central Asia are revised using both morphological characters and molecular data. Illustrated descriptions of the adult male Shilovia xinhuawangi sp. nov. from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, S. yakovlevi sp. nov. from East Kazakhstan and redescription of S. rara Makarchenko from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are provided. The result of morphological study is congruent with DNA barcoding analyses using COI sequences. The average K2P interspecific nucleotide distances within S. xinhuawangi sp. nov. and S. yakovlevi sp. nov. are 0.03% and 0.3% respectively. The nucleotide distances between the two new species and S. rara can be considered interspecific. Phylogenetic analysis using Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferences (BI) support the placement of S. xinhuawangi sp. nov. and S. yakovlevi sp. nov. within the monophyletic genus Shilovia.



  1. Ashe, P. & O’Connor, J. P. (2009) A World Catalogue of Chironomidae (Diptera). Part 1. Buchonomyiinae, Chilenomyiinae, Podonominae, Aphroteniinae, Tanypodinae, Usambaromyiinae, Diamesinae, Prodiamesinae and Telmatogetoninae. Irish Biogeographical Society & National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, 445 pp.

    Edgar, R.C. (2004) MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32, 792–1797.

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

    Hasegawa, M., Kishino, H. & Yano, T. (1985) Dating of the human-ape splitting by a molecular clock of mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 22, 160–174.

    Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33 (7), 1870–1874.

    Lanfear, R., Calcott, B., Ho, S.Y. & Guindon, S. (2012) Partitionfinder: combined selection of partitioning schemes and substitution models for phylogenetic analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29 (6), 1695–1701.

    Makarchenko, E.A. (1989) New genus and species of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tajikistan. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 68 (12), 137–142. [in Russian.]

    Makarchenko, E.A. (1994) Chironomids of the subfamily Diamesinae (Diptera Chironomidae) from Japan. III. Boreoheptagyia unica sp.n. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan, Series A, 20 (2), 87–90.

    Makarchenko, E.A., Endo, K., Wu, J. & Wang, X. (2008) A review of Boreoheptagyia Brundin, 1966 (Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from East Asia and bordering territories, with the description of five new species. Zootaxa, 1817 (1), 1–17.

    Makarchenko, E.A. & Semenchenko, A.A. (2014) Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Linevitshia prima Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from Amur River basin (Russian Far East), with notes on systematics of the genus. Zootaxa, 3872 (4), 355–364.

    Makarchenko, E.A., Semenchenko, A.A. & Palatov, D.M. (2017) Review of subfamily Diamesinae (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tien Shan and Pamir mountains. Lencioni V. (Ed.), 20th International Symposium on Chironomidae. Abstract Book of the 20th International Symposium on ChironomidaeMUSE—Museo delle Scienze, Trento, Italy, 2–8 July 2017, pp. 36.

    Makarchenko, E.A., Semenchenko, A.A., Kang, H. & Bae, Y.J. (2018) Morphological redescription and DNA barcoding of Kaluginia lebetiformis Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae, Diamesinae) from South Korea. Far Eastern Entomologist, 367, 26–32.

    Makarchenko, E.A., Rumyantseva, A. Yu. & Yavorskaya, N.M. (2020a) New data on taxonomy and distribution of Kaluginia lebetiformis Makarchenko, 1987 (Diptera: Chironomidae, Diamesinae) from East Asia. Far Eastern Entomologist, 399, 19–28.

    Makarchenko, E.A., Semenchenko, A.A. & Palatov, D.M. (2020b) Taxonomy of some Boreoheptagyiini Brundin (Diptera: Chironomidae: Diamesinae) from the mountains of Central Asia and the Middle East, with description and DNA barcoding of new taxa. Zootaxa, 4790 (1), 91–107.

    Moubayed, J. & Langton, P.H. (2019) Chaetocladius berythensis sp.n ., C. callauensis sp.n ., C. guardiolei sp.n. and C. parerai sp.n., four relict species inhabiting glacial springs and streams in Eastern Pyrenees and Lebanon (Diptera: Chironomidae). CHIRONOMUS Journal of Chironomidae Research, 32, 42–59.

    Montagna, M., Mereghetti, V., Lencioni, V. & Rossaro, B. (2016) Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). PLoS ONE, 11 (3), e0149673.

    Rambaut, A., Drummond, A.J., Xie, D., Baele, G. & Suchard, M.A. (2018) Posterior summarisation in Bayesian phylogenetics using Tracer 1.7. Systematic Biology, 67 (5), 901–904.

    Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., Mark, P.V.D., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space. Systematic Biology, 61, 539–542.

    Rossaro, B. (2017) Boreoheptagyia ortladamellica sp. nov. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Italian Alps. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 49 (6860), 77–80.

    Sæther, O.A. (1980) Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera, Chironomidae). Entomologica scandinavica, Supplement 14, 1–51.

    Sæther, O.A., Ashe, P. & Murray, D.A. (2000) Family Chironomidae. In: Papp, L. & Darvas, B. (Eds.), Contributions to a manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to the flies of economic importance). Appendix. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 113–334.

    Stamatakis, A. (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics, 22, 2688–2690.

    Zharkikh, A.J. (1994) Estimation of evolutionary distances between nucleotide sequences. Molecular Evolution, 39, 315.