Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2020-12-15

New and little-known sun-moth species from Australia (Lepidoptera, Castniidae)

University of Melbourne, School of BioSciences, Parkville, 3000 Victoria, Australia.
CSIRO, Australian National Insect Collection, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, 2601 ACT, Australia.
Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Biodiversity and Conservation Science, Woodvale Research Centre, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, Western Australia.
Lepidoptera Synemon Cossoidea Cyperaceae Restionaceae Ecdeiocoleaceae Western Australia

Abstract

In this study, we designate lectotypes and fix the identities of two Australian Castniidae species, Synemon sophia (White, 1841), the type species of Synemon Doubleday, 1846, and Synemon parthenoides R. Felder, 1874. Furthermore, we describe seven new species of Castniidae from Western Australia, two new species of the Synemon sophia group, Synemon anthracica Kallies & Edwards sp. n. and Synemon crocea Kallies & Edwards sp. n., three species in the Synemon magnifica Strand, 1911 group, Synemon semaphora Kallies & Edwards sp. n., Synemon angustiptera Kallies & Edwards sp. n. and Synemon petrophila Kallies & Edwards sp. n., one new species of unclear affinity, Synemon cacumina Kallies & Edwards sp. n., and one new species related to Synemon directa Westwood, 1877, Synemon victoriae Kallies & Edwards sp. n. We report Restionaceae, a host-plant family not previously recorded for Castniidae.

 

References

  1. Aflalo, F.G. (1896) A Sketch of the Natural History of Australia with some Notes on Sport. Macmillan & Co., London, xxv + 307 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.69508

    Boisduval, J.-A. (1875) Sphingides, Sésiides, Castniides. In: Boisduval, J.-A. & Guenée, A. (Eds.), Histoire Naturelle des Insectes. Species General des Lépidoptères Hétérocères. Vol. 1. Librarie Encyclopedique de Roret, Paris, pp. 1–568, 11 pls.

    Braby, M.F., Edwards, E.D. & Williams, A.A.E. (2020) A new species of sun-moth, Synemon kimberleyensis sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae), from the Kimberley in Western Australia. Journal of the Lepidopterist’s Society, 74 (1), 31–42.

    https://doi.org/10.18473/lepi.74i1.a4

    Butler, A.G. (1877) Illustrations of Typical Specimens of Lepidoptera Heterocera in the Collection of the British Museum. Pt. I. British Museum (Natural History), London, xiii + 62 pp., 20 pls.

    Common, I.F.B. (1970) Lepidoptera (Moths and butterflies). In: Mackerras, I.M. (Ed.), Insects of Australia. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 765–866, pls. 7 + 8.

    Common, I.F.B. (1974) Lepidoptera (Moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO (Ed.), The Insects of Australia. Supplement 1974. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, pp. 98–107.

    Common, I.F.B. (1990) Moths of Australia. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, 32 pls., 535 pp.

    Common, I.F.B. & Edwards, E.D. (1981) The Life History and Early Stages of Synemon magnifica Strand (Lepidoptera: Castniidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 20, 295–302.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-6055.1981.tb01050.x

    D’Abrera, B. (1974) Moths of Australia. Lansdowne Press, Melbourne, 79 pp.

    Dalla Torre, K.W. von (1913) Castniidae: Subfam. Castniinae, Neocastniinae, Pemphigostolinae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, 15, 1–28.

    Doubleday, E. (1846) Descriptions of some New or Imperfectly Characterized Lepidoptera from Australia. In: Stokes, J.L., Discoveries in Australia; with an Account of the Coasts and Rivers Explored and Surveyed during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, in the Years 1837–38–39–40–41–42–43 by Command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. Also a Narrative of Captain Owen Stanley’s Visits to the Islands in the Arafura Sea. Vol. 1. Appendix. T. & W. Boone, London, pp. 513–520, pl. 3.

    Douglas, F. (1993) The Conservation Status, Distribution and Habitat Requirements of Diurnal Lepidoptera in Central and Western Victoria. Part 1. Family Castniidae. Report of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, East Melbourne, Victoria. [unknown pagination]

    Douglas, F. (2008) The sun-moths (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) of Victoria, with a detailed study of the pale sun-moth (Synemon selene Klug, 1850). Master of Applied Science Thesis. University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria, 323 pp.

    Edwards, E.D. (1996) Castniidae. In: Nielsen, E.S., Edwards, E.D. & Rangsi, T.V. (Eds.), Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, pp. 138.

    Edwards, E.D. (1997) Castniidae and the Republic. ANIC News, 11, 8–9.

    https://doi.org/10.22498/pages.5.1.11b

    Edwards, E.D., Gentili, P., Horak, M., Kristensen, N.P. & Nielsen, E.S. (1998) 11. The Cossoid/Sesioid Assemblage. In: Kristensen, N.P. (Ed.), Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, systematics and biogeography. Handbook of Zoology, 4 (35). Lepidoptera. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 181–197.

    Felder, R. (1874) In: Felder, R. & Rogenhofer, A.F., 1874–75. Lepidoptera. Heft IV. V. Atlas der Heterocera Sphingida—Noctuida. Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Band 2. Abtheilung 2. Kaiserlich-K, Wien, pp. i–vi + 1–10 + 1–20, 140 pls.

    Fletcher, D.S. & Nye, I.W.B. (1982) Bombycoidea, Castnioidea, Cossoidea, Mimallonoidea, Sesioidea, Sphingoidea, Zygaenoidea. In: Nye, I.W.B. (Ed.), The generic names of moths of the world. Vol. 4. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. i–xiv + 1–192, frontispiece.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.119597

    Froggatt, W.W. (1907) Australian Insects. William Brooks & Co., Sydney, xiv + 449 pp., 38 pls.

    Grund, R. (2011) A new species of Synemon Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) from the Colona Plains, South Australia. Australian Entomologist, 38 (4), 167–178.

    Grund, R. & Stolarski, A. (2012) Taxonomy and biology of Synemon discalis Strand and S. parthenoides R. Felder (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) in South Australia. Australian Entomologist, 39 (3), 121–160.

    Grund, R., Stolarski, A. & Stevens, M. (2018) Rediscovery of Synemon selene (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) in the mid-north of South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 143, 86–91.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/03721426.2018.1532270

    Guest, E. (1886) Remarks on the Nomenclature of some of the South Australian Butterflies with Observations. Transactions, Proceedings and Report, Royal Society of South Australia. Adelaide, 8, 60–62.

    Heikkila, M., Mutanen, M., Wahlberg, N., Sihvonen, P. & Kaila, L. (2015) Elusive ditrysian phylogeny: an account of combining systematized morphology with molecular data (Lepidoptera). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15, 260.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-015-0520-0

    Horn, W. & Kahle, I. (1936) Über Entomologische Sammlungen, Entomologen & Entomo-Museologie (Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Entomologie). Entomologische Beihefte aus Berlin-Dahlem, 3, 161–296, tafeln xvii–xxvi.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-47338-8_25

    Kallies, A., Edwards, T., Young, A. & Douglas, F. (2016) Synemon ignita sp. nov., a new sun moth species from southern Australia (Lepidoptera, Castniidae). Zootaxa, 4092 (3), 436–444.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4092.3.1

    Kallies, A. & Edwards, T. (2018) A new sun moth species from the Flinders Ranges in South Australia (Lepidoptera, Castniidae). Zootaxa, 4369 (2), 292–300.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4369.2.9

    Kawahara, A.Y., Plotkin, D., Espeland, M., Meusemann, K., Toussaint, E.F.A., Donath, A., Gimnich, F., Frandsen, P.B., Zwick, A., Dos Reis, M., Barber, J.R., Peters R.S., Liu, S., Zhou, X, Mayer, C., Podsiadlowski, L., Storer C., Yack, J.E., Misof, B. & Breinholt, J.W. (2019) Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, 22657–22663.

    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1907847116

    Kirby, W.F. (1885) Elementary Text-book of Entomology. W. Swan Sonnenschein and Co., London, 240 pp., 87 pls.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.29217

    Kirby, W.F. (1892) A Synonymic Catalogue of Lepidoptera Heterocera. (Moths). 1 Sphinges and Bombyces. Gurney & Jackson, London, xii + 951 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.9152

    Klug, [J.C.F.] (1850) Über die Lepidopteren-Gattung Synemon. Nebst einem Nachtrage über Castniae. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1848, 245–257, 1 pl.

    Laithwaite, E., Watson, A. & Whalley, P.E.S. (1975) The Dictionary of Butterflies and Moths in Colour. Michael Joseph, London, xlvi + 296 pp., 405 pls.

    Lower, O.B. (1892) Scientific Results of the Elder Exploring Expedition. Lepidoptera. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 16, 10–15.

    Lower, O.B. (1893) A Catalogue of Victorian Heterocera. Part 1. The Victorian Naturalist, 10, 12–15.

    McKeown, K.C. (1942) Australian Insects. An Introductory Handbook. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney, 304 pp.

    McQuillan, P.B. & Forrest, J.A. (1985) A Guide to Common Moths of the Adelaide Region. v+52 pp. Special Educational Bulletin Series, South Australian Museum, Adelaide.

    Miller, J.Y. (1986) The Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of the Neotropical Moth Subfamily Castniinae (Lepidoptera: Castnioidea: Castniidae). PhD Thesis. UMI Dissertation Information Service,University of Florida, Ann Arbor, 569 pp.

    Mutanen, M., Wahlberg, N. & Kaila, L. (2010) Comprehensive gene and taxon coverage elucidates radiation patterns in moths and butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B: Biological Sciences, 277 (1695), 28392848.

    http://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0392

    Nielsen, E.S. (1999) Systematics and Conservation. In: Ponder, W. & Lunney, D. (Eds.), The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 1999, pp. 166–173.

    https://doi.org/10.7882/RZSNSW.1999.028

    Riley, N.D. (1964) The Department of Entomology of the British Museum (Natural History) 1904-1964. A Brief Historical Sketch. The XIIth International Congress of Entomology, London, 1964, 1–48.

    Rothschild, M. (1983) Dear Lord Rothschild. Birds, Butterflies and History. Hutchinson, London, xx + 398 pp.

    Stearn, W.T. (1981) The Natural History Museum at South Kensington. A History of the British Museum (Natural History) 1753–1980. Heinemann, London, xxiii + 413 pp.

    https://doi.org/10.3366/anh.1981.002

    Strand, E. (1911a) CastniidaeIn: Seitz, A. (Ed.), The Macrolepidoptera of the World. 10. Bombyces and Sphinges of the Indo-Australian Region. 2 Vols. Alfred Kernen Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 1–4, pls. 1 + 9.

    Strand, E. (1911b) Die Indisch-australischen Castniiden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 77, 137–158.

    Stretch, R.H. (1875) Remarks on the Synonymy of the Atlas of the Heterocera Sphingida and Noctuida, Published as a Portion of the Results of the Voyage of the Frigate Novara, November, 1874. Cistula Entomologica, 2, 11–19.

    Swinhoe, C. (1892) Catalogue of Eastern and Australian Lepidoptera Heterocera in the Collection of the Oxford University Museum. Part 1. Sphinges and Bombyces. Claredon Press, Oxford, viii + 324 pp., 8 pls.

    Tepper, J.G.O. (1890) Common Native Insects of South Australia. A Popular Guide to South Australian Entomology. Part II. Lepidoptera, or Butterflies and Moths. E.S. Wigg & Son, Adelaide, iv + 65 pp.

    Tindale, N.B. (1928) Preliminary Note on the Life History of Synemon (Lepidoptera, Fam. Castniidae). Records and Supplements of Western Australian Museum, 4, 143–144.

    Tregenza, J. (1980) George French Angas. Artist, Traveller and Naturalist 1822–1886. Art Gallery Board of South Australia, Adelaide, 88 pp.

    Walker, F. (1854) List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Lepidoptera Heterocera, 1, 1–278.

    Walker, F. (1856) List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Lepidoptera Heterocera, 7, 1509–1808.

    Westwood, J.O. (1877) A Monograph of the Lepidopterous Genus Castnia and some Allied Groups. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology, 1, 155–207, pls. 28–33.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1877.tb00437.x

    White, A. (1841) Notes on some Insects from King George’s Sound, Collected and Presented by Captain George Grey. In: Grey, G. (Ed.), Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in North-west and Western Australia, during the Years 1837, 38, and 39, under the Authorship of Her Majesty’s Government. Describing Many Newly Discovered, Important, and Fertile Districts, with Observations on the Moral and Physical Condition of the Aboriginal Inhabitants, &c &c. Vol 2. Appendix. T. and W. Boone, London, pp. 450–482, frontispiece, 2 maps. [Also published in facsimile edition: Expeditions in Western Australia 1837–1839 (1983, 1984). Hesperian Press, Victoria Park]

    Williams, A.A.E. & Williams, M.R. (2016) A new species of Synemon Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) from Western Australia. Australian Entomologist, 43, 119–134.

    Williams, A.A.E., Williams, M.R., Edwards, E.D. & Coppin, R.A.M. (2016) The sun-moths (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) of Western Australia: an inventory of distribution, larval food-plants, habitat, behaviour, seasonality and conservation status. Records of the Western Australian Museum, 31, 90–162.

    https://doi.org/10.18195/issn.0312-3162.31(2).2016.090-162

How to Cite

KALLIES, A., EDWARDS, E. D., & WILLIAMS, A. A. E. (2020). New and little-known sun-moth species from Australia (Lepidoptera, Castniidae). Zootaxa, 4895(2), 151–195. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4895.2.1