Sæther (1981) erected the genus Diplosmittia based on a species from Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent in the British West Indies. The genus was revised by Pinho et al. (2009). To date, the genus comprises ten species: Diplosmittia harrisoni Sæther, 1981; D. carinata Sæther, 1985; D. recisus Sæther, 1988; D. beluina Andersen, 1996; D. forficata Andersen, 1996; D. plaumanni Pinho, Mendes & Andersen, 2009; D. boraceia Pinho, Mendes & Andersen, 2009; D. aragua Pinho, Mendes & Andersen, 2009; D. cerayma Pinho, Mendes & Andersen, 2009; and D. caribensis Wiedenbrug & Silva, 2016. Diplosmittia sasai Makarchenko & Makarchenko, 2005 was placed as a synonym of Pseudosmittia mathildae Albu, 1968 by Makarchenko & Makarchenko (2008). Except for D. carinata from Michigan, U.S.A., all species are Neotropical and mostly recorded from the Caribbean and northern part of South America. During field work in a remote mountainous region in the Brazilian Amazon, a unique new species with the gonostylus split into three parts was collected and is described and figured below. In addition, new records of D. plaumanni are provided.
Andersen, T. (1996) New species of Diplosmittia Sæther, 1981 from Costa Rica (Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 42 (2), 127–132.
Makarchenko, E.A. & Makarchenko, M.A. (2008) Review of the genus Pseudosmittia Edwards (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae from the Russian Far East. Russian Entomological Journal, 17 (2), 217–228.
Pinho, L.C., Mendes, H.F. & Andersen, T. (2009) A review of Diplosmittia Sæther, with the description of four new Neotropical species (Diptera: Chironomidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 44, 163–182.
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Sæther, O.A. (1980) Glossary of chironomid morphology terminology (Diptera: Chironomidae). Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement, 14, 1–51.
Sæther, O.A. (1981) Orthocladiinae (Chironomidae: Diptera) from the British West Indies with descriptions of Antillocladius n. gen., Lipurometriocmemus n. gen., Compterosmittia n. gen. and Diplosmittia n. gen. Entomologica Scandinavica: Supplement, 16, 1–46.
Sæther, O.A. (1985) Diplosmittia carinata spec. nov. from Michigan (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana Supplement, 11, 55–57.
Sæther, O.A. (1988) Diplosmittia recisus spec. nov. from Peru (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana Supplement, 14, 45–47.
Wiedenbrug, S. & Silva, F.L. (2016) Diplosmittia caribensis, a new Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Dominican Republic. Zootaxa, 4103 (1), 71–74.