Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2020-11-09

A new species of Achalinus (Squamata: Xenodermidae) from Trang An Landscape Complex, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam

­1Faculty of Forest Resources and Environmental Management, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Hanoi, Vietnam.
AG Zoologischer Garten Köln, Riehler Strasse 173, D-50735 Cologne, Germany. Institute of Zoology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Strasse 47b, D-50674 Cologne, Germany
Faculty of Forest Resources and Environmental Management, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Hanoi, Vietnam.
­Faculty of Forest Resources and Environmental Management, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Hanoi, Vietnam.
­Faculty of Forest Resources and Environmental Management, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Xuan Mai, Chuong My, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Faculty of Biology, Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University, 334 Nguyen Trai Road, Hanoi, Vietnam. Central Institute for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi, Vietnam
Central Institute for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hanoi, Vietnam Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai Road, Hanoi, Vietnam. Department of Herpetology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024
Faculty of Biotechnology, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 298A-300A Nguyen Tat Thanh Street,Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh 72820, Viet Nam.
Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi, Vietnam. Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Reptilia Karst forest morphology phylogeny taxonomy

Abstract

We describe a new snake of the genus Achalinus based on an adult female specimen from Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. Achalinus tranganensis sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners genetically and by a unique combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 29; 2) suture between the internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) loreal distinctly wider than high, extending from the nasal to the eye; 4) dorsal scales in 25–23–23 rows, keeled; 5) two pairs of prefrontals; 6) supralabials six; 7) infralabials six; 8) temporals 2+3, the two anterior temporals in contact with eye; 9) ventrals 171; 10) subcaudals 73+, unpaired; 11) cloacal plate entire; 12) dorsum in preservative reddish to greyish brown above; 13) the lower part of head side and chin region somewhat paler than the dorsum; 14) venter greyish cream, with the anterior region of each ventral and subcaudal somewhat darker. Based on molecular comparisons using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), the new species differs from other members of the genus by at least 11.8%. This discovery increases the number of Achalinus species known from Vietnam to seven.

 

References

  1. Boulenger, G.A. (1908) Description of a new frog and a new snake from Formosa. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8, 2, 221–222.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930808692472

    Bourret, R. (1935) Notes herpétologiques sur l’Indochine française. VIII. Sur les Achalinus d’Indochine. Bulletin général de l’Instruction Publique, 5 et 7 Janvier, 101–104. [1–4].

    Bourret, R. (1937) Notes herpétologiques sur l’Indochine française. XV. Lézards et serpents reçus au Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelles de l’Université au cours de l’année 1937. Descriptions de deux espèces et de deux variétés nouvelles. Bulletin général de l’Instruction Publique, Hanoi, 17e Année (1937–1938), 4 Décembre 1937, 57–80.

    Das, I. (2010) A field guide to the reptiles of Southeast Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, London, Cape Town, Sydney and Auckland, 376 pp.

    Dowling, H.G. (1951) A proposed standard system of counting ventrals in snakes. British Juornal of Herpetology, 1, 97–99.

    Darriba, D., Taboada, G.L., Doallo, R. & Posada, D. (2012) JModelTest 2: More models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nature Methods, 9, 772.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2109

    Figueroa, A., McKelvy, A.D., Grismer, L.L., Bell, C.D. & Lailvaux, S.P. (2016) A species-level phylogeny of extant snakes with description of a new colubrid subfamily and genus. PLOS ONE, 11, 1–31.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161070

    Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. (2004) Guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Japan. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, 285 pp.

    Hecht, V.L., Pham, C.T., Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, T.Q., Bonkowski, M. & Ziegler, T. (2013) First Report on the herpetofauna of Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, northeastern Vietnam. Biodiversity Journal, 4, 507–552.

    Hillis, D.M. & Bull, J.J. (1993) An empirical test of bootstrapping as a method for assessing confidence in phylogenetic analysis. Systematic Biology, 42, 182–192.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/42.2.182

    Hu, S., Djao, [Zhao] E. & Huang, Z. (1975) Three new species of reptiles from Hainan Island, Guangdong Province (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Zoologica Sinica, Peking, 21 (4), 379–384. [English translation by Akihiro Koshikawa 1982, Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv, Washington, 53, 1–9]

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.23317515.53.1

    Hu, S.Q. & Zhao, EM. (1966) Three new species of reptiles from Szechwan. Acta Zootaxon, Sinica, Peking, 3 (2), 158–164. [in Chinese with English abstract]

    Inger, R.F., Zhao, E., Shaffer, B.H. & Wu, G. (1990) Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Sichuan, China. Fieldiana Zoology, 58, i–iii + 1–24.

    Janssen, H.Y., Pham, C.T., Ngo, H.T., Le, M.D., Nguyen, T.Q. & Ziegler, T. (2019), A new species of Lycodon Boie, 1826 (Serpentes: Colubridae) from northern Vietnam. ZooKeys, 875, 1–29.

    https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.875.35933

    Karsen, S.J., Lau, M.W. & Bogadek, A. (1998) Hong Kong amphibians and reptiles, 2nd ed. Urban Council, Hong Kong, 186 pp.

    Koshikawa, A. (1982) Three new species of reptiles from Hainan Island, Guangdong Province. Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service, 53, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.23317515.53.1

    Le, M., Raxworthy, C.J., McCord, W.P. & Mertz, L. (2006) A molecular phylogeny of tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution, 40, 517–531.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.03.003

    Laopichienpong, R., Muangmai, N., Supikamolseni, A., Twilprawat, P., Chanhome, L., Suntrarachun, S., Peyachoknagul, S. & Srikulnath, K. (2016) Assessment of snake DNA barcodes based on mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes revealed multiple putative cryptic species in Thailand. Gene, 594, 238–247.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.09.017

    Li, K., Yu, M., Wu, Y.Y, Liao, L.H., Tang, K., Liu, Q. & Peng, G. (2020) A new species of the genus Achalinus (Squamata: Xenodermatidae) from southeastern Yunnan Province, China. Zootaxa, 4860(1), 116–128.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4860.1.6

    Maki, M. (1931) A monograph of the snakes of Japan. Dai-Ichi Shobo, Tokyo, 240 pp.

    Nagy, Z.T., Sonet, G., Glaw, F. & Vences, M. (2012) First large-scale DNA barcoding assessment of reptiles in the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar, based on newly designed COI primers. PLOS ONE, 7, 1–11.

    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034506

    Nguyen, L.-T., Schmidt, H.A., von Haeseler, A. & Bui, M.Q. (2015a) IQ-TREE: A fast and effective stochastic algorithm for estimating maximum likelihood phylogenies. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32, 268–274.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msu300

    Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. & Nguyen, T.Q. (2009) Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 768 pp.

    Nguyen, T.Q., Pham, A.V., Nguyen, S.L.H., Le, M.D. & Ziegler, T. (2015b) First country record of Parafimbrios lao Teynié, David, Lottier, Le, Vidal et Nguyen, 2015 (Squamata: Xenodermatidae) for Vietnam. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 22 (4), 297–300.

    Ota, H. & Toyama, M. (1989) Taxonomic re-definition of Achalinus formosanus Boulenger (Xenoderminae: Colubridae: Ophidia), with description of a new subspecies. Copeia, 1989 (3), 597–602.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1445485

    Pope, C.H. (1935) The reptiles of China. Turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards. Natural History of central Asia. Vol. X. American Museum of Natural History, New York, 604 pp.

    Posada, D. & Crandall, K.A. (1998) MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics, 14, 817–818.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.817

    Pyron, R.A., Burbrink, F.T. & Wiens, J.J. (2013) A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 13, 1–53.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-13-93

    Reinhardt, J.T. (1836) Afhandling om Xenodermus javanicus. Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskabs forhandlinger. Kjobenhavn, 3, 6–7.

    Ronquist, F., Teslenko, M., van der Mark, P., Ayres, D.L., Darling, A., Höhna, S., Larget, B., Liu, L., Suchard, M.A. & Huelsenbeck, J.P. (2012) MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Systematic Biology, 61, 539–542.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys029

    Simmons, J.E. (2002) Herpetological collecting and collections management. Revised edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular, 31, 1–153.

    Smith, M.A. (1921) New or little-known reptiles and batrachians from southern Annam (Indo-China). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1921, 423–440.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1921.tb03271.x

    Smith, M.A. (1943) The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III. Serpentes. Taylor & Francis Ltd., London, 583 pp.

    Swofford, D.L. (2001) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and Other Methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. [program]

    Supikamolseni, A., Ngaoburanawit, N., Sumontha, M., Chanhome, L., Suntrarachun, S., Peyachoknagul, S. & Srikulnath, K. (2015) Molecular barcoding of venomous snakes and species-specific multiplex PCR assay to identify snake groups for which antivenom is available in Thailand. Genetics and Molecular Research, 14, 13981–13997.

    https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.October.29.18

    Teynié, A., David, P., Lottier, A., Le, M.D., Vidal, N. & Nguyen, T.Q. (2015) A new genus and species of xenodermatid snake (Squamata: Caenophidia: Xenodermatidae) from northern Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Zootaxa, 3926 (4), 523–540. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3926.4.4

    Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D.G. (1997) The ClustalX windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 4876–4882.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/25.24.4876

    Uetz, P., Freed, P. & Hošek, J. (Eds.) (2020) The Reptile Database. Available from: http://www.reptile-database.org (accessed 03 Aug. 2020)

    Van Denburgh, J. (1912) Concerning certain species of reptiles and amphibians from China, Japan, the Loo Choo Islands, and Formosa. Proceedings of The California Academy of Sciences, 3, 187–258.

    Vidal, N., Delmas, A.-S., David, P., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A. & Hedges, S.B. (2007) The phylogeny and classification of caenophidian snakes inferred from seven nuclear protein-coding genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 330, 182–187.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2006.10.001

    Wang, J., Li, Y., Zeng, Z.C., Lyu, Z.T., Sung, Y.H., Li, Y.Y., Lin, C.Y. & Wang, Y.Y. (2019) A new species of the genus Achalinus from southwestern Guangdong Province, China (Squamata: Xenodermatidae). Zootaxa, 4674 (4), 471–481.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4674.4.6

    Zhao, E. (2006) Snakes of China. I. Anhui Science and Technology Publishing House, Hefei, 372 pp.

    Ziegler, T. (2002) Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur & Tier Verlag, Münster, 342 pp.

    Ziegler, T., David, P., Miralles, A., Doan, V.K. & Nguyen, Q.T. (2008) A new species of the snake genus Fimbrios from Phong Nha–Ke Bang National Park, Truong Son, central Vietnam (Squamata: Xenodermatidae). Zootaxa, 1729 (1), 37–48.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1729.1.4

    Ziegler, T., Ngo, H.N., Pham, A.V., Nguyen, T.T., Le, M.D. & Nguyen, T.Q. (2018) A new species of Parafimbrios from northern Vietnam (Squamata: Xenodermatidae). Zootaxa, 4527 (2), 269–276.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4527.2.7

    Ziegler, T., Nguyen, T.Q., Pham, C.T., Nguyen, T.T., Pham, A.V., Van Schingen, M., Nguyen, T. T. & Le, D.M. (2019) Three new species of the snake genus Achalinus from Vietnam (Squamata: Xenodermatidae). Zootaxa, 4590 (2), 249–269.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4590.2.3

    Ziegler, T., Pham, C.T., Nguyen, T.V., Nguyen, T.Q., Wang, J., Wang, Y.-Y., Stuart, B.L. & Le M.D. (2019) A new species of Opisthotropis from northern Vietnam previously misidentified as the Yellow-spotted Mountain Stream Keelback O. maculosa Stuart & Chuyankern, 2007 (Squamata: Natricidae). Zootaxa, 4613 (3), 579–586.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4613.3.9

    Zong, Y. & Ma, J. (1983) A new species of the genus Achalinopsis from Jiangxi and the restoration of this genus. Acta Herpetologica Sinica, 2 (2), 61–63. [in Chinese]