This paper describes Antilissus makauwahi, sp. nov., from the subfossil record of Makauwahi Cave on the island of Kauai, Hawaii. This new species is the second species of Antilissus Sharp from Hawaii and second described species for the genus. The type species of Antilissus, A. aper Sharp, has been widely collected from under the bark of dead or dying trees, at higher elevations, on all major Hawaiian Islands. In contrast, A. makauwahi is so far known only from a small number of subfossil sclerites recovered from sediments dating to before human arrival in Hawaii (>800 years before present). This potentially extinct species adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting the widespread extinction of Pacific island insects after human arrival.
Bernard, J. & Gillett, C.P.D.T. (2020) A new species of cylindrical bark beetle (Zopheridae: Colydiinae) from Vanuatu establishes in Hawaii. Zootaxa, 4809 (3), 593–599.
Burney, D.A., James, H.F., Burney, L.P., Olson, S.L., Kikuchi, W., Wagner, W.L., Burney, M., McLoskey, D., Kikuchi, D., Grady, F.V., Gage II, R. & Nishek, R. (2001) Fossil evidence for a diverse biota from Kaua’i and its transformation since human arrival. Ecological Monographs, 71 (4), 615–641.
Chiba, S. & Cowie, R.H. (2016) Evolution and extinction of land snails on oceanic islands. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 47, 123–141.
Craig, D.A. & Porch, N. (2013) Subfossils of extinct and extant species of Simuliidae (Diptera) from Austral and Cook Islands (Polynesia): anthropogenic extirpation of an aquatic insect? Zootaxa, 3641 (4), 448–462.
Ford, E.J. Jr. (1968) Colydiid beetles of Hawaii, with the description of a new species (Coleoptera: Colydiidae). Pacific Insects, 10 (1), 161–165.
Kahn, J.G., Nickelsen, C., Stevenson, J., Porch, N., Dotte-Sarout, E., Christensen, C.C., May, L., Athens, J.S. & Kirch, P.V. (2015) Mid- to late Holocene landscape change and anthropogenic transformations on Mo’orea, Society Islands: A multi-proxy approach. The Holocene, 25 (2), 333–347.
Kolibáč, J., Bocakova, M., Liebherr, J.K., Ramage, T. & Porch, N. (2020) Extinct and extant Pacific Island Trogossitidae and the evolution of the Cleroidea (Coleoptera) after the Late Triassic biotic crisis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 20, 1–37.
Liebherr, J.K. & Porch, N. (2015) Reassembling a lost lowland carabid beetle assemblage (Coleoptera) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Invertebrate Systematics, 29 (2), 191–213.
Nishida, G.M. (2002) Hawaiian Terrestrial Arthropod Checklist. Fourth Edition. Bishop Museum Technical Report No. 22. Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, iv + 313 pp.
Perkins, R.C.L. (1906) Insects of Tantalus. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1 (2), 38–51.
Porch, N. & Elias, S.A. (2000) Quaternary beetles: a review and issues for Australian studies. Australian Journal of Entomology, 39 (1), 1–9.
Porch, N. & Smith, T.R. (2017) New Pycnomerus Erichson (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Pycnomerini) from Rimatara, French Polynesia. Zootaxa, 4237 (1), 154–166.
Porch, N., Smith, T.R. & Greig, K. (2020) Five new Pycnomerus Erichson (Coleoptera: Zopheridae: Pycnomerini) from Raivavae, French Polynesia, Zootaxa, 4718 (2), 239–250.
Régnier, C., Fontaine, B. & Bouchet, P. (2009) Not knowing, not recording, not listing: Numerous unnoticed mollusc extinctions. Conservation Biology, 23 (5), 1214–1221.
Ślipiński, A.P. & Lawrence, J.F. (1997) Genera of the Colydiinae (Coleoptera: Zopheridae) of the Australo-Pacific region. Annales Zoologici, 47 (3/4), 314–440.
Steadman, D.W. (2006) Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 480 pp.
Swezey, O.H. (1912) Insects associated with “Mamake” (Pipturus albidus), a native Hawaiian tree. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2 (4), 153–163.