Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2020-09-01
Page range: 26–34
Abstract views: 132
PDF downloaded: 11

A description of the tadpole of Megophrys "Brachytarsophrys" intermedia (Smith, 1921)

Zoological Society of London, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4RY, United Kingdom
Indo Myanmar Conservation, Asian Turtle Program (ATP)—Indo-Myanmar Conservation (IMC), R.1806, 18th F., CT1 Bac Ha C14 Building To Huu St., Nam Tu Liem Dist., Ha Noi, Vietnam
Danang University of Education, The Danang University, 459 Ton Duc Thang St., Lien Chieu Dist., Danang City, Vietnam.


Megophrys Kuhl and Van Hasselt are an Asian radiation of terrestrial frogs which are usually associated with montane forest (Mahony et al. 2017). The Annam horned frog (Megophrys intermedia) is reported from montane evergreen forest in Vietnam and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Stuart 2005; Hendrix et al. 2008; Nguyen et al. 2009; Tran 2013; Orlov et al. 2015; IUCN 2017; Mahony et al. 2017). The IUCN Red List assessment for the species reports an elevational range of 782–1500 m asl (IUCN 2017) although the type locality was reported to be above 1500 m asl (Smith 1921), and Tran (2013) collected a specimen at 1515 m asl. Megophrys intermedia is assessed as Least Concern (IUCN 2017) and little is known about the reproductive behaviour and life history of the species. In Lam Dong Province (Vietnam), male M. intermedia call in March (Tran 2013); on the Langbian Plateau (Vietnam), male specimens are reported to call by day and by night from March to May and specimens called from within deep crevices between boulders in streams (Smith 1921); in Xe Kong Province (Laos), males call or guard egg clutches that are laid in water in July (Stuart 2005).



  1. Altig, R. & McDiarmid, R.W. (1999) Body plan: development and morphology. In: McDiarmid, R.W. & Altig, R. (Eds.), Tadpoles: The Biology of Anuran Larvae. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 295–337.

    Benson, D.A., Cavanaugh, M., Clark, K., Karsch-Mizrachi, I., Lipman, D.J., Ostell, J. & Sayers, E.W. (2017) GenBank. Nucleic Acids Research, 45 (Database issue), D37–D42.

    Deuti, K., Grosjean, S., Nicolas, V., Vasudevan, K.V. & Ohler, A. (2017) Nomenclatural puzzle in early Xenophrys nomina (Anura, Megophryidae) solved with description of two new species from India (Darjeeling hills and Sikkim). Alytes, 34, 20–48.

    Fei, L. & Ye, C.-Y. (2001) The colour handbook of the amphibians of Sichuan. Chinese Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, 263 pp.

    Fei, L., Ye, C.-Y. & Jiang, J.-P. (2012) Colored atlas of Chinese amphibians and their distributions. Sichuan Publishing House of Science & Technology, Chengdu, 620 pp.

    Gosner, K.L. (1960) A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica, 16, 183–190.

    Hedges, S.B. (1994) Molecular evidence for the origin of birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 2621–2624.

    Hendrix, R., Nguyen, Q.T., Böhme, W. & Ziegler, T. (2008) New anuran records from Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, Truong Son, central Vietnam. Herpetology Notes, 1, 23–31.

    Hillis, D.M., Moritz, C., Mable, B.K. & Graur, D. (1996) Molecular systematics. Sinauer Associates Sunderland, Massachusetts, 655 pp.

    IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2017) Megophrys intermedia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2017, e.T57540A3060514.

    Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33, 1870–1874.

    Li, C., Guo, X.-G. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2011) Tadpole types of Chinese megophryid frogs (Anura: Megophryidae) and implications for larval evolution. Current Zoology, 57, 93–100.

    Li, S., Xu, N, Liu, J., Jiang, J.-P., Wei, G. & Wang, B. (2019 [“2018”]) A new species of the Asian toad genus Megophrys sensu lato (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Guizhou Province, China. Asian Herpetological Research, 9, 224–239.

    Li, Y., Zhang, D.-D., Lyu, Z.-T., Wang, J., Li, Y.-L., Liu, Z.-Y., Chen, H.-H., Rao, D.-Q., Jin, Z.-F., Zhang, C.-Y. & Wang, Y.-Y. (2020) Review of the genus Brachytarsophrys (Anura: Megophryidae), with revalidation of Brachytarsophrys platyparietus and description of a new species from China. Zoological Research, 41, 105–122.

    Mahony, S., Foley, N., Biju, S.D. & Teeling, E. (2017) Evolutionary history of the Asian Horned Frogs (Megophryinae): integrative approaches to timetree dating in the absence of a fossil record. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 34, 744–771.

    Malkmus, R., Manthey, U., Vogel, G., Hoffman, P. & Kosuch, J. (2002) Amphibians & reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell, 424 pp.

    Nguyen, S.V., Ho, T.C. & Nguyen, T.Q. (2009) Herpetofauna of Vietnam, Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, 768 pp.

    Oberhummer, E., Barten, C., Schweizer, M., Das, I., Haas, A. & Hertwig, S.T. (2014) Description of the tadpoles of three rare species of megophryid frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Gunung Mulu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Zootaxa, 3835 (1), 59–79.

    Orlov, N.L., Poyarkov Jr., N.A. & Nguyen, T.T. (2015) Taxonomic notes on Megophrys frogs (Megophryidae: Anura) of Vietnam, with description of a new species. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 22, 206–218.

    Poyarkov, N.A., Rowley, J.J.L., Gogoleva, S.I., Vassilieva, A.B., Galoyan, E.A. & Orlov, N.L. (2015) A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from the western Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam. Zootaxa, 3931 (2), 221–252.

    Poyarkov Jr., N.A., Duong, T.V., Orlov, N.A., Gogoleva, S.S., Vassilieva, A.B., Nguyen, L.T., Nguyen, V.D.H., Nguyen, S.G., Che, G. & Mahony, S. (2017) Molecular, morphological and acoustic assessment of the genus Ophryophryne (Anura, Megophryidae) from Langbian Plateau, southern Vietnam, with description of a new species. Zookeys, 62, 49–120.

    Schneider, C.A., Rasband, W.S. & Eliceiri, K.W. (2012) NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis, Nature Methods, 9, 671–675.

    Smith, M.A. (1921) New or little-known reptiles and batrachians from southern Annam (Indo-China). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 91, 423–440.

    Stuart, B.L. (2005) New frog records from Laos. Herpetological Review, 36, 473–479.

    Stuart, B.L., Chuaynkern, Y., Chan-ard, T. & Inger, R.F. (2006) Three new species of frogs and a new tadpole from eastern Thailand. Fieldiana Zoology, 111, 1–19.[1:TNSOFA]2.0.CO;2

    Tapley, B., Cutajar, T., Mahony, S., Nguyen, T.C., Dau, V.Q., Nguyen, T.T., Luong, V.H. & Rowley, J.J.L. (2017) The Vietnamese population of Megophrys kuatunensis (Amphibia: Megophryidae) represents a new species of Asian horned frog from Vietnam and southern China. Zootaxa, 4344 (3), 465–492.

    Tapley, B., Nguyen, L.T., Cutajar, T., Nguyen, C.T., Portway, C., Luong, H.V. & Rowley, J.J.L. (I2020) The tadpoles of five Megophrys Horned frogs (Amphibia: Megophryidae) from the Hoang Lien Range, Vietnam. Zootaxa, 4845 (1), 35–52.

    ,Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniak, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D.G. (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 4876−4882.

    Tominaga, A., Matsui, M., Nishikawa, K. & Tanabe, S. (2006) Phylogenetic relationships of Hynobius naevius (Amphibia: Caudata) as revealed by mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38, 677−684.

    Tran, T. (2013) Taxonomy and ecology of amphibian communities in Southern Vietnam: Linking morphology and bioacoustics. PhD dissertation, Universitäts-und Landesbibliothek Bonn, Bonn, 236 pp. [Thesis submission 2013]

    Wang, Y., Zhao, J., Yang, J., Zhou, Z., Chen, G. & Liu, Y. (2014) Morphology, molecular genetics, and bioacoustics support two new sympatric Xenophrys toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China. PLoS ONE, 9 (4), e93075.

    Wogan, G.O.U., Lwin, K.S., Win, H., Thin, T., Shein, A.K. & Tun, H. (2004) The advertisement call of Brachytarsophrys feae (Boulenger, 1887) (Anura: Megophryidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 55, 251–254.

    Zhao, J., Yang, J., Chen, G., Chen, C. & Wang, Y. (2014) Description of a new species of the genus Brachytarsophrys Tian and Hu, 1983 (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Southern China based on molecular and morphological data. Asian Herpetological Research, 5, 150–160.