Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2020-08-26

Phenotypic divergence in large sized cricket frog species that crossed the geographical barriers within peninsular India

Breeding behavior and Bioacoustics Lab, Department of Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, India
Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Western Regional Centre (WRC), Pune 411044
Breeding behavior and Bioacoustics Lab, Department of Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, India
Anura Climate change Cryptic species Eastern Ghats Fejervarya / Minervarya range extension Western Ghats

Abstract

A good number of new species are being described and included in the genus Fejervarya / Minervarya from South Asia and Southeast Asia in the recent past. But, the classification or consideration of the genus Fejervarya / Minervarya is only phylogenetic, where it is difficult to morphologically identify the genus in the overlapping range of geographical distribution. Recently a large sized new species of cricket frog Fejervarya kalinga has been described, which is thought to be endemic to the Eastern Ghats (a unique geographical landscape running parallel to the East Coast of India). Here we report a morphologically variable and distinct population of F. kalinga from the Western Ghats (an amphibian diversity hotspot running parallel to the West Coast of India). We discuss the importance of genetic studies in handling such morphologically highly variable populations of the species and their adaptation to different habitats and their implications in taxonomic identity.

 

References

  1. Agarwal, I., Wilkinson, M., Mohapatra, P.P., Dutta, S.K., Giri, V.B. & Gower, D.J. (2013) The first teresomatan caecilian (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) from the Eastern Ghats of India-a new species of Gegeneophis Peters, 1880. Zootaxa, 3693 (4), 534–546.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3693.4.7

    Amor, N., Farjallah, S. & Said, K. (2015) Morphometric variation in the Tunisian green frog , Rana saharica Anura: Ranidae). African Zoology, 44 (2), 194–203.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/15627020.2009.11407452

    Baker, A.N., Smith, A.N.H. & Pichler, F.B. (2002) Geographical variation in hector’s dolphin: Recognition of new subspecies of Cephalorhynchus hectori. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 32 (4), 713–727.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/03014223.2002.9517717

    Ballard, J.W.O. & Whitlock, M.C. (2004) The incomplete natural history of mitochondria. Molecular Ecology, 13 (4), 729–744.

    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.02063.x

    Balloux, F. (2009) The worm in the fruit of the mitochondrial DNA tree. Heredity, 104 (5), 419–420.

    https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2009.122

    Bolkay, S.J. (1915) Beiträge zur Osteologie einiger exotischer Raniden. Anatomischer Anzeiger, 48, 172–183.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.17101

    Crottini, A., Orozco-terwengel, P., Rabemananjara, F.C.E., Hauswaldt, J.S. & Vences, M. (2019) Mitochondrial introgression, color Pattern variation, and severe demographic bottlenecks in three species of Malagasy poison frogs, Genus Mantella. Genes, 10 (4), 1–25.

    https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040317

    Deuti, K.S. & Sethy, P.G. & Ray, S. (2014) Amphibians of the Eastern Ghats. In: Records of the Zoological survey of India, 114 (1), pp. 119–144.

    Dinesh, K.P., Vijayakumar, S.P., Channakeshavamurthy, B.H., Torsekar, V.R., Kulkarni, N.U. & Shanker, K. (2015) Systematic status of Fejervarya ((Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae) from South and SE Asia with the description of a new species from the Western Ghats of Peninsular India. Zootaxa, 3999 (1), 79–94.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3999.1.5

    Dinesh, K.P., Kulkarni, N.U., Swamy, P. & Deepak, P. (2017) A new species of Fejervarya Bolkay, 1915 from the lateritic plateaus of the Goa parts of the Western Ghats. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 117 (4), 301–314.

    https://doi.org/10.26515/rzsi/v117/i4/2017/121293

    Dinesh, K.P., Radhakrishnan, C., Gururaja, K.V. & Bhatta, G. (2009) An annotated checklist of Amphibia of India with some insights into the patterns of species discoveries, distribution and endemism. In: Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper, 302, pp. 1–152.

    Dubois, A., Ohler, A. & Biju, S.D. (2001) A new genus and species of Ranidae (Amphibia; Anura) from South-Western India. Alytes, 19 (2), 53–79.

    Frost, D.R. (2018) Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.0. Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Available from http://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/index.html (accessed 17 July 2019)

    Galtier, N., Nabholz, B., Glémin, S. & Hurst, G.D.D. (2009) Mitochondrial DNA as a marker of molecular diversity: A reappraisal. Molecular Ecology, 18 (22), 4541–4550.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04380.x

    Ganesh, S.R., Dutta, S.K. & Chandramouli, S.R. (2017) On the taxonomy and nomenclature of common Indian cricket frog Rana agricola Jerdon , 1853 ( Amphibia: Dicroglossidae). Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, 6 (2), 107–113.

    https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.24.547

    Garg, S. & Biju, S.D. (2017) Description of four new species of Burrowing Frogs in the Fejervarya rufescens complex (Dicroglossidae) with notes on morphological affinities of Fejervarya species in the Western Ghats. Zootaxa, 4277 (2), 451–490.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4277.4.1

    Garroway, C.J., Bowman, J., Cascaden, T.J., Holloway, G.L., Mahan, C.G., Malcolm, J.R., Steele, M.A., Turner, G. & Wilson, P.J. (2009) Climate change induced hybridization in flying squirrels Climate change induced hybridization in flying squirrels. Global Change Biology, 16 (1). 113–121.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01948.x

    Godmann, O., Kariş, M. & Göçmen, B. (2016) Geographic nestedness of Lyciasalamandra billae (Amphibia: Salamandridae) populations within L. antalyana and description of a new subspecies. Zoology in the Middle East, 62 (3), 255–260.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/09397140.2016.1202902

    Gower, D.J., Dharne, M., Bhatta, G., Giri, V., Vyas, R., Govindappa, V., Oommen, O. V., George, J., Shouche, Y. & Wilkinson, M. (2007) Remarkable genetic homogeneity in unstriped, long-tailed Ichthyophis along 1500 km of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Zoology, 272 (3), 266–275.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00266.x

    Gunawardene, N.R., Daniels, A.E.D., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Karunakaran, P. V., Nayak, K.G., Prasad, S., Puyravaud, P., Ramesh, B.R., Subramanian, K.A. & Vasanthy, G. (2007) Asian Biodiversity crisis: a brief overview of the Western Ghats - Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Current Science, 93 (11), 1–6.

    Gwee, C.Y., Eaton, J.A., Ng, E.Y.X. & Rheindt, F.E. (2019) Species delimitation within the Glaucidium brodiei owlet complex using bioacoustic tools. Avian Research, 10 (1), 1–7.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/s40657-019-0175-4

    Hammer, O., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) PAST: Palaeontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4 (1), 1–9. Available from: http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001_1/past/issue1_01.html (accessed 17 July 2019)

    Hasan, M., Islam, M.M., Khan, M.M.R., Igawa, T., Alam, M.S., Djong, H.T., Kurniawan, N., Joshy, H., Sen, Y.H., Belabut, D.M., Kurabayashi, A., Kuramoto, M. & Sumida, M. (2014) Genetic divergences of South and Southeast Asian frogs: a case study of several taxa based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene data with notes on the generic name Fejervarya. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38 (4), 389–411.

    https://doi.org/10.3906/zoo-1308-36

    Hillis, D.M. (2020) The detection and naming of geographic variation within the species. Herpetological Review, 51 (1), 52–56.

    Howlader, M.S.A. (2011) Cricket frog (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae): two regions of Asia are corresponding two groups. Bonnoprani: Bangladesh Wildlife Bulletin, 5 (1–2), 1–7.

    Kotaki, M., Kurabayashi, A., Matsui, M., Kuramoto, M., Djong, T.H. & Sumida, M. (2010) Molecular phylogeny of the diversified frogs of genus Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zoological Science, 27 (5) 386–395.

    https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.27.386

    Kumlutas, Y., Arikan, H., Ilgaz, Ç. & Kaska, Y. (2007) A new subspecies, Eumeces schneiderii barani n. ssp (Reptilia: Sauria: Scincidae) from Turkey. Zootaxa, 1387 (1), 27–38.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1387.1.2

    Kurniawan, N., Tjong, D.H., Andalas, U. & Islam, M.M. (2011) Taxonomic status of three types of Fejervarya cancrivora from Indonesia and other Asian countries based on morphological observations and crossing experiments. Zoological Science, 28 (1), 12–24.

    https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.28.12

    Liu, K., Wang, F., Chen, W., Tu, L., Min, M., Bi, K. & Fu, J. (2010) Rampant historical mitochondrial genome introgression between two species of green pond frogs, Pelophylax nigromaculatus and P . plancyi. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10 (1), 1–14.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-10-201

    Mirza, Z.A., Warekar, P., Mohapatra, P.P., Raju, D., Patil, P., Dutta, S.K. & Pal, S. (2019) “Endangered or an artifact of unsound taxonomy? Case of the critically endangered bush frog Philautus sanctisilvaticus Das and Chanda, 1997”. Zootaxa, 4683 (4), 563–576.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4683.4.6

    Phuge, S., Dinesh, K.P., Andhale, R., Bhakare, K. & Pandit, R. (2019) A new species of Fejervarya Bolkay, 1915 (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from the northern Western Ghats parts of Maharashtra, India. Zootaxa, 4544 (2), 251–268.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4544.2.6

    Phuge, S., Patil, A., Pandit, R., Kulkarni, N.U., Murthy, B.H.C., Deepak, P. & Dinesh, K.P. Importance of genetic data in resolving cryptic species: A century old problem of understanding the distribution of Minervarya syhadrensis Anandale 1919, (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Zootaxa. [in press]

    Pyron, A.R. & Wiens, J.J. (2011) A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61 (2), 543–583.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012

    Raj, P., Dinesh, K.P., Das, A., Dutta, S.K., Kar, N.B. & Mohapatra, P.P. (2018) Two New Species of Cricket Frogs of the Genus Fejervarya Bolkay, 1915 (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from the Peninsular India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 118 (1), 1–21.

    https://doi.org/10.26515/rzsi/v118/i1/2018/121436

    Sanchez, E., Biju, S.D., Islam, M.M., Hasan, M., Ohler, A., Vences, M. & Kurabayashi, A. (2018) Phylogeny and classification of fejervaryan frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae). Salamandra, 54 (2), 109–116.

    Sequeira, F., Sodré, D., Ferrand, N., Bernardi, J.A., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H. & Vallinoto, M. (2011) Hybridization and massive mt DNA unidirectional introgression between the closely related Neotropical toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri inferred from mtDNA and nuclear markers. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11 (1), 1–15.

    https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-264

    Silvestro, D. & Michalak, I. (2012) RaxmlGUI: A graphical front-end for RAxML. Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 12 (4), 335–337.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13127-011-0056-0

    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30 (12), 2725–2729.

    https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197

    Vijayakumar, S.P., Pyron, R.A., Dinesh, K.P., Torsekar, V.R., Srikanthan, A.N., Swamy, P., Stanley, E.L., Blackburn, D.C. & Shanker, K. A. (2019) New ancient lineage of frog (Anura: Nyctibatrachidae: Astrobatrachinae subfam. nov.) endemic to the Western Ghats of Peninsular India. PeerJ, 7, e6457.

    https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6457

    Werner, Y.L., Sivan, N., Kushnir, W. & Motro, U. (1999) A statistical Approach to Variation in Cerastes (Ophidia: Viperidae) with the description of two Endemic subspecies. Kaupia, 8 (1), 83–97.

    Yasukawa, Y., Ota, H. & Iverson, J.B. (1996) Geographic variation and sexual size dimorphism in Mauremys mutica (Cantor, 1842) (Reptilia: Bataguridae), with description of a new subspecies from the Southern Ryukyus, Japan. Zoological Science, 13 (2), 303–317.

    https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.13.303