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Type: Article
Published: 2020-08-13
Page range: 392–400
Abstract views: 86
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Reassessment of a fossil specimen of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Anura: Bufonidae), from Early Pleistocene of Bolivia

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Evolução e Diversidade, CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, Al. da Universidade s/n (09606-045), São Bernardo do Campo, SP—Brazil. Departamento de Biologia, FFCLRP, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900 (14040-901), Vila Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP—Brazil.
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Evolução e Diversidade, CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, Al. da Universidade s/n (09606-045), São Bernardo do Campo, SP—Brazil.
Amphibia Anura Bufonidae


Bufonidae is a cosmopolite and speciose clade that is currently hypothesized to have originated in Gondwana around 78–99 Ma (Pramuk et al. 2008). The systematics of the family was assessed using morphological and molecular data, alone or in a total evidence analysis (Pramuk 2006; Pramuk et al. 2008; Bocxlaer et al. 2010; Pyron & Wiens 2011). Due to taxonomic changes, most of the South American species of Bufo Garsault were relocated to the genus Rhinella Fitzinger, currently the second most speciose genus with 92 scientifically named and valid species (Frost 2020). The species in the genus are arranged in six taxonomic groups (crucifer, granulosa, margaritifera, marina, spinulosa, veraguensis species groups [Frost 2020]); the Rhinella marina group is characterized by specimens with well-ossified and exostosed skull, ornamented with deep striations, pits, and rugosities (Maciel et al. 2010). The Rhinella marina group includes eleven living species, distributed in two main clades named after their geographical distribution: the north-central clade and south-central clade. The south-central clade bears the species: R. achavali (Maneyro, Arrieta & de Sá), R. arenarum (Hensel), R. icterica (Spix), and R. rubescens (Lutz). The north-central clade bears the species: R. cerradensis Maciel, Brandão, Campos & Sebben, R. horribilis (Wiegmann), R. jimi (Stevaux), R. marina (Linnaeus), R. poeppigii (Tschudi), R. schneideri (Werner), and R. veredas (Brandão, Maciel & Sebben).



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