Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2020-05-08
Page range: 253–276
Abstract views: 117
PDF downloaded: 5

Descriptions of two new species of Philodina (Rotifera, Bdelloidea), with notes on seven rare bdelloids from Korea

Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangwon-do 25457, Korea.
Department of Biology, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangwon-do 25457, Korea.
Rotifera Bdelloidea biogeography new species Philodina taxonomy


A taxonomic study on bdelloid rotifers collected from various terrestrial habitats at five different locations in Korea resulted in eight new Korean records and two new species-level taxa, Philodina clypeata  n. sp. and P. verrucosa  n. sp. Among the eight new Korean records, two species- and three subspecies-level taxa are new to Asia as well. These new Korean records also include seven rare species/subspecies-level taxa with poorly known distributions. Habrotrocha gracilis quadridens Schulte and Macrotrachela zickendrahti seda Donner were rediscovered in Korea 64 and 53 years, respectively, after the original descriptions. Habrotrocha ligula aligula Burger, Macrotrachela insulana Donner, M. petulans Milne, M. pinnigera (Murray), and Philodina parvicalcar De Koning have been reported from two to three countries only including their type localities before the present study. In addition, a partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOX1) for P. verrucosa  n. sp. as well as a taxonomic key for the Philodina species recorded from Korea to date are also provided here.



  1. Bartoš, E. (1951a) The Czechoslovak Rotatoria of the order Bdelloidea. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Zoologicke Spolecnosti, 15, 241–500.

    Bartoš, E. (1951b) Rotatoria of the Czechoslowakian Iceland-expedition. Hydrobiologia, 3, 244–250.

    Bartoš, E. (1963) Die Bdelloideen der Moosproben aus China und Java. Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Zoologicke Spolecnosti, 27, 31–42.

    Bielańska-Grajner, I., Ejsmont-Karabin, J. & Yakovenko, N. (2011) Bdelloidea (Rotifera) from the Tatra National Park, with some species newly found in Poland. Fragmenta Faunistica, 54, 103–111.

    Bryce, D. (1903) On two new species of Philodina. Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, Series 2, 8, 523–530.

    Burger, A. (1948) Studies on the moss dwelling bdelloids (Rotifera) of eastern Massachusetts. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 67, 111–142.

    De Koning, M. (1929) Raderdieren van Meijendel. De levende Natuur, 34, 32–39 + 72–77 + 102–109.

    De Koning, M. (1947) Nieuwe Bdelloide Rotatorien. Biologisch Jaarboek, Dodonaea, 14, 184–205.

    Dickson, M.R. & Mercer, E.H. (1967) Fine structural changes accompanying desiccation in Philodina roseola (Rotifera). Journal of Microscopy, 6, 331–348.

    Donner, J. (1962) Neue und wenig bekannte Bdelloidea (Rotatoria) des Bodens. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 8, 303–333.

    Donner, J. (1965) Ordnung Bdelloidea (Rotatoria, Rädertiere). Akademie-Verl., Berlin, 297 pp.

    Donner, J. (1971) Rotatorien aus einigen Auböden der Donau, aus ostmediterranen Böden und aus Kiew. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Beihefte, 36, 352–376.

    Donner, J. (1980) Einige neue Forschungen über bdelloide Rotatorien, besonders in Böden. Revue d'Écologie et de Biologie du Sol, 17, 125–143.

    Edmondson, W.T. (1959) Rotifera. In: Edmondson, W.T. (Ed.), Fresh-water Biology, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 420–494.

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–299.

    Fontaneto, D., Barbosa, A.M., Segers, H. & Pautasso, M. (2012) The 'rotiferologist'effect and other global correlates of species richness in monogonont rotifers. Ecography, 35, 174–182.

    Fontaneto, D., De Smet, W.H. & Melone, G. (2008) Identification key to the genera of marine rotifers worldwide. Meiofauna Marina, 16, 75–99.

    Haigh, S.B. (1963) The bdelloid rotifers of New Zealand. Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, 29, 161–170.

    Haigh, S.B. (1965) The bdelloid rotifers of New Zealand - Part 2. The journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, 30, 7–13 + 36–41.

    Hayashi, N., Kuniyasu, K., Inamori, Y. & Sudo, R. (1998) Effect of Environmental Factors on Growth Characteristics of Rotatoria. Japanese Journal of Water Treatment Biology, 34, 205–213. [in Japanese]

    Iakovenko, N.S., Kašparová, E., Plewka, M. & Janko, K. (2013) Otostephanos (Rotifera, Bdelloidea, Habrotrochidae) with the description of two new species. Systematics and Biodiversity, 11, 477–494.

    Jersabek, C.D. & Leitner, M.F. (2013) The Rotifer World Catalog. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from (accessed 20 Februery 2019)

    Kaya, M. (2013) Terrestrial bdelloid rotifers from Erzurum (eastern part of Turkey). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 37, 413–418.

    Kaya, M., De Smet, W.H. & Fontaneto, D. (2010) Survey of moss-dwelling bdelloid rotifers from middle Arctic Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Polar Biology, 33, 833–842.

    Kaya, M., Herniou, E.A., Barraclough, T.G. & Fontaneto, D. (2009) A faunistic survey of bdelloid rotifers in Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East, 48, 114–116.

    Koehler, J.K. (1966) Some comparative fine structure relationships of the rotifer integument. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 162, 231–244.

    Koste, W. (1976) Über die Rädertierbestände (Rotatoria) der oberen und mittleren Hase in den Jahren 1966–1969. Osnabrücker Naturwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 4, 191–263.

    Koste, W. (1996a) On soil Rotatoria from a Lithotelma near Halali Lodge in Etosha National Park in N-Namibia, South Africa. International Review of Hydrobiology, 81, 353–365.

    Koste, W. (1996b) Über die moosbewohnende Rotatorienfauna Madagaskars. Osnabrücker Naturwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen, 22, 235–253.

    Lansing, A.I. (1964) Age variations in cortical membranes of rotifers. The Jounral of Cell Biology, 23, 403–421.

    Melone, G. & Ricci, C. (1995) Rotatory apparatus in Bdelloids. Hydrobiologia, 313/314, 91–98.

    Milne, W. (1916) On the bdelloid Rotifera of South Africa. The journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, Series 2, 47–83, 149–184.

    Murray, J. (1908) Some African rotifers. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 28, 665–670.

    Murray, J. (1911) Bdelloid Rotifera of South Africa. Annals of the Transvaal Museum. Annale van die Transvaal Museum, 3, 1–19.

    Nogrady, T., Wallace, R.L. & Snell, T.W. (1993) Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World. 4. Rotifera. Vol. 1. Biology, Ecology and Systematics. SPB Academic Publishing bv, NM Amsterdam, vii + 142 pp.

    Pejler, B. & Bērziņš, B. (1993) On choice of substrate and habitat in bdelloid rotifers. Hydrobiologia, 255/256, 333–338.

    Ricci, C. (1987) Ecology of bdelloids: how to be successful. Hydrobiologia, 147, 117–127.

    Ricci, C. & Caprioli, M. (2005) Anhydrobiosis in bdelloid species, populations and individuals. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 45, 759–63.

    Ricci, C. & Melone, G. (1984) Macrotrachela quadricornifera (Rotifera, Bdelloidea); a SEM study on active and cryptobiotic animals. Zoologica Scripta, 13, 195–200.

    Ricci, C. & Melone, G. (2000) Key to the identification of the genera of bdelloid rotifers. Hydrobiologia, 418, 73–80.

    Robeson, M.S., King, A.J., Freeman, K.R., Birky, C.W.Jr., Martin, A.P. & Schmidt, S.K. (2011) Soil rotifer communities are extremely diverse globally but spatially autocorrelated locally. Proceedings of the Nataional Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 4406–10.

    Schramm, U. (1978) Studies on the ultrastructure of the integument of the rotifer Habrotrocha rosa Donner (Aschelminthes). Cell and Tissue Research, 189, 167–177.

    Schulte, H. (1954) Beiträge zur Ökologie und Systematik der Bodenrotatorien. Zoologische Jahrbücher Systematik, 82, 551–617.

    Segers, H. (2002) The nomenclature of the Rotifera: annotated checklist of valid family and genus-group names. Journal of Natural History, 36, 631–640.

    Segers, H. (2007) Annotated checklist of the rotifers (Phylum Rotifera), with notes on nomenclature, taxonomy and distribution. Zootaxa, 1564 (1), 1–104.

    Song, M.O. (2014) Eight new records of monogonont and bdelloid rotifers from Korea. Journal of Species Research, 3, 53–62.

    Song, M.O. (2017) New records of 13 rotifers including Bryceella perpusilla Wilts et al., 2010 and Philodina lepta Wulfert, 1951 from Korea. Journal of Species Research, 6, 26–37.

    Song, M.O. & Jin, D.-H. (2000) Rotifer fauna of natal streams of chum salmon (Oshipcheon). Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology, 3, 71–77.

    Song, M.O. & Kim, W. (1996) Taxonomic study on the digonont rotifers of Korea: six new records of philodinid rotifers. The Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology, 12, 349–358.

    Song, M.O. & Kim, W. (2000) Bdelloid rotifers from Korea. Hydrobiologia, 439, 91–101.

    Song, M.O. & Lee, C.-H. (2017) A new and five rare bdelloids from Korea. Zootaxa, 4242 (3), 529–547.

    Song, M.O. & Lee, C.-H. (2019) Four new bdelloid rotifers from Korea. Zootaxa, 4571 (2), 201–224.

    Song, M.O. & Min, G.-S. (2015) A new species and ten new records of bdelloid rotifers from Korea. Zootaxa, 3964 (2), 211–227.

    Stemberger, R.S. (1979) A Guide to Rotifers of the Laurentian Great Lakes. US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, 185 pp.

    Turner, P.N. (1999) A simple generic key to the Bdelloid rotifers. Quekett Journal of Microscopy, 38, 351–356.

    Weber, E.F. (1898) Faune Rotatorienne du bassin du Léman. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 5, 263–785.

    Wulfert, K. (1942) Neue Rotatorienarten aus deutschen Mineralquellen. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 137, 187–200.