The courtship, copulation and post-copulatory behavior, as well as acoustic communication of the Neotropical cricket Endecous (Notendecous) onthophagus is described under laboratory conditions and compared with other phalangopsids whose mating system was studied so far. We found that E. onthophagus present predictable mating sequences including seven events: (1) prolonged courtship; (2) male spermatophore extrusion during courtship; (3) female-above copulatory position; (4) prolonged copulation; (5) male forewings flipped over his head, exposing metanotal region along copulation; (6) copulation without spermatophore transfer; and (7) absence of guarding behavior. We suggest these events (1 to 7) as a behavioral line shared by phalangopsids, and we highlight variations that reflect the behavioral diversity of these crickets. The males of E. onthophagus produce the calling song (chirps) to attract females to mate, and also stridulates intermittently during the entire courtship period with distinct acoustic parameters during the stages of pre- and post-spermatophore extrusion.
Alexander, R.D. (1961) Aggressiveness, territoriality and sexual behavior in field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Behavior, 17, 130–223.
Alexander, R.D. & Otte, D. (1967) The evolution of genitalia and mating behavior in crickets (Gryllidae) and other Orthoptera. Miscellaneous Publications, 133, 1–62.
Bateman, P.W., Gilson, L.N. & Ferguson, J.W.H. (2001) Male size and sequential mate preference in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Animal Behaviour, 61, 631–637.
Boake, C.R.B. (1984a) Male displays and female preferences in the courtship of a gregarious cricket. Animal Behaviour, 32 (3), 690–697.
Boake, C.R.B. (1984b) Natural history and acoustic behavior of a gregarious cricket. Behaviour, 89 (3–4), 241–250.
Boake, C.R.B. & Capranica, R.R. (1982) Agressive signal in “courtship” chirps of a Gregarious cricket. Science, 218 (5), 580–582.
Brown, W.D. (1999) Mate choice in tree crickets and their kin. Annual Review of Entomology, 44 (371), 371–398.
Centeno, E. & Zefa, E. (2019) The complex communication signals in the mating behavior of the tropical cricket Cranistus colliurides Stål, 1861 (Orthoptera: Grylloidea; Trigonidiidae: Phylloscyrtini). Zootaxa, 4623 (3), 571–576.
Chintauan-Marquier, I.C., Legendre, F., Hugel, S., Robillard, T., Grandcolas, P., Nel, A., Zuccon, D. & Desutter-Grandcolas, L. (2015) Laying the foundations of evolutionary and systematic studies in crickets (Insecta,Orthoptera): a multilocus phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics, 32 (1), 1–28.
Cigliano M.M, Braun, H., Eades, D.C. & Otte, D. (2020) Orthoptera Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. Available from: http://Orthoptera.SpeciesFile.org (accessed 12 January 2020)
Crankshaw, O.S. (1979) Female choice in relation to calling and courtship songs in Acheta domesticus. Animal Behaviour, 27 (4), 1274–1275.
Crnokrak, P. & Roff, D.A. (1995) Fitness differences associated with calling behaviour in the two wing morphs of male sand crickets, Gryllus firmus. Animal Behaviour, 50, 1475–1481.
Dambach, M. & Lichtenstein, L. (1978) Zur Ethologie der afrikanischen Grille Phaeophilacris spectrum Saussure. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 46, 14–29.
de Mello F.A.G. (2007) Female monopolization and paternity assurance in South American crickets (Orthoptera:Grylloidea): mating plugs, extra claspers and forced copulation. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 47, 245–257.
de Mello F.A.G. & Pellegatti-Franco F. (1998) A new cave cricket of the genus Endecous from southeastern Brazil and characterization of male and female genitália of E. itatibensis Rehn, 1918 (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Phalangopsinae, Luzarinae). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 7, 185–188.
de Mello F.A.G & dos Reis J. (1994) Substrate drumming and wing stridulation performed during courtship by a new Brazilian cricket (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 2, 21–24.
Evans, A.R. (1988) Mating systems and reproductive strategies in three Australian Gryllid crickets: Bobilla victoriae Otte, Balamara gidya Otte and Teleogryllus commodus (Walker) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Nemobiinae; Trigonidiinae, Gryllinae). Ethology, 78, 21–52.
Fianco, M., Souza-Dias, P.G.B., Farias-Martins, F., Magro, S., Prasniewski, V.M., Ricci, J., Zefa, E. & Szinwelski, N. (2018) Ethology of the cricket Endecous (Endecous) chape Souza-Dias & de Mello, (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae) I: Agonistic and reproductive behavior. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 27 (2), 193–201.
Fisher, D.N., Rodríguez-Muñoz, R. & Tregenza T. (2016) Comparing pre- and post-copulatory mate competition using social network analysis in wild crickets. Behavioral Ecology, 27 (3), 912–919.
Fisher, D.N., Rodríguez-Muñoz, R. & Tregenza, T. (2019) Dynamic networks of fighting and mating in a wild cricket population. Animal Behaviour, 155, 179–188.
Funk, D.H. (2016) Mating behavior of Phyllopalpus pulchellus Uhler (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 25, 7–13.
Gao, Q., Turnell, B.R., Hua, B. & Shaw, K.L. (2019) The effect of nuptial gift number on fertilization success in a Hawaiian swordtail cricket. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 73, 91–92.
Gorochov, A.V. (2014) Classification of the Phalangopsinae subfamily group, and new taxa from the subfamilies Phalangopsinae and Phaloriinae (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 23 (1), 7–88.
Hammer, O., Harper, D.A. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) Past: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Paleontologia Electronica, 4 (1), 9 pp.
Heinzel, H.G. & Dambach, M. (1987) Travelling air vortex rings as potential communication signals in a cricket. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 160, 79–88.
Lewis, S. & South, A. (2012) The Evolution of Animal Nuptial Gifts. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 44, 53–97.
Ligges, U., Krey, S.M.O. & Schnackenberg, S. (2013) tuneR: analysis of music. R package. Version 1.3.3. Available from : https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=tuneR (accessed 12 January 2020)
Loher, W. & Rence, B. (1978) The mating behavior of Teleogryllus commodus (Walker) and its central and periperal control. Ethology, 46 (3), 225–259.
Lunichkin, A.M., Zhemchuzhnikov, M.K. & Knyazev, A.N. (2016) Basic elements of behavior of the cricket Phaeophilacris bredoides Kaltenbach (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Entomological Review, 96 (5), 537–544.
Matthews, R.W. & Matthews, J.R. (2010) Mechanocommunication. In: Matthews, R.W., Matthews, J.R. (Eds.), Insect Behavior. 2nd Edition. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York, pp. 291–327.
Mays, D.L. (1971). Mating behavior of nemobiine crickets Hygronemobius, Nemobius, and Pteronemobius (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Florida Entomologist, 54, 13–22.
Mesa, A. & García-Novo, P. (1997) Endecous onthophagus: a new combination, phallic sclerites and karyology of the species (Orthoptera - Grylloidea). Journal of Orthoptera Research, 6, 117–120.
Metrani, S. & Balakrishnan, R. (2005) The Utility of Song and Morphological Characters in Delineating Species Boundaries among Sympatric Tree Crickets of the Genus Oecanthus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae): A Numerical Taxonomic Approach. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 14 (1), 1–16.
Morley, E.L. & Mason, A.C. (2015) Active auditory mechanics in female black‑horned tree crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis). Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 201, 1147–1155.
Nischk, F. & Otte, D. (2000) Bioacoustic, ecology and systematic of Ecuadorian rainforest crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Phalangopsinae), with a description of four new genera and ten new species. Journal of Orthoptera Research, 9, 229–254.
Otte, D. & Alexander. R.D. (1983) The Australian crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). Academy of Natural Sciences, 22, 1–477.
Prado, R. (2006) Reproductive behavior of Eidmanacris corumbatai Garcia (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae). Neotropical Entomology, 35 (4), 452–457.
R, C.T. (2019) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Available from: http://www.r-project.org (accessed 12 January 2020)
Ryder, J.J. & Siva-Jothy, M.T. (2001) Quantitative genetics of immune function and body size in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14, 646–653.
Sakaluk, S.K. (1986) Sperm competition and the evolution of nuptial feeding behavior in the cricket, Gryllodes supplicans (Walker). Evolution, 40, 584–593.
Sakaluk, S.K. (1984) Male crickets feed females to ensure complete sperm transfer. Science, 233, 609–610.
Sakaluk, S.K., Duffield, K.R., Rapkin, J., Sadd, B.M. & Hunt, J. (2019) The troublesome gift: The spermatophylax as a purveyor of sexual conflict and coercion in crickets. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 51, 1–30.
Shaw, K.L. & Khine, A.H. (2004) Courtship behavior in the Hawaiian Cricket Laupala cerasina: Males provide spermless spermatohpores as nuptial gifts. Ethology, 110, 81–95.
Simmons, L.W. (1986) Inter-male competition and mating sucess in the field cricket, Gryllys bimaculatus (De Geer). Animal Behaviour, 34 (2), 567–579.
Simmons, L.W. (1987) Female choice contributes to offspring fitness in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus (De Geer). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 21, 313–321.
Souza-Dias, P.G.B., Szinwelski, N., Fianco, M., Oliveira, E.C., de Mello, F.A.G. & Zefa, E. (2017) New species of Endecous (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae) from the Iguaçu National Park (Brazil), including bioacoustics, cytogenetic and distribution data. Zootaxa, 4237 (3), 454–470.
Stoffer, B. & Walker, S.E. (2012) The use of multimodal communication in mate choice decisions by female house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Animal Behaviour, 83 (4), 1131–1138.
Stritih-Peljhan, N., Rührb, P.T., Buh, B. & Straußd, J. (2019) Low-frequency vibration transmission and mechanosensory detection in the legs of cave crickets. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, 233, 89–96.
Sueur, J., Aubin, T. & Simonis, C. (2008) Seewave: a free modular tool for sound analysis and synthesis. Bioacoustics, 18, 213–226.
Toms, R.B. & Otte, D. (1988) New genera, species and records of East and southern African tree crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Oecanthinae). Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 34 (20), 469–521.
Tregenza, T. & Wedell, N. (1997) Definitive evidence for cuticular pheromones in a cricket. Animal Behaviour, 54 (4), 979–984.
Verburgt, L., Ferreira, M. & Ferguson. J.W.H. (2011) Male field cricket song reflects age, allowing females to prefer young males. Animal Behaviour, 81 (1), 19–29.
Walker, T.J. & Gurney, A.B. (1967) The metanotal gland as a taxonomic character in New World Oecanthus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 69, 157–161.
Wynn, H. & Vahed, K. (2004) Male Gryllus bimaculatus Guard females to delay them from mating with rival males and to obtain repeated copulations. Journal of Insect Behavior, 17 (1), 53–66.
Zefa, E. (2006) Comparison of calling songs in three allopatric populations of Endecous itatibensis (Orthoptera, Phalangopsinae). Iheringia, Série Zoológica, 96 (1), 13–16.
Zefa, E., Martins, L.P. & Szinwelski, N. (2008) Complex mating behavior in Adelosgryllus rubricephalus (Orthoptera, Phalangopsidae, Grylloidea). Iheringia, Série Zoologia, 98 (3), 325–328.
Zefa, E., Mesa, A. & Martins, L.P. (2010) New Brazilian species of Endecous Saussure, 1878: Phallic sclerites, calling song and tegmen morphometry (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsinae). Entomological Science, 13, 150–155.
Zefa, E., Oliveira, G.L., Redü, D.R. & Martins, L.P. (2012) Calling song of two sympatric species of cricket Phylloscyrtini (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Trigonidiinae). Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 25 (1), 21–27.
Zuk, M. & Simmons, L.W. (1997) Reproductive strategies of the crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). In: The Evolution of Mating Systems in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press, pp. 89–109.