Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Monograph
Published: 2020-02-17

Parasitic copepods of the family Lernanthropidae Kabata, 1979 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) from Australian fishes, with descriptions of seven new species

Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom
Institute for Biomedical Sciences, George Washington University, 2300 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, USA
Fisheries Research, Department of Primary Industries and Resources, Northern Territory Government, Berrimah, Northern Territory 0828, Australia Natural Sciences Section, Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Northern Territory 0801, Australia
DigsFish Services Pty Ltd, Banksia Beach, Queensland 4507, Australia
Marine Parasitology Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
Department of Biosciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3HP, United Kingdom 18 Chalk Lane, Barnet, Hertfordshire EN4 9HJ, United Kingdom
Aquaculture Group, Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand. Marine Parasitology Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, 1 University Drive, Townsville 4811, Australia
Copepoda parasites copepods Lernanthropidae taxonomy

Abstract

The total number of species of Lernanthropidae previously recorded from Australian waters is 15 (i.e., one species each of Aethon Krøyer, 1837, Lernanthropodes Bere, 1936, and Lernanthropsis Do, in Ho & Do, 1985; 10 species of Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822; and two species of Sagum Wilson, 1913), and all of these records are reviewed. We report here the presence of three species of Aethon. One species, A. garricki Hewitt, 1968, is reported from Australian waters for the first time and a new species, A. bicamera sp. nov., is described from the latrid, Latris lineatus (Forster, 1801) caught off South Australia. The genus Lernanthropodes is represented by a single species, L. trachinoti Pillai, 1962. We recognize Chauvanium Kazachenko, Kovaleva, Nguyen & Ngo, 2017 as a subjective synonym of Lernanthropodes and transfer its type and only species C. chauvani Kazachenko, Kovaleva, Nguyen & Ngo, 2017 which becomes Lernanthropodes chauvani (Kazachenko, Kovaleva, Nguyen & Ngo, 2017) n. comb. Lernanthropsis mugilii (Shishido, 1898) is reported here from Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 sampled in Queensland and in New South Wales. The genus Lernanthropus is the most species rich and we report the presence of 20 nominal species on Australian marine fishes. This total includes six new species: L. alepicolus sp. nov. from Alepes apercna Grant, 1987, L. elegans sp. nov. from Atractoscion aequidens (Cuvier, 1830), L. gnathanodontus sp. nov. from Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), L. paracruciatus sp. nov. from Protonibea diacanthus (Lacepède, 1802), L. pemphericola sp. nov. from Pempheris compressa (White, 1790), and L. selenotoca sp. nov. from Selenotoca multifasciata (Richardson, 1846). In addition, we report the presence of another four species in Australian waters for the first time: L. abitocephalus Tripathi, 1962, L. cadenati Delamare Deboutteville & Nuñes-Ruivo, 1954, L. microlamini Hewitt, 1968, and L. pomadasysis Rangnekar & Murti, 1961. After reexamination of the types of L. paenulatus Wilson, 1922 held in the USNM, we relegate this species to subjective synonymy with L. seriolii Shishido, 1898. Previous records of L. paenulatus from Australian Seriola species should be reassigned to L. seriolii. Lernanthropus ecclesi Kensley & Grindley, 1973 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of L. micropterygis Richiardi, 1884, and L. delamarei Marques, 1960, which is based on the male only, is tentatively considered to be a junior subjective synonym of L. micropterygis. Males are described for the first time for three species; L. breviculus Kabata, 1979, L. microlamini and L. mollis Kabata, 1979. A member of the genus Mitrapus Song & Chen, 1976, M. oblongus (Pillai, 1964), is reported from Australia for the first time, on Herklotsichthys castelnaui (Ogilby, 1897) caught off Queensland and New South Wales. Finally, two species of Sagum were previously known from Australia and here we add three more. Two of the newly reported species were originally described as species of Lernanthropus but we formally transfer them here to Sagum as S. lativentris (Heller, 1865) n. comb. and S. sanguineus (Song, in Song & Chen, 1976) n. comb. The males of S. lativentris and S. vespertilio Kabata, 1979 are described for the first time. A key to the females of the 31 species of lernanthropids found in Australian waters is provided.

 

References

  1. Abdul Khalid, N.Q. & Shaharoum-Harrison, F. (2014) The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. Journal of Parasitology Research, 2014, 697134.

    https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/697134

    Al-Niaeem, K.S., Al-Azizz, S.A. & Al-Ataby, F.H. (2013) The first record of the copepod Lernanthropus corniger Yamaguti, 1954 parasitizing two carangid fishes in northwest of the Arab Gulf, Iraq. Ekologija, 59 (2), 77–80.

    https://doi.org/10.6001/ekologija.v59i2.2712

    Al-Ataby, F.H., Al-Niaeem, K.S. & Al-Azizz, S.A. (2012) A new record of the parasitic copepod Lernanthropus indicus Pillai, 1967 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) from carangid fishes in the North-West Arabian Gulf, Iraq. The Egyptian Journal of Experimental Biology, Zoology, 8, 175–179. [http://www.egyseb.net/ejebz/?mno=187460]

    Bannai, M.A.-A. (2002) Parasites of some marine fishes of Khor Abdulla, north-west Arabian Gulf. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, College of Education, University of Basrah, Basrah, 103 pp. [in Arabic]

    Bassett-Smith, P.W. (1898a) Some new or rare parasitic copepods found on fish in the Indo-tropic region. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7, 2, 357–372, pls. 10–12.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939808678056

    Bassett-Smith, P.W. (1898b) Further new parasitic copepods found on fish in the Indo-tropic Region. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 7, 2, 77–98, pls. 4–6.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939808678020

    Bassett-Smith, P.W. (1899) A systematic description of parasitic Copepoda found on fishes, with an enumeration of the known species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1899, 438–507, pl. 26.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1899.tb06869.x

    Beneden, P.J. van (1852) Note sur quelques parasites d’un poisson rare sur nos côtes (le Maigre d’Europe, Sciaena aquila Cuvier). Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, 19 (3), 98–109, pl.1.

    Beneden, P.J.van. (1857) Notice sur un Lernanthrope nouveau du Serranus goliath. Bulletin de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, 24, 51–63, pl. 1.

    Bere, R. (1936) Parasitic copepods from Gulf of Mexico fish. American Midland Naturalist, 17 (3), 577–625, pls. 1–12.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/2419936

    Boxshall, G.A. (1989) Parasitic copepods of fishes: a new genus of Hatschekiidae from New Caledonia, and new records of Pennellidae, Sphyriidae and Lernanthropidae from the South Atlantic and South Pacific. Systematic Parasitology, 13, 201–222.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00009746

    Boxshall, G.A. (2018) The sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) of Moreton Bay (Queensland, Australia), with descriptions of thirteen new species. Zootaxa, 4398 (1), 1–172.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/Zootaxa.4398.1.1

    Boxshall, G.A. & Halsey, S.H. (2004) An Introduction to Copepod Diversity. The Ray Society, London, 966 pp.

    Brazenor, A.K. & Hutson, K.S. (2013) Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer. Parasitology International, 62, 437–447.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2013.05.005

    Brian, A. (1906) Copepodi Parassiti dei Pesci d’Italia. Istituto Sordomuti, Genova, 187 pp., 21 pls.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.58642

    Brian, A. (1939) Copépodes parasites recueillis par M.E.Dartevelle à l’embouchure du fleuve Congo. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines, 32, 176–198, figs. 1–15.

    Byrnes, T. (1988) Lernanthropids and lernaeopodids parasitic on Australian bream (Acanthopagrus sp.). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 83, 97–120.

    https://doi.org/10.5134/176147

    Capart, A. (1941) Copepoda parasitica. In: Résultats scientifiques des croisières du Navire-école belge ‘Mercator’, 3(5). Mémoires du Musée Royal d’Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 21, 171–197.

    Capart, A. (1959) Copépodes parasites. Résultats Scientifiques de l’Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtieres Africaines de l’Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). 3 (5). Institut Royale des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 55–126, figs. 1–37.

    Carus, J.V. (1885) Prodromus Faunae Mediterraneae. Vol. I. Coelenterata, Echinodermata, Vermes, Arthropoda. E. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 524 pp.

    Causey, D.L. (1953) Parasitic Copepoda from Grand Isle, Louisiana. Occasional Papers of the Marine Laboratory of Louisiana State University, 7, 1–18, figs. 1–22.

    Causey, D.L. (1955) Parasitic Copepoda from Gulf of Mexico fish. Occasional Papers of the Marine Laboratory of Louisiana State University, 9, 1–19, figs. 1–16.

    Chin, J.H. (1947) On two new species of Lernanthropus (Copepoda parasitica) from Chinese marine fishes. Sinensia, 18, 21–33.

    Chu, K.B., Rashid, N.M. & Rani, N.R.A. (2012) Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer. Tropical Biomedicine, 29 (3), 443–50.

    Cressey, R.F. & Collette, B.B. (1970) Copepods and needlefishes: a study in host-parasite relationships. Fisheries Bulletin, 68, 347–432.

    Cribb, T.H. & Bray, R.A. (2010) Gut wash, body soak, blender and heat-fixation: approaches to the effective collection, fixation and preservation of trematodes of fishes. Systematic Parasitology, 76, 1–7.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-010-9229-z

    Delamare Deboutteville, C. & Nuñes-Ruivo, L.P. (1954) Parasites de poissons de mer ouest-Africains récoltés par M.J. Cadenat. II. Copépodes (Ier note). Genres Lernanthropus, Sagum, Paeon, Pennella. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire, Série A, Sciences Naturelles, 16 (1), 139–166.

    Diebakate, C. & Raibaut, A. (1996) Copépodes du genre Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 parasites de poissons marins du Sénégal. Systematic Parasitology, 34 (2), 89–107.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00009684

    El-Rashidy, H.H. & Boxshall, G.A. (2009) Parasites gained: alien parasites switching to native hosts. Journal of Parasitology, 95, 1326–1329.

    https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-2190.1

    El-Rashidy, H.H. & Boxshall, G.A. (2010) Parasitic copepods on immigrant and native clupeid fishes caught in Egyptian coastal waters off Alexandria. Systematic Parasitology, 76, 19–38.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-010-9230-6

    El-Rashidy, H.H. & Boxshall, G.A. (2012) A new copepod (Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) parasitic on a Red Sea immigrant dragonet (Family Callionymidae), with a review of records of parasitic copepods from dragonets. Systematic Parasitology, 81, 87–96.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-011-9326-7

    Eschmeyer, W.N. (1998) Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, 2905 pp.

    Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (2018) FishBase. World Wide Web Electronic Publication. Available from: https://www.fishbase.de/ (accessed 19 October 2018)

    Gnanamuthu, C.P. (1947) Lernanthropus sciaenae, sp. nov., a copepod parasitic on the gills of the fish Sciaena glauca from Madras. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 45 (4), 291–298, figs. 1–3.

    Goggio, E. (1906) Inforno al genere Lernanthropus, de Blainv. (Epachthes, v. Nordm.) con descrizione di tre specie non descritte. Atti della Societa Toscana di scienze naturali, 22, 134–149, pl. 2.

    Gusev, A.V. (1951) Paraziticheskie Copepoda s nekotorykh morskikh ryb. Parazitologicheskii Sbornik, Institut Zoologii, Akademiya Nauk, SSSR, 13, 394–463, figs. 1–37.

    Hayward, C.J. (1997) Distribution of external parasites indicates boundaries to dispersal of sillaginid fishes in the Indo-West Pacific. Marine and Freshwater Research, 48, 391–400.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/MF96125

    Heider, C. (1879) Die Gattung Lernanthropus. Arbeiten aus dem Zoologischen Instituten der Universität Wein und der Zoologischen Station in Trieste, 2, 269–368.

    Heller, C. (1865) Crustaceen. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, Zoologie, 2, 1–280, pls. 1–25.

    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.1597

    Hesse, H. (1877) Description des males, non encore connus, des Lernanthropus de Gisler et de Kroyer, ainsi que de la femelle d’une espece nouvelle dessines er peints d’apres des individues vivants. Revue des Sciences Naturelles. Montpellier, 6, 252–260, pl. 4.

    Hesse, H. (1878) Description des males, non encore connus, des Lernanthropus de Gisler et de Kroyer, ainsi que de la femelle d’une espece nouvelle dessines er peints d’apres des individues vivants (fin). Revue des Sciences Naturelles. Montpellier, 7, 1–8, pls. 1–2.

    Hewitt, G.C. (1968) Some New Zealand parasitic Copepoda of the family Anthosomidae. Zoology Publications from Victoria University of Wellington, 47, 1–31.

    Ho, J.-S. & Do, T.T. (1985) Copepods of the family Lernanthropidae parasitic on Japanese marine fishes, with a phylogenetic analysis of the lernanthropid genera. Report of the Sado Marine Biological Station, Niigata University, 15, 31–76.

    Ho, J.-S. & Kim, I.-H. (2004) Lernanthropid copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on fishes of the Gulf of Thailand. Systematic Parasitology, 58, 17–21.

    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SYPA.0000023828.12294.d1

    Ho, J.-S. & Sey, O. (1996) Copepod parasites of Kuwait marine fishes: A preliminary report. Journal of the University of Kuwait, Science, 23, 61–69.

    Ho, J.-S., Liu, W.-C. & Lin, C.-L. (2008) Six species of lernanthropid copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 35, 251–280.

    Ho, J.-S., Liu, W.-C. & Lin, C.-L. (2011) Six species of the Lernanthropidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan, with a key to 18 species of the family known from Taiwan. Zoological Studies, 50 (5), 611–635. [http://zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/Journals/50.5/611.pdf]

    Hutson, K.S., Ernst, I., Mooney, A.J. & Whittington, I.D. (2007a) Metazoan parasite assemblages of wild Seriola lalandi (Carangidae) from eastern and southern Australia. Parasitology International, 56, 95–105.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2006.12.003

    Hutson, K.S., Ernst, I. & Whittington, I.D. (2007b) Risk assessment for metazoan parasites of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi (Perciformes: Carangidae) in South Australian sea-cage aquaculture. Aquaculture, 271, 85–99.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.03.020

    Huys, R. & Boxshall, G.A. (1991) Copepod evolution. The Ray Society, London, 468 pp.

    Iannacone, J. (2005) Dos parásitos branquiales de la Cachema Cynoscion analis Jenyns 1842 (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) de Perú. Biotempo, 5, 12–23.

    https://doi.org/10.31381/biotempo.v5i0.887

    International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th Edition. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, 306 pp.

    Iwatsuki, Y., Kume, M. & Yoshino, T. (2010) A new species, Acanthopagrus pacificus from the Western Pacific (Pisces, Sparidae). Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Series A, 36 (4), 115–130.

    Izawa, K. (2014) Some new and known species of the Lernanthropidae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the branchial lamellae of Japanese actinopterygian fishes, with revision of two known species of the family and discussion on the insemination mode in the Siphonostomatoida. Crustaceana, 87, 1521–1558.

    https://doi.org/10.1163/15685403-00003373

    Izawa, K. (2018) Some new and known species of the Lernanthropidae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the branchial lamellae of Japanese actinopterygian fishes, with a revision of two known species of the family. Crustaceana, 91, 31–49.

    https://doi.org/10.1163/15685403-00003739

    Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Boxshall, G.A., Bray, R.A., Moravec, F., Trilles, J.-P. & Whittington, I.D. (2010a) Parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish: an annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia. Folia Parasitologia, 57, 237–262.

    https://doi.org/10.14411/fp.2010.032

    Justine, J.-L., Beveridge, I., Boxshall, G.A., Bray, R.A., Moravec, F. & Whittington, I.D. (2010b) An annotated list of parasites (Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in Emperors and Emperor Bream (Lethrinidae) in New Caledonia further highlights parasite biodiversity estimates on coral reef fish. Zootaxa, 2691, 1–40.

    Kabata, Z. (1979a) Parasitic copepods of Australian fishes XII. Family Lernanthropidae. Crustaceana, 37, 198–213.

    Kabata, Z. (1979b) Parasitic Copepoda of British fishes. The Ray Society, London, 468 pp.

    Kabata, Z. (2005) Lernanthropus lativentris Heller, 1865 (Copepoda, Lernanthropidae) of Pillai (1985) recognised as a new species. Acta Parasitologica, 50, 352–354.

    Kabata, Z. & Gusev, A.V. (1966) Parasitic Copepoda of fishes from the collection of the Zoological Institute in Leningrad. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology, 46, 155–207, figs. 1–176.

    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1966.tb00503.x

    Kazachenko, V.N., Kovaleva, N.N., Nguyen, V.T. & Ngo, H.D. (2014) Taxonomic review of the parasitic copepod (Crustacea: Copepoda) fish in Vietnam. Scientific Journal of Dalrybvtuz, 31, 20–30.

    Kazachenko, V.N., Kovaleva, N.N., Nguyen, V.T. & Ngo, H.D. (2017) Three new species and one new genus of parasitic copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) from fishes of the South China Sea. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 43, 264–269.

    https://doi.org/10.1134/S1063074017040058

    Kensley, B. & Grindley, J.R. (1973) South African parasitic Copepoda. Annals of the South African Museum, 62, 69–130.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/02580144.1973.10429225

    Kirtisinghe, P. (1937) Parasitic copepods of fish from Ceylon. II. Parasitology, 29, 435–455.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182000024975

    Kirtisinghe, P. (1956) Parasitic copepods of fish from Ceylon. IV. Parasitology, 46, 14–21.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182000026317

    Kirtisinghe, P. (1964) A review of the Parasitic Copepods of Fish recorded from Ceylon with Descriptions of Additional forms. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station, Ceylon, 17, 45–132.

    Koyuncu, C.E., Castro Romero, R. & Karaytug, S. (2012) Lernanthropus indefinitus n. sp (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Lernanthropidae) parasitic on Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801) (Pisces, Sciaenidae). Crustaceana, 85, 1409–1420.

    https://doi.org/10.1163/15685403-00003138

    Krøyer, H. (1863) Bidrag til Kundskab om Snyltekrebsene. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, Series 3, 2, 75–426, pls. 1–18.

    Leong, T.S. (1986) Four parasitic copepods (fami­lies Lernanthropidae and Lernaeopodidae) of Malaysian fishes. Tropical Biomedicine, 3 (2), 147–155.

    Liu, W.-C., Ho, J.-S. & Lin, C.-L. (2009a) Three species of Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Copepoda, Lernanthropidae) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 36, 29–48.

    Liu, W.-C., Ho, J.-S. & Lin, C.-L. (2009b) Another three species of Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Copepoda, Lernanthropidae) parasitic on marine fishes of Taiwan, with a key to the species of the genus Lernanthropus found in Taiwan. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 36, 119–134.

    Luque, J.L. (1996) Copépodos parasitos do pargo, Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Sparidae) do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Resumos XXI Congresso Brasileiro de Zoologia, 1996, 50.

    Luque, J.L. & Alves, D.R. (2001) Ecologia das comunidades de metazoários parasitos do xaréu, Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) e do xerelete, Caranx latus Agassiz (Osteichthyes, Carangidae) do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, 18, 399–410.

    https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-81752001000200011

    Luque, J.L., Bruno, M. & Covarrubias, L. (1989) Tres especies del género Lernanthropus (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) parasitando a peces marinos del Péru; con descripción de L. paralonchuri n. sp. y dos nuevos reistros. Parasitologia al Dia, 13, 93–96.

    Luque, J.L. & Farfán, C. (1990) A new species of Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) parasitic on Menticirrhus ophicephalus (Jenyns) (Teleostei:Sciaenidae) from the Peruvian coast. Systematic Parasitology, 17 (2), 97–101.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00009796

    Luque, J.L. & Paraguassú, J.A. (2003) Redescriptions of two species of Lernanthropus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Lernanthropidae) parasitic on teleost marine fishes from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Acta Parasitolgica, 48, 119–124.

    Manera, M. & Dezfuli, B.S. (2003) Lernanthropus kroyeri infections in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax: pathological features. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 57, 177–180.

    https://doi.org/10.3354/dao057177

    Markevich, A.P. (1956) Parasitic Copepods of fishes of the USSR. Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk Ukrainskoi SSR, Kiev, 259 pp.

    Marques, E. (1960) Diagnose de Lernanthropus delamarei n. sp., Copépoda parasita do peixe Seriola lalandi Val. Garcia de Orta, Lisbon, 8 (1), 30–46.

    Nordmann, A.von. (1864) Neue Beiträge zur Kenntnis parasitischer Copepoden. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes de Moscou, 37 (4), 461–520, pls. 5–8.

    Nuñes-Ruivo, L. (1962) Copépodes parasites de poissons des côtes d’Angola (2ème série). Memórias da Junta de Investigaçoes do Ultramar, 33, 67–86, figs. 1–8.

    Oliva, M.E. & Durán, L.E. (1982) Lernanthropus pacificus n. sp. (Crustacea: Copepoda) parasito en la corvinilla Sciaena gilberti (Abbott) (Pisces: Teleostei). Boletín Chileno de Parasitología, 37, 15–17.

    Olivier, P.A.S. & van Niekerk, J.P. (1995) A new species of Lernanthropus De Blainville, 1822 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) from St. Lucia estuary, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 91, 44–48

    Pattipeiluhu, S.M. & Gill, M.E. (1998) Ectoparasites of Coral Reef Fishes and Their Value as Biological Indicators of Pollution. Cakalele, 9, 25–29.

    Pearse, A.S. (1947) Parasitic copepods from Beaufort, North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 63, 1–16, figs. 1–51.

    Pearse, A.S. (1952) Parasitic Crustacea from the Texas coast. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 2, 5–42.

    Piasecki, W. & Hayward, C.J. (2002) Redescription of the fish parasite Lernanthropus polynemi Richiardi, 1881 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) and relegation of two congeners to synonymy. Systematic Parasitology, 52, 137–144.

    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015636300605

    Pilla, S., Vankara, A.P. & Chikkam, V. (2012) Copepod parasites of snappers, Lutjanus spp (Pisces, Lutjanidae) with description of a new caligid copepod, Caligus rivulatus sp. nov. (Copepoda, Caligidae) from Visakhapatnam coast, India. Cibtech Journal of Zoology, 1(2), 16-24.

    Pillai, N.K. (1962) Three new species of anthosomid copepods parasitic on South Indian fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 48, 613–617.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/3274923

    Pillai, N.K. (1963) Copepods parasitic on South Indian fishes: family Anthosomidae -1. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 60, 657–670.

    Pillai, N.K. (1964) Copepods parasitic on South Indian fishes: family Anthosomidae - 2. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 61, 45–59.

    Pillai, N.K. (1966) Notes on copepods parasitic on South Indian marine fishes. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 8, 123–140.

    Pillai, N.K. (1967) Copepods parasitic on Indian marine fishes. A review. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Crustacea, Symposium Series, Marine Biological Association of India, Series 2, 5, 1556–1680, figs. 1–266.

    Pillai, N.K. (1985) Fauna of India. Parasitic copepods of marine fishes. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 900 pp.

    Pillai, N.K. & Sebastian, M.J. (1967) Redescription of Sagum epinepheli (Yamaguti & Yamasu) with comments on the validity of Pseudolernanthropus (Copepoda, Anthosomatidae). Crustaceana, 13, 73–80.

    https://doi.org/10.1163/156854067X00099

    Radujkovic, B.M. & Raibaut, A. (1989) Parasites des poissons marins du Monténégro: copépodes. Acta Adriatica, 30, 237–278.

    Raja, K., Rajendran, N., Saravanakumar, A., Gopalakrishnan, A., Vijayakumar, R. & Venmathi Maran, B.A. (2018) Lernanthropids (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida), Parasitic on Fishes from Southeast Coast of India. Indian Journal of GeoMarine Sciences, 47, 910–918.

    Rangnekar, P.G. & Murti, N.N. (1961) Two new copepods from the fishes of Bombay. Journal of the University of Bombay, 29, 206–210.

    Redkar, M.V., Rangnekar, P.G. & Murti, N.N. (1949) Four new species of parasitic copepods from the marine fishes of Bombay. Journal of the University of Bombay, 18, 36–50.

    Reimer, L.W. (1986) Parasitic copepods of fishes from the coast of Mozambique. Wiadomości Parazytologiczne, 32, 505–506.

    Richiardi, S. (1880) Contribuzioni alla Fauna d’Italia. A. Catalogo sistematico dei Crostacei che vivono sul corpo degli animali. Catalogo generale della sezione Italiana all Esposizione internzionale della Pesca in Berlino, 1880, 147–152.

    Richiardi, S. (1884) Descrizione di due specie nuove del genere Lernanthropus. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Processi Verbali e Memorie, Serie B, 4, 82–84.

    Rohde, K., Roubal, F. & Hewitt, G.C. (1980) Ectoparasitic Monogenea, Digenea, and Copepoda from the gills of some marine fishes of New Caledonia and New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 14, 1–13.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1980.9515837

    Rohde, K., Hayward, C.J. & Heap, M. (1995) Aspects of the ecology of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes. International Journal of Parasitology, 25, 945–970.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(95)00015-t

    Romero, R.C. & Öktener, A. (2010) Mitrapus oblongus (Pillai, 1964) (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) redescription from specimens collected on Sardinella aurita from Turkey. Bulletin of the European Association Fish Pathologists, 30 (4), 120–127.

    Roubal, F.R. (1981) The taxonomy and site specificity of the metazoan ectoparasites on the black bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther), in northern New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology, 84 (Supplement), 1–100.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/ajzs084

    Roubal, F.R., Armitage, R. & Rohde, K. (1983) Taxonomy of metazoan ectoparasites of snapper, Chrysophrys auratus (Family Sparidae), from southern Australia and New Zealand. Australian Journal of Zoology, 94 (Supplement), 1–68.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/AJZS094

    Roubal, F.R., Quartararoan, N. & West, B.C. (1996) Spatial and Temporal Variation in Populations and Community of Ectoparasites on Young Snapper, Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider) (Sparidae), from the Wild and Captivity at Port Hacking, Sydney, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 585–93.

    https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9960585

    Sabas, C.S.S. & Luque, J.L. (2003) Metazoan parasites of weakfish, Cynoscion guatucupa and Macrodon ancylodon (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae), from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 12, 171–178.

    Shiino, S.M. (1955) Copepods parasitic on Japanese fishes. 8. The Anthosomidae. Reports of the Faculty of Fisheries, Prefectural University of Mie, 2, 50–68.

    Shiino, S.M. (1959) Sammlung der parasitischen Copepoden in der Präfekturuniversität von Mie. Reports of the Faculty of Fisheries, Prefectural University of Mie, 3, 332–374.

    Shishido, I. (1898) Parasitic copepod, Lernanthropus. Dobutsugaku-Zasshi [Zoological Magazine], Tokyo, 10, 120–126.

    Sirikanchana, P. (1982) Check lists of parasites of fishes in Thailand. Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 11 pp.

    Small, L., Humphrey, J. & Shilton, C. (2009) Report on investigation into gill ectoparasites in seacaged barramundi at Port Hurd. Department of Regional Development, Primary Industries, Fisheries and Resources, Darwin, Northern Territory, 15 pp.

    Smith, P.J., Diggles, B.K., McKenzie, J., Kim, S., Maolagain, C.O., Notman, P. & Griggs, L.H. (2004) Kingfish stock structure. National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research, Wellington, 29 pp.

    Song, D. & Chen, G. (1976) Some parasitic copepods from marine fishes of China. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 22, 406–424.

    Tavares, L.E.R. & Luque, J.L. (2004) Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of the later juvenile common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Osteichthyes: Centropomidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 64 (3A), 523–529.

    https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842004000300015

    Thomson, G.M. (1890) Parasitic Copepoda of New Zealand, with descriptions of new species. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, 22, 353–376, pls. 25–29.

    Timi, J.T. (2003) Habitat selection by Lernanthropus cynoscicola (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae): host as physical environment, a major determinant of niche restriction. Parasitology, 127, 155–163.

    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182003003470

    Timi, J.T. & Etchegoin, J.A. (1996) A new species of Lernanthropus (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) parasite of Cynoscion striatus (Pisces: Sciaenidae) from Argentinian waters, and new records in Lernanthropus trachuri. Folia Parasitologica, 43, 71–74

    Toksen, E. (2007) Lernanthropus krøyeri van Beneden, 1851 (Crustacea: Copepoda) infections of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 27 (2), 49.

    Toksen, E., Boxshall, G.A. & Altinozek, S. (2012) Sagum posteli Delamare Deboutteville & Nuñes-Ruivo, 1954 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) parasitic on Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) in Turkish waters, with a key to species of Sagum. Systematic Parasitology, 82, 71–80.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-012-9350-2

    Tripathi, Y.R. (1962) Parasitic copepods from Indian fishes III. Family Anthosomatidae and Dichelesthidae. Proceedings of the 1st All-India Congress of Zoology, 2, 191–217.

    Uyeno, D. & Naruse, T. (2018) Two new species of Sagum Wilson, 1913 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) parasitic on reef fishes off the Ryukyu Islands. Systematic Parasitology, 95, 893–904.

    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-018-9810-4

    Villalba, S.C. & Fernández, J.B. (1984) Lernanthropus guacoldae sp. n. (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), parasito de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1844) (Pisces: Sciaenidae) en Chile. Boletín de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción, 55, 127–136.

    Vooren, C.M. & Tracey, D. (1976) Parasites in tarakihi (Pisces: Cheilodactylidae) from three areas around New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 10, 499–509.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1976.9515632

    Walter, T.C. & Boxshall, G.A. (2018) World of Copepods database. Lernanthropus de Blainville, 1822. Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=135615 (accessed 17 December 2018)

    Wilson, C.B. (1913) Crustacean parasites of West Indian fishes and land crabs, with descriptions of new genera and species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 44 (1950), 189–227, pls. 18–53.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.44-1950.189

    Wilson, C.B. (1922) North American parasitic copepods belonging to the family Dichelesthiidae. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 60, 1–100, pls. 1–13.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.60-2400.1

    Wilson, C.B. (1924) Parasitic copepods from the White Nile and the Red Sea. In: Jägerskiöld, A.L.K.E. (Ed.), Results of the Swedish Zoological Expedition to Egypt and the White Nile 1901, 5 (3), 1–17, pls. 1–3.

    Wilson, C.B. (1932) The copepods of the Woods Hole region, Massachusetts. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 158, 1–635, pls. 1–41.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.03629236.158.i

    Yamaguti, S. (1936) Parasitic copepods from fishes of Japan. Part 3. Caligoida, II. Publications of The Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 1936, 1–21, pls. 1–9. [private publication]

    Yamaguti, S. (1939) Parasitic copepods from fishes of Japan. Part 5. Caligoida, III. Volume Jubilare pro Prof. Sadao Yoshida, 2, 443–487, pls. 14–33.

    Yamaguti, S. (1954) Parasitic copepods from fishes of Celebes and Borneo. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 3, 375–398.

    https://doi.org/10.5134/174483

    Yamaguti, S. (1963) Parasitic Copepoda and Branchiura of Fishes. Interscience Publishers, New York, 1104 pp.

    Yamaguti, S. & Yamasu, T. (1960) New parasitic copepods from Japanese fishes. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 8, 141–152, pls. 10–12.

    https://doi.org/10.5134/174695

    Yü, S.-C. (1933) Chinese parasitic copepods collected by H.W. Wu, with descriptions of new genera and species. Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, 4, 117–138.