Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2020-01-31
Page range: 501–518
Abstract views: 83
PDF downloaded: 27

Redescription of Deltamysis holmquistae Bowman & Orsi, 1992 (Crustacea: Mysida: Mysidae), a mysid species new to the Atlantic Ocean with observations on the taxonomic status of Kochimysis Panampunnayil & Biju, 2007

Ecological Associates, Inc., Jensen Beach, Florida 34958, USA.
Department of Biology, University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida 33606, USA.
Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, Mississippi 39566, USA.
Crustacea Taxonomy Invasive Species India California Texas Florida


The first occurrences of the estuarine mysid Deltamysis holmquistae Bowman & Orsi from the Atlantic Ocean are documented from sites on the eastern Florida and northwest Gulf of Mexico (Texas) coasts of North America. Based on examination of type material and specimens from Florida and Texas, considerable morphological variability and additional characters were observed necessitating a rediagnosis of the monotypic genus Deltamysis and a redescription of D. holmquistae. As a result of these new taxonomic criteria, the Indian Ocean species, Kochimysis pillaii Panampunnayil & Biju, described from southwest coastal India, is subsumed as a junior synonym of D. holmquistae. The current distribution of this apparently invasive species is probably due to maritime commerce. The geographical location of the endemic or source populations of D. holmquistae remains undetermined; however, its co-occurrence in California with three introduced Asian mysids suggests a northern Indian Ocean or northwest Pacific origin.



  1. Băcescu, M. (1968) Afromysis guinensis n.sp. and Brasilomysis castroi n.g. n.sp. from the waters of the tropical Atlantic. Review Roumain de Biologie Animals, 14, 349–357.

    Băcescu, M. (1969) Contribution à la connaissance du genre Metamysidopsis W. Tattersall 1951 M. swifti n. sp.- M. mexicana n.n., confondues avec M. munda Zimmer. Revue Roumaine de Biologie Serie de Zoologie, 14 (5), 349–357.

    Biju, A. & Panampunnayil, S. (2010) Seasonality, reproductive biology and ecology of Mesopodopsis zeylanica. Plankton Benthos Research, 5 (2), 49–55.

    Boas, J.E.V. (1883) Studien uber die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Malakostraken. Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 8, 485–579.

    Bollens, S.M., Cordell, J.R., Avent, S. & Hooff, R. (2002) Zooplankton invasions: a brief review, plus two case studies from the northeast Pacific Ocean. Hydrobiologia, 480, 87–110.

    Bowman, T.E. (1957) A new species of Mysidopsis (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from the southeastern coast of the United States. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 107 (3378), 1–7.

    Bowman, T.E. (1964) Mysidopsis almyra, a new estuarine mysid crustacean from Louisiana and Florida. Tulane Studies in Zoology, 12 (1), 15–19.

    Bowman, T.E. & Orsi, J.J. (1992) Deltamysis holmquistae, a new genus and species of Mysidacea from the Sacramento–San Joaquin estuary of California (Mysidae: Mysinae: Heteromysini). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 105 (4), 733–742.

    Brown, L.R., Kimmerer, W., Conrad, J.L., Lesmeister, S. & Mueller-Solger, A. (2016) Food webs of the Delta, Suisun Bay, and Suisun Marsh: an update on current understanding and possibilities for management. San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science, 14 (3), 1–41.

    Carlton, J.T. (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology, 77 (6), 1653–1655.

    Carlton, J.T. (2009) Deep invasion ecology and the assembly of communities in historical time. In: Rilov, G. & Crooks, J.A. (Eds.), Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems. Ecological Studies (Analysis and Synthesis). Vol. 204. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, pp. 13–56.

    Castro, N., Costa, J.L., Domingos, I. & Angelico, M.M. (2013) Trophic ecology of a coastal fish assemblage in Portuguese waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK, 93 (5), 1151–1161.

    Cohen, A.N. & Carlton, J.T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: A case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., 283 pp.

    Coifmann, I. (1937) Misidacei raccolti dalla R. corvetta Vettor Pisani work. negli anni 1882–85. Annuario del Museo Zoologico della R. Universita di Napoli, Nuova Serie, 7 (3), 1–14.

    Darnell, R.M. (1958) Food habits of fishes and larger invertebrates of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, an estuarine community. Institute of Marine Science, 5, 370–374.

    Dean, A.F., Bollens, S.M., Simenstad, C. & Cordell, J. (2005) Marshes as sources or sinks of an estuarine mysid: demographic patterns and tidal flux of Neomysis kadiakensis at China Camp marsh, San Francisco estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 63, 1–11.

    Ewel, J.J. (1986) Invasibility: Lessons from South Florida. In: Mooney, H.A. & Drake, J.A. (Eds.), Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, pp. 214–230.

    Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2017) FS 7000: General Biological Community Sampling (DEP-SOP-001/01). Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahasee, Florida, 32 pp.

    Fofonoff, P.W., Ruiz, G.M., Hines, A.H., Steves, B.D. & Carlton, J.T. (2009) Four centuries of biological invasions in tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay region. In: Rilov, G. & Crooks, J.A. (Eds.), Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems. Ecological Studies (Analysis and Synthesis). Vol. 204. Springer, Berlin and Heidelberg, pp. 479–506.

    Holt, E.W.L. & Tattersall, W.M. (1906) Schizopodous Crustacea from the north-east Atlantic slope. Supplement. Scientific Investigations of the Fishery Board for Ireland 1904, 5, 3–50.

    Haworth, A.H. (1825) A new binary arrangement of the macrurous Crustacea. The Philosophical Magazine and Journal, 65, 183–184.

    Heard, R.A., Price, W.W., Knott, D.M., King, R.A. & Allen, D.M. (2006) A Taxonomic Guide to the Mysids of the South Atlantic Bight. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS, 4, 1–37.

    Hiebert, T.C. & Rasmusson, L. (2016a) Archaeomysis grebnitzkii. In: Hiebert, T.C., Butler, B.A. & Shanks, A.L. (Eds.), Oregon Estuarine Invertebrates: Rudys’ Illustrated Guide to Common Species. 3rd Edition. University of Oregon Libraries and Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Charleston, Oregon, pp. 538–545.

    Hiebert, T.C. & Rasmusson, L. (2016b) Neomysis mercedis. In: Hiebert, T.C., Butler, B.A. & Shanks, A.L. (Eds.), Oregon Estuarine Invertebrates: Rudys’ Illustrated Guide to Common Species. 3rd Edition. University of Oregon Libraries and Oregon Institute of Marine Biology, Charleston, Oregon, pp. 546–553.

    Hostens, K. & Mees, J. (1999) The mysid-feeding guild of demersal fishes in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde Estuary. Journal of Fish Biology, 55 (4), 704–719.

    Ii, N. (1936) Studies on Japanese Mysidacea 1. Descriptions of a new and some already known species belonging to the genera Neomysis, Acanthomysis, and Proneomysis. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 6, 577–619.

    Ii, N. (1964) Fauna Japonica, Mysidae (Crustacea). Biogeographical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 610 pp.

    Jumars, P.S. (2007) Habitat coupling by mid-latitude, subtidal, marine mysids: Import and subsidized omnivores. Oceanography and Marine Biology, 45, 89–138.

    Lehtiniemi, M., Ojaveer, H., David, M., Galil, B., Gollasch, S., McKenzie, C., Minchin, D., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Olenin, S. & Pederson, J. (2015) Dose of truth—Monitoring marine non-indigenous species to serve legislative requirements. Marine Policy, 54, 26–35.

    Manojkumar, P.P. & Pavithran, P.P. (2016) Diet and feeding habits of Saurida tumbil (Bloch, 1795) from northern Kerala, south-west coast of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 63 (4), 41–47.

    Mayor, E., Chigbu, P., Pierson, J. & Kennedy, V. (2017) Composition, abundance, and life history of mysids (Crustacea: Mysida) in the coastal lagoons of MD, USA. Estuaries and Coasts, 40 (1), 224–234.

    Mecum, W.L. (2006) A key to the Mysidacea of the upper San Francisco Estuary. IEP Technical Report 75. 13 pp. Available from: (accessed 16 December 2019)

    Mees, J. & Meland, K. (Eds.) (2012 onwards) World List of Lophogastrida, Stygiomysida and Mysida. Available from: (accessed 19 February 2019)

    Modlin, R. (2007) Mysidacea. In: Carlton, J.T. (Ed.), The Light and Smith Manual, Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, pp. 489–495.

    Modlin, R.F. & Orsi, J.J. (1997) Acanthomysis bowmani, a new species, and A. aspera Ii, Mysidacea newly reported from the Sacramento—San Joaquin Estuary, California (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 110, 439–446.

    Modlin, R.F. & Orsi, J.J. (2000) Range extension of Acanthomysis hwanhaiensis Ii, 1964, to the San Francisco estuary, California, and notes on its description (Crustacea: Mysidacea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 113, 690–695.

    Molenock, J. (1969) Mysidopsis bahia, a new species of Mysid (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from Galveston Bay, Texas. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany, 15, 113–116.

    Müller, O. F. (1776) Zoologiae Danicae prodromus: seu Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Hafniae, Typiis Hallageriis, 274 pp.

    Nakazawa, K. (1910) Notes on Japanese Schizopoda. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, 7 (4), 247–261.

    Norman, A.M. (1892) On British Mysidae, a family of Crustacea Schizopoda. The Annuals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 6, 10 (56), 143–166.

    Ojaveer, B., Galil, B.S., Carlton, J.T., Alleway, H., Goulletquer, P., Lehtiniemi, M., Marchini, A., Miller, W., Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., Peharda, M., Ruiz, G.M., Williams, S.L. & Zaiko, A. (2018) Historical baselines in marine bioinvasions: implications for policy and management. PLoS ONE, 13, e0202383.

    Panampunnayil, S.U. & Biju, A. (2007) A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea- Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India). Journal of Natural History, 41 (29–32), 1955–1963.

    Petryashev, V.V. (2005) Biogeographical division of the North Pacific sublittoral and upper bathyal zones by the fauna of Mysidacea and Anomura (Crustacea). Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 31 (Supplement 1), S9–S26.

    Pillai, N.K. (1965) A review of the work on the shallow water Mysidacea of the Indian waters. Proceedings of Symposium on Crustacea. Marine Biological Association of India, 5, 1681–1728.

    Pillai, N.K. (1973) Mysidacea of the Indian Ocean. Handbook to the International Zooplankton Collections 4. Indian Ocean Biological Centre, Kerala State, 125 pp.

    Price, W.W. (1982) A key to the Mysidacea of the Texas coast with notes on their ecology. Hydrobiologia, 93, 9–21.

    Price, W.W. (2004) An annotated checklist for the order Mysida (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Pacific coasts of the Americas (Alaska to Chile). In: Hendrickx, M.E. (Ed.), Contributions to the study of East Pacific crustaceans. Vol. 3. Instituto de Ciences del Mar y Limnologia, UNAM, Mexico City, pp. 53–77.

    Price, W.W. (2016) Chapter 16. Phylum Arthropoda. Order Mysida, Order Stygiomysida. In: Thorp, J. & Rogers, C. (Eds.), Thorp and Covich’s Freshwater Invertebrates. Nearctic. Vol II. Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 702–711.

    Price, W.W. & Heard, R.W. (2009) Mysida (Crustacea) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder D. & Camp, D. (Eds.), Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters, and Biota. Vol. 1. Biodiversity. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas, pp. 929–939.

    Price, W.W., Heard, R.W. & Stuck, L. (1994) Observations on the genus Mysidopsis Sars, 1864 with the designation of a new genus, Americamysis, and the descriptions of Americamysis alleni and A. stucki (Peracarida: Mysidacea: Mysidae), from the Gulf of Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 107 (4), 680–698.

    Ranasinghe, J.A., Mikel, T.K, Velarde, R.G., Weisberg, S.B, Montagne, D.E., Cadien, D.B. & Dalkey, A. (2005) The prevalence of non-indigenous species in southern California embayments and their effects on benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Biological Invasions, 7, 679–686.

    Rodríguez-Graña, L., Calliari, D., Conde, D., Sellanes, J. & Urrutia, R. (2008) Food web of a SW Atlantic shallow coastal lagoon: spatial environmental variability does not impose substantial changes in the trophic structure. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 362, 69–83.

    Ruiz, G., Fofonoff, P., Steves, B. & Dalhstrom, A. (2011) Marine crustacean invasions in North America: a synthesis of historical records and documented impacts. In: Galil, B.S., Clark, P.F. & Carlton, J.T. (Eds.), In the Wrong Place—Alien Marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology, and Impacts. Invading Nature—Springer Series in Invasion Ecology. Vol. 6. Springer, New York, pp. 215–250.

    Sars, G.O. (1907) Mysidae. Trudy Kaspīĭskoĭ ėkspedit︠s︡īi 1904 goda=Report of the Caspian Expedition, 1, 243–313. [St. Petersburg, Russia]

    Seebens, H., Gastner, M.T. & Blasius, B. (2013) The risk of marine bioinvasion caused by global shipping. Ecology Letters, 16 (6), 782–790.

    Sheridan, P.F. (1979) Trophic resource utilization by three species of sciaenid fishes in a northwest Florida estuary. Northeast Gulf Science, 3 (1), 1–15.

    Sinclair, J.S., Arnott, S.E. & Cox, A. (2016) The quick and the dead: copepods dominate as cladocerans decline following invasion by Hemimysis anomala. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 73 (5), 793–803.

    Smith, S.I. (1873) Report upon the invertebrate animals of Vineyard Sound and the adjacent waters, with an account of the physical characters of the region. United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 1871–1872, 295–747.

    Stuck, K.C., Perry, H.M. & Heard, R.W. (1979a) An annotated key to the Mysidacea of the north central Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Research Reports, 6, 225–238.

    Stuck, K.C., Perry, H.M. & Heard, R.W. (1979b) Records and range extensions of Mysidacea from coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Gulf Research Reports, 6, 239–248.

    Tattersall, W.M. (1923) Crustacea. Pt. VII. Mysidacea. In: Natural History Reports. British Antarctic (“Terra Nova”) Expedition. 1910–13. Vol. 3. Zoology. British Museum (Natural History, London, pp. 273–304.

    Tattersall, W.M. (1951) A review of the Mysidacea of the United States National Museum. Bulletin United States National Museum, 201, 1–292.

    U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1977) Guidance for evaluating the adverse impact of cooling water intake structures on the aquatic environment: Section 316(b) P. L. 92–500. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Enforcement, Permits Division, Industrial Permits Branch, Washington, D.C., 58 pp.

    Waggy, G.L., Peterson, M.S. & Comyns, B.H. (2007) Feeding habits and mouth morphology of young Silver Perch (Bairdiella chrysoura) from the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Southeastern Naturalist, 6 (4), 743–751.[743:FHAMMO]2.0.CO;2

    Wigley, R.L. (1963) Occurrence of Praunus flexuosus (O.F. Müller) (Mysidacea) in New England waters. Crustaceana, 6 (2), 158.

    Winder, M. & Jassby, A.D. (2011) Shifts in zooplankton community structure: implications for food web processes in the Upper San Francisco Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts, 34, 675–690.

    Wooldridge, C.F., McMullen, C. & Howe, V. (1999) Environmental management of ports and harbours—implementation of policy through scientific monitoring. Marine Policy, 23 (4–5), 413–425.