A morphological and genetic study of both newly collected and museum specimens of the east Australian freshwater shrimp genus Australatya indicates two genotypes and three morphotypes are present. One genotype and morphotype were of the known species, Australatya striolata (McCulloch & McNeill 1923). The second genotype, comprising two morphotypes, is now described as a new species, Australatya hawkei sp. nov.. All Australian Australatya species and morphotypes currently have allopatric distributions. Australatya striolata is widespread along the south–eastern Australian seaboard, from Genoa River in Victoria to the Sunshine Coast in Queensland. The ‘southern’ morphotype of Australatya hawkei sp. nov. occurs in north Queensland, from near Mackay to about Cooktown, and its ‘northern’ morphotype is found on Cape York Peninsula, north from about Coen to the Iron Range, just north of Lockhart River. The once monotypic genus now includes two Australian species, Australatya striolata and A. hawkei sp. nov., and a third, A. obscura, recently described from Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines.
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