Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-09-02
Page range: 47–82
Abstract views: 137
PDF downloaded: 66

Hexactinellida from the Perth Canyon, Eastern Indian Ocean, with descriptions of five new species

P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Academy of Sciences of Russia, Moscow 117997, Russia.
Department of Aquatic Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia 6986, Australia.
Institute of Electronic and Sensor materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Gustav-Zeuner Str. 3, 09599 Freiberg, Germany.
Biophysical department, Physical Faculty, MSU-2, b.2 Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.
Porifera Indian Ocean Western Australia glass sponges


Glass sponges (Class Hexactinellida) are described from the Perth Canyon in the eastern Indian Ocean, resulting in 10 genera being recorded, including 11 species, five of which are new to science. In addition, the study resulted in two new records for Australia, Pheronema raphanus and Monorhaphis chuni, and one new record for the Indian Ocean, Walteria flemmingi. A second species of Calyptorete is described over 90 years after the genus was first established with a single species. A significant difference was noted between the condition of sponges collected on the RV Falkor, which used an ROV, and the earlier RV Southern Surveyor expedition, which used sleds and trawls. The ROV collected specimens were in excellent condition, while those from the sleds and trawls tended to be damaged or fragmented.



  1. Althaus, F., Williams, A., Kloser, R.J., Seiler, J. & Bax, N.J. (2011) Evaluating geomorphic features as surrogates for benthic biodiversity on Australia’s Western Continental Margin. In: Harris, P. & Baker, E. (Eds.), Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHab Atlas of seafloor geomorphic features and benthic habitats. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 665–679.

    Dendy, A. (1916) Report on the hexactinellid sponges (Triaxonida) collected by H.M.S. “Sealark” in the Indian Ocean. The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, No. V, XVII (Part 2), 213–224.

    Dendy, A. & Burton, M. (1926) Report on some Deep-Sea Sponges from the Indian Museum collected by the R.I.M.S. “Investigator”, Part I. Hexactinellida and Tetraxonida (Pars.). Records of the Indian Museum, 28 (4), 225–248.

    Dohrmann, M., Janussen, D., Reitner, J., Collins, A.G. & Wörheide, G. (2008) Phylogeny and Evolution of Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Systematic Biology, 57 (3), 388–405.

    Duplessis, K. & Reiswig, H.M. (2004) Three new species and a new genus of Farreidae (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Hexactinosida). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 117 (2), 199–212.

    Ehrlich, H., Maldonado, M., Parker, A.R., Kulchin, Y.N., Schiling, Y., Koehler, B., Skrzypczak, U., Simon, P., Reiswig, H.M., Tsurkan, M.V., Brunner, E.,Voznesenskiy, S.S., Bezverbny, A.V., Golik, S.S., Nagorny, I.G., Vyalikh, D.V., Makarova, A.A., Lolodzov, S.L., Kummer, K., Mertig, M., Erler, C., Kurek, D.V., Bazhenov, V.V., Natalio, F., Kovalev, A.E., Gorb, S.N., Steling, A.L., Heitmann, J., Born, R., Meyer, D.C. & Tabachnick, K.R. (2016) Supercontinuum generation in naturally occurring Glass sponges spicules. Advanced Optical Materials, 4 (10), 1608–1614.

    Fromont, J., Althaus, F., McEnnulty, F.R., Williams, A., Salotti, M., Gomez, O. & Holmes, K.G.-H. (2012) Living on the edge: the sponge fauna of Australia’s southwestern and northwestern deep continental margin. Hydrobiologia, 687, 127–142.

    Hogg, M.M., Tendal, O.S., Conway, K.W., Pomponi, S.A., van Soest, R.W.M., Gutt, J., Krautter, M. & Roberts, J.M. (2010) Deep-sea Sponge Grounds: Reservoirs of biodiversity. UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series no. 32. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, 85 pp.

    Hooper, J.N.A. & Wiedenmayer, F. (1994) Porifera. In: Wells, A. (Ed.), Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 12. CSIRO, Melbourne, pp. 1–624.

    Huang, Z., Nichol, S.L. Harris, P.T. & Caley, M.J. (2014) Classification of submarine canyons of the Australian continental margin. Marine Geology, 357, 362–383.

    Ijima, I. (1927) The Hexactinellida of the Siboga Expedition. In: Weber, M. (Ed.), Siboga-Expeditie. Uitkomsten op zoölogisch, botanisch, oceanographisch en geologisch gebied verzameld in Nederlandsch Oost-lndië 1899–1900 aan boord H.M. ‘Siboga’ onder commando van Luitenant ter zee 1e kl. G. F. Tydeman. 106 (Monographie VI). E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp. i–viii + 1–383.

    Janussen, D. & Reiswig, H.M. (2009) Hexactinellida (Porifera) from the ANDEEP III Expedition to the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Zootaxa, 2136 (1), 1–20.

    Janussen, D., Tabachnick, K.R. & Tendal, O.S. (2004) Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Research II, 51, 1857–1882.

    Lévi, C. (1964) Spongiaires des zones bathyale, abyssale et hadale. In: Galathea Report. Vol. 7. Scientific Results of the Danish Deep-Sea Expedition Round the World 1950–52. Danish Science Press, Ltd, Copenhagen, pp. 63–112.

    Lévi, C. & Lévi, P. (1989) Spongiaires (MUSORSTOM 1 & 2). In: Forest, J. (Ed.), Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM, Vol. 4. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, A (Zoologie), 143, pp. 25–103.

    Leys, S.P., Mackie, G.O. & Reiswig, H.M. (2007) The Biology of Glass Sponges. Advances in Marine Biology, 52, 1–145.

    MacIntosh, H., Althaus, F., Williams, A., Tanner, J.E., Alderslade, P., Ahyong, S.T., Bax, N., Criscione, F., Crowther, A.L., Farrelly, C.A., Finn, J.K., Goudie, L., Holmes, K.G-H., Hosie, A.M., Kupriyanova, E., Mah, C., McCallum, A.W., Merrin, K.L., Miskelly, A., Mitchell, M.L., Molodtsova, T., Murray, A., O’Hara, T.D., O’Loughlin, P.M., Paxton, H., Reid, A.L., Sorokin, S.J., Staples, D., Walker-Smith, G., Whitfield, E. & Wilson, R.S. (2018) Invertebrate diversity in the deep Great Australian Bight (200–5000m). Marine Biodiversity Records, 11, 1–21.

    Okada, Y. (1925) On an Interesting Hexactinellid, Calyptorete ijimae nov. gen. et nov. sp. Annotationes zoologicae japonenses,10 (7), 285–298.

    OPSAG (2009) A Marine Nation, National Framework for Marine Research and Innovation. Oceans Policy Science Advisory Group, Australian Government, Melbourne, 26 pp.

    Reiswig, H.M. (1992) First Hexactinellida (Porifera) (glass sponges) from the Great Australian Bight. Records of the South Australian Museum, 26 (1), 25–36.

    Reiswig, H.M. (2002) Family Farreidae Gray, 1872. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Vol. 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 1332–1340.

    Reiswig, H.M. (2014) Six new species of glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from the north-eastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 94 (2), 267–284.

    Reiswig, H.M. (2018) Four new species of Hexactinellida (Porifera) and a name replacement from the NE Pacific. Zootaxa, 4466 (1), 124–151.

    Reiswig, H.M. & Kelly, M. (2011) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Hexasterophoran Glass Sponges of New Zealand (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Hexasterophora): Orders Hexactinosida, Aulocalycoida and Lychniscosida. NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 124. NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research), Wellington, 176 pp.

    Reiswig, H.M. & Kelly, M. (2018) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Euplectellid glass sponges (Hexactinellida, Lyssacinosida, Euplectellidae). NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research), Wellington, NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, 130, 169 pp.

    Reiswig, H.M. & Wheeler, W. (2002) Family Euretidae Zittel, 1877. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges, Vol. 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 1301–1331.

    Rennie, S., Hanson, C.E., McCauley, R.D., Pattiaratchi, C., Burton, C., Bannister, J., Jenner, C. & Jenner, M.N. (2009) Physical properties and processes in the Perth Canyon, Western Australia: Links to water column production and seasonal pygmy blue whale abundance. Journal of Marine Systems, 77 (1–2), 21–44.

    Schlacher, T.A., Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M.A., Williams, A., Althaus, F., Hooper, J.N.A. & Kloser, R. (2007) Richness and distribution of sponge megabenthos in continental margin canyons off southeastern Australia. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 340, 73–88.

    Schulze, F.E. (1893) Revision des Systemes der Hyalonematiden. Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 30, 541–589.

    Schulze, F.E. (1894) Hexactinelliden des indischen Oceanes. I. Die Hyalonematiden. Physikalische Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 2, 1–60.

    Schulze, F.E. (1904) Hexactinellida. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition auf der Dampfer ‘Valdivia’ 1898–1899, 4, 1–266.

    Schulze, F.E. & Lendenfeld (1902) An Account of the Indian Triaxonia collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship ‘Investigator’. Indian Museum, Calcutta,113 pp.

    Tabachnick, K.R. (1994) New species of Rhabdocalyptus from the West part of the Indian Ocean. Trudÿ Instituta Okéanologii Akademiya Nauk SSS, 129, 153–155.

    Tabachnick, K.R. (2002a) Family Monorhaphididae Ijima, 1927. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Vol. 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 1264–1266.

    Tabachnick, K.R. (2002b) Family Euplectellidae Gray, 1867. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Vol. 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 1388–1434.

    Tabachnick, K.R. (2002c) Family Rossellidae Schulze, 1885. In: Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M. (Eds.), Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges. Vol. 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp.1441–1505.

    Tabachnick, K.R. & Collins, A.G. (2008) Glass sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Marine Biology Research, 4, 25–47.

    Tabachnick, K.R. & Lévi, C. (1997) Amphidiscophoran Hexasterophora (Part 1 & Part 2). Berliner geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, Reihe E (Paläobiologie), 20, 147–157.

    Tabachnick, K.R. & Lévi, C. (1999) Revision of Lophophysema (Porifera: Hexactinellida: Hyalonematidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy, 13, 495–509.

    Tabachnick, K.R. & Lévi, C. (2000) Porifera Hexactinellida: Amphidiscophora off New Caledonia. In: Crosnier, A. (Ed.), Résultats des Campagnes MUSORSTOM, Volume 21. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, A (Zoologie), 184, 53–140.

    Tabachnick, K.R., Janussen, D. & Menshenina, L.L. (2008) New Australian Hexactinellida (Porifera) with a revision of Euplectella aspergillum. Zootaxa, 1866, 7–68.

    Trotter, J., Pattiaratchi, C., Montagna, P., Taviani, M., Falter, J., Thresher, R., Hosie, A., Haig, D., Foglini, F., Hua, Q. & McCulloch, M.T. (2019) First ROV exploration of the Perth Canyon: Canyon setting, faunal observations, and anthropogenic impacts. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 (173), 1–24.

    Soest van, R.W.M., Boury-Esnault, N., Vacelet, J., Dohrmann, M., Erpenbeck, D., De Voogd, N.J., Santodomingo, N., Vanhoorne, B., Kelly, M. & Hooper, J.N.A. (2012) Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera). PLoS ONE, 7 (4), 1–23.

    Wang, X., Gan, L., Jochum, K.P., Schröder, H.C. & Müller, W.E.G. (2011) The largest bio-silica structure on Earth: The giant basal spicule from the deep-sea glass sponge Monorhaphis chuni. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 14.

    Williams, A., Althaus, F., Dunstan, P.K., Poore, G.C.B., Bax, N.J., Kloser, R.J. & McEnnulty, F.R. (2010) Scales of habitat heterogeneity and megabenthos biodiversity on an extensive Australian continental margin (100–1100 m depths). Marine Ecology an evolutionary perspective, 31 (1), 222–236.