Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2019-08-27

New silky lacewings from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Insecta: Neuroptera: Psychopsidae)

College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, 20013-7012, U.S.A.
College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, 105 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, China
Myanmar Osmylopsychopsidae taxonomy genitalia vena triplica Neuroptera


A new genus with a new species, Lasiopsychops impunctatus gen. et sp. nov., and a new species, Electropsychops oligophlebius sp. nov., of silky lacewings in Psychopsidae are described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Lasiopsychops gen. nov. has typical characters of the extant Psychopsidae, i.e., broad triangular forewing, broad costal space, presence of the vena triplica and the paired ectoprocts and gonocoxites 9 of female genitalia, implying its close affinity with the extant lineages of Psychopsidae. The new findings of the Cretaceous psychopsids enhance our knowledge on the diversity and evolution of Psychopsidae during the Mesozoic.


  1. Breitkreuz, L.C.V., Winterton, S.L. & Engel, M.S. (2017) Wing tracheation in Chrysopidae and other Neuropterida (Insecta): a resolution of the confusion about vein fusion. American Museum Novitates, 3890, 1–44.

    Chang, Y., Fang, H., Shih, C.K., Ren, D. & Wang, Y.J. (2018) Reevaluation of the subfamily Cretanallachiinae Makarkin, 2017 (Insecta: Neuroptera) from Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber. Cretaceous Research, 84, 533–539.

    Cruickshank, R.D. & Ko, K. (2003) Geology of an amber locality in the Hukawng Valley, Northern Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21, 441–455.

    Engel, M.S. & Grimaldi, D.A. (2008) Diverse Neuropterida in Cretaceous amber, with particular reference to the paleofauna of Myanmar (Insecta). Nova Supplementa Entomologica, 20, 1–86.

    Giebel, C.G. (1856) Fauna der Vorwelt mit steter Berücksichtigung der lebenden Thiere. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 511 pp.

    Jepson J.E., Makarkin V.N. & Jarzembowski, E.A. (2009) New lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous Wealden supergroup of southern England. Cretaceous Research, 30, 1325–1338.

    Jepson, J.E., Makarkin, V.N. & Coram, R.A. (2012) Lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous Purbeck limestone group of southern England. Cretaceous Research, 34, 31–47.

    Krüger, L. (1923) Neuroptera succinica baltica: die im baltischen Bernstein eingeschlossenen Neuropteren des Westpreussischen Provinzial-Museums (heute Museum für Naturkunde und Vorgeschichte) in Danzig. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 84, 68–92.

    Liu, Q., Lu, X.M., Zhang, Q.Q., Chen, J., Zheng, X.T., Zhang, W.W., Liu, X.Y. & Wang, B. (2018) High niche diversity in Mesozoic pollinating lacewings. Nature Communications, 9, 3793.

    Lu, X.M., Zhang, W.W. & Liu, X.Y. (2016) New long-proboscid lacewings of the mid-Cretaceous provide insights into ancient plant-pollinator interactions. Scientific Report, 6, 1–12.

    Lu, X.M., Zhang, W.W., Ohl, M. & Liu, X.Y. (2017) New genus and species of silky lacewing (Insecta: Neuroptera: Psychopsidae) from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Zootaxa, 4291 (2), 373–383.

    MacLeod, B.E. ([1971]1970) The Neuroptera of the Baltic amber. І. Ascalaphidae, Nymphidae, and Psychopsidae. Psyche, 77, 147–180.

    Makarkin, V.N. (1991) Miocene Neuroptera from North Caucasus and Sikhote-Alin. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 1, 57–68.

    Makarkin, V.N. (1994) Upper Cretaceous Neuroptera from Russia and Kazakhstan. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 30, 283–292.

    Makarkin, V.N. (1997) Fossil Neuroptera of the Lower Cretaceous of Baisa, East Siberia. Part 4: Psychopsidae. Beiträge zur Entomologie, 47, 489–492.

    Makarkin, V.N. (2010) New psychopsoid Neuroptera from the early Cretaceous of Baissa, Transbaikalia. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, New Series, 46, 254–261.

    Makarkin, V.N. (2017) New taxa of unusual Dilaridae (Neuroptera) with siphonate mouthparts from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Cretaceous Research, 74, 11–22.

    Makarkin, V.N. (2018) Re-description of Grammapsychops lebedevi Martynova, 1954 (Neuroptera: Psychopsidae) with notes on the Late Cretaceous psychopsoids. Zootaxa, 4524 (5), 581–594.

    Makarkin, V.N. & Archibald, S.B. (2014) An unusual new fossil genus probably belonging to the Psychopsidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene Okanagan Highlands, western North America. Zootaxa, 3838 (3), 385–391

    Makarkin, V.N., Yang, Q., Peng, Y.Y. & Ren, D. (2012) A comparative overview of the neuropteran assemblage of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (China), with description of a new genus of Psychopsidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Cretaceous Research, 35, 57–68.

    Martins-Neto, R.G. (1997) Neurópteros (Insecta, Planipennia) da Formação Santana (Cretáceo Inferior), Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil. X - Descrição de novos taxa (Chrysopidae, Babinskaiidae, Myrmeleontidae, Ascalaphidae e Psychopsidae). Revista da Universidade de Guarulhos, Série Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, 2, 68–83.

    Martins-Neto, R.G. & Rodrigues, V.Z. (2010) New neuropteran insects (Osmylidae, Palaeoleontidae, Araripeneuridae and Psychopsidae) from the Santana Formation, Early Cretaceous NE Brazil. Gaea - Journal of Geoscience, 6, 1–8.

    Martynova, O.M. (1949) Mesozoic lacewings (Neuroptera) and their bearing on concepts of phylogeny and systematics of the order. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta, 20, 150–170.

    Oswald, J.D. (1993) Phylogeny, taxonomy, and biogeography of extant silky lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera: Psychopsidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society, 40, 1–65.

    Panfilov, D.V. (1980) Novye predstaviteli setcharokrylykh (Neuroptera) iz yury Karatau. In: Dolin, V.G., Panfilov, D.V., Ponomarenko, A.G. & Pritykina, L.N. (Eds.), Iskopaemye nasekomye mezozoya. Akademiya Nauk Ukrainskoi SSR, Institut Zoologii, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp. 82–111.

    Peng, Y.Y., Makarkin, V.N., Yang, Q. & Ren, D. (2010) A new silky lacewing (Neuroptera: Psychopsidae) from the Middle Jurassic of Inner Mongolia, China. Zootaxa, 2663, 59–67.

    Peng, Y.Y., Makarkin, V.N. & Ren, D. (2016) Diverse new Middle Jurassic Osmylopsychopidae (Neuroptera) from China shed light on the classification of psychopsoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 14, 261–295.

    Ponomarenko, A.G. (1986) Myrmeleontida (=Neuroptera Planipennia). In: Rasnitsyn, A.P. (Eds.), Insects in the Early Cretaceous ecosystems of western Mongolia. Transactions of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition, 28. Nauka Press, Moscow, pp. 108–109.

    Scudder, S.H. (1885) Notes on Mesozoic cockroaches. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 37, 105–115.

    Shi, G., Grimaldi, D.A., Harlow, G.E., Wang, J., Wang, J., Yang, M., Lei, W., Li, Q. & Li, X. (2012) Age constraint on Burmese amber based on U-Pb dating of zircons. Cretaceous Research, 37, 155–163.

    Wang, W.L. (1980) Paleontological atlas of northeast China. Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (Ed.). Vol.2 (Mesozoic and Cenozoic). Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 403 pp.