Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2019-06-26
Page range: 401–440
Abstract views: 67
PDF downloaded: 4

Revision of the Shore-fly Genera Parahyadina Tonnoir and Malloch and New Zealand Hyadina Haliday (Diptera: Ephydridae)

Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, MRC 169, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20013-7012, USA.
Institute of Biology, Opole University, ul. Oleska 22, 45-052 Opole, Poland.
Diptera Ephydridae Hyadina Parahyadina new species key New Zealand


Two genera of the shore-fly tribe Hyadinini, Hyadina Haliday and Parahyadina Tonnoir & Malloch, are revised, and all species treated, save P. lacustris Tonnoir & Malloch, are described for the first time. The phylogenetic position of both genera within Hyadinini is presented along with confirming, morphological evidence. The New Zealand fauna of Hyadina is now limited to the single new species H. breva, and Parahyadina is expanded from being a monotypic genus based on P. lacustris to also include the following 9 endemic new species: P. angusta, P. atra, P. bifurcata, P. bulla, P. debilis, P. edmistoni, P. hennigi, P. irwini, and P. latistylis. For both genera, emphasis is given to structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided, and structures of the male terminalia are fully illustrated. For perspective and to facilitate recognition of genera, the tribe Hyadinini is diagnosed and a key to genera from New Zealand is provided.



  1. Clausen, P.J. & Cook, E.F. (1971) A revision of the Nearctic species of the tribe Parydrini (Diptera: Ephydridae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society, 27, 1–150.

    Cogan, B.H. (1984) Family Ephydridae. In: Soós, Á. & Papp, L. (Eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera 10. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam and Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 126–176.

    Coquillett, D.W. (1910) The type‑species of the North American genera of Diptera. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 37, 499–647.

    Costa, D.N.R., Mathis, W.N. & Marinoni, L. (2017) A revision of the subgenus Neoscatella Malloch from the New Zealand subregion (Diptera: Ephydridae: Scatella Robineau-Desvoidy). Austral Entomology, 2017, 1–11.

    Cresson, E.T., Jr. (1930) Studies in the dipterous family Ephydridae. Paper III. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 56, 93–131.

    Cresson, E.T., Jr. (1944) Synopses of North American Ephydridae (Diptera). Parts IA and II. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 70, 159–180.

    Cresson, E.T., Jr. (1949) A systematic annotated arrangement of the genera and species of the North American Ephydridae (Diptera). IV. The subfamily Napaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 74, 225–260.

    Crosby, T.K., Dugdale, J.S. & Watt, J.C. (1998) Area codes for recording specimen localities in the New Zealand subregion. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 25, 175–183.

    Cumber, R.A. (1962) Insects associated with wheat, barley, and oat crops in the Rangitikei, Manawatu, Southern Hawke’s Bay, and Wairarapa districts during the 1960–1 season. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 5 (1–2), 163–178.

    Curtis, J. (1837) A guide to an arrangement of British insects: being a catalogue of all the named species hitherto discovered in Great Britain and Ireland. Ed. 2. Printed for the author, London, 294 pp.

    Edmiston, J.F. & Mathis, W.N. (2005) A revision of the New World species of shore-fly genus Nostima Coquillett (Dipetera: Ephydridae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 623, 1–108.

    Edmiston, J.F. & Mathis, W.N. (2007) New Zealand species of the shore-fly genus Nostima Coquillett (Diptera: Ephydridae). Zootaxa, 1661, 1–16.

    Fallén, C.F. (1813) Beskrifning öfver några i Sverige funna Vattenflugor (Hydromyzides). Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Series 3, 1813, 240–257.

    Grimaldi, D.A. (1987) Phylogenetics and taxonomy of Zygothrica. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 186, 103–268.

    Haliday, A.H. (1839) Remarks on the generic distribution of the British Hydromyzidae (Diptera). Annals of Natural History, 3, 217–224, 401–411.

    Harrison, R.A. (1959) Acalypterate Diptera of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, 128, 1–382.

    Hollmann-Schirrmacher, V. (1998) Phylogeny of the subfamily Ilytheinae (Diptera, Ephydridae) with species reference to the genus Philygria. Studia dipterologica, Supplement 5, 1–144.

    Lioy, P. (1864) I ditteri distribuiti secondo un nuovo metodo di classificazione naturale. Atti dell’ I.R. Istituto Veneto di scienze , lettere ed arti, Series 3, 9, 1087–1126.

    Lizarralde de Grosso, M.S. (1989) Ephydridae de la Republica Argentina (Insecta - Diptera). Serie Monografica y Didactica No. 3. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Instituto Miguel Lillo Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, 93 pp.

    Loew, H. (1860) Neue Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Dipteren. Siebenter Beitrag. Die Europaeischen Ephydrinidae und die bisher in Schlesien beobachteten Arten derselben. Programm der Königlichen Realschule zu Meseritz, 1860, 1–46.

    Mathis, W.N. (1986) Studies of Psilopinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), I: A revision of the shore fly genus Placopsidella Kertész. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 430, i–iv + 1–30.

    Mathis, W.N. (1989) 66. Family Ephydridae. In: Evenhuis, N.L. (Ed.), Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions, B. P. Bishop Museum special publication 86. E. J. Brill, Honolulu and Leiden, pp. 639–649.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (1990a) A revision of the western Palearctic species of Athyroglossa (Diptera: Ephydridae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 116, 103–133.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (1990b) Taxonomic notes on Ephydridae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103, 891–906.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki T. (1995) A World Catalog of the Shore Flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). Memoirs on Entomology, International, 4, 1–423.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (2004) Description of a new species of Hyadina Haliday from southern California (Diptera: Ephydridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 106 (3), 705–716.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (2019) New taxonomic twists in shore flies as revealed in revision of Neozealides, a new genus from New Zealand (Diptera: Ephydridae), in press.

    Mathis, W.N., Zatwarnicki, T. & Marris, J.W.M. (2004) Review of unreported shore-fly genera of the tribe Scatellini from the New Zealand subregion (Diptera: Ephydridae). Zootaxa, 622, 1–27.

    Meigen, J.W. (1830) Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Schulz-Wundermann, Hamm, 401 + xi pp.

    Merz, B. & Haenni, J.P. (2000) Morphology and terminology of adult Diptera (other than terminalia). In: Papp, L. & Darvas, B. (Eds.), Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance). Vol. 1. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 21–51.

    Miller, D. (1950) Catalogue of the Diptera of the New Zealand Sub‑region. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin, 100, 1–194.

    Rafinesque, C.S. (1815) Analyse de la nature ou tableau de l’univers et des corps organisés. Aux deìpens de l’auteur, Palermo, 224 pp. [printed privately]

    Robineau-Desvoidy, J.B. (1830) Essai sur les Myodaires. Mémoires Preséntes par divers Savans a l’Académie Royale des Sciences de l’Institut de France, et Imprimés par son Ordre Sciences Mathématiques et Physiques, 2 (2), 1–813.

    Stenhammar, C. (1844) Försök till Gruppering och Revision af de Svenska Ephydrinae. Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar, Series 3, 1843, 75–272.

    Thompson, F.C. & Mathis, W.N. (1981) Haliday’s generic names of Diptera first published in Curtis’ A guide to…British insects (1837). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 70 (2), 80–89.

    Tonnoir, A.L. & Malloch, J.R. (1926) New Zealand Muscidae Acalyptratae. Part I. Ephydridae. Records of the Canterbury Museum, 3, 1–18.

    Westwood, J.O. (1840) Order XIII. Diptera Aristotle (Antilata Fabricius. Halteriptera Clairv.). In: An introduction to the modern classification of insects; founded on the natural habits and corresponding organisation of the different families. Synopsis of the genera of British insects. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longmans, London, pp. 125–154.

    Winterbourn, M.J., Gregson, K.L.D. & Dolphin, C.H. (2000) Guide to the aquatic insects of New Zealand. 3rd Ed. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand, 13, 102.

    Wirth, W.W. & Stone, A. (1956) Chapter 14. Aquatic Diptera. In: Usinger, R.L. (Ed.), Aquatic Insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 372–482, 64 figs.

    Zatwarnicki, T. (1992) A new classification of Ephydridae based on phylogenetic reconstruction (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha). Genus, 3, 65–119.

    Zatwarnicki, T. (1996) A new reconstruction of the origin of Eremoneuran hypopygium and its implications for classification (Insecta: Diptera). Genus, 7, 103–17.

    Zatwarnicki, T. & Ryczko, I. (2014) Phylogeny of Hyadinini (Diptera: Ephydridae) with an emphasis on structures of the proboscis. Annales Zoologici, 64 (3), 495–515.