Identities of elasmobranchs from Sri Lanka encountered during collections conducted in an intensive nine-day survey of fish markets and landing sites at 11 localities in the North Western, Northern, and Eastern Provinces in March of 2018 were assessed. In total, 111 specimens representing 34 elasmobranch species were examined. Sequence data for the NADH2 gene were generated for all specimens. Independent Neighbor-Joining analyses, which included data for related taxa, were conducted for 25 subgroups of elasmobranchs to help confirm specific identifications. Five of the 34 species encountered are likely new to science. These consist of one species each of the batoid genera Brevitrygon, Narcine, and Torpedo, and the selachian genera Centrophorus, and Chiloscyllium. The specific identities of 12 species previously known to occur in Sri Lanka are updated to conform to current taxonomy; four of these (Gymnura cf. poecilura 2, Carcharhinus cf. limbatus, Echinorhinus sp. 1, and Iago cf. omanensis 1) represent what appear to be undescribed species reported previously from other localities. Three species (Maculabatis arabica, Acroteriobatus variegatus, and Centroscymnus owstonii) are reported from Sri Lanka for the first time; the latter species also represents the first documented record of this genus and family for the island nation. One of the two specimens on which the recent description of the new species of Planonasus indicus was based was also collected as part of this survey. Although some of the species confirmed to occur in Sri Lanka have also been found in India, others were previously known only from the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, or localities in Southeast Asia. The high amount of novelty discovered as a result of a survey of such short duration emphasizes the importance of more intensive survey efforts in this region now that the civil unrest that precluded such work for nearly three decades has come to an end.
Amarasooriya, D. & Dayaratne, P. (1994) A species identification of the shark catches landed in the West and South West coasts of Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the 1st Annual Science Sessions, National Aquatic Resources Agency, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Borsa, P. (2017a) Comment on ‘Annotated checklist of the living sharks, batoids and chimaeras (Chondrichthyes) of the world, with a focus on biogeographical diversity by Weigmann (2016)’. Journal of Fish Biology, 90, 1170–1175.
Borsa, P. (2017b) Neotrygon vali, a new species of the blue-spotted maskray complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae). Species, 18, 146–153.
Borsa, P., Arlyza, I.S., Hoareau, T.B. & Shen, K.-N. (2018) Diagnostic description and geographic distribution of four new cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray species complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae; Neotrygon spp.) based on DNA sequences. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 36, 827–841.
Borsa, P., Durand, J.-D., Shen, K.-N., Arlyza, I.S., Solihin, D.D. & Berrebi, P. (2013) Himantura tutul sp. nov. (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae), a new ocellated whipray from the tropical Indo-West Pacific, described from its cytochrome-oxidase I gene sequence. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 336, 82–92.
Borsa, P., Shen, K.N., Arlyza, I.S. & Hoareau, T.B. (2016) Multiple cryptic species in the blue-spotted maskray (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae: Neotrygon spp.): An update. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 339, 417–426.
Caira, J.N. & Jensen, K. (2015) Insights on the identities of sharks of the Rhizoprionodon acutus (Elasmobranchii: Carcharhiniformes) species complex based on three new species of Phoreiobothrium (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea). Zootaxa, 4059 (2), 335–350.
Caira, J.N., Jensen, K. & Barbeau, E. (2018) Global Cestode Database. Available from: http://elasmobranchs.tapewormdb.uconn.edu/ (Accessed 1 June 2018)
Cantor, T.E. (1837) Description of new species of Zygaena. Calcutta Medical and Physical Society. Quarterly. Article 10, 315–320.
Carvalho, de, M.R., Stehmann, M.F.W. & Manilo, L.G. (2002) Torpedo adenensis, a new species of electric ray from the Gulf of Aden, with comments on nominal species of Torpedo from the western Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and adjacent areas (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes: Torpedinidae). American Museum Novitates, 3369, 1–34.
Chang, C.-H., Chiang, W.-C., Lin, Y.-S., Jang-Liaw, N.-H. & Shao, K.-T. (2016) Complete mitochondrial genome of the longfin mako shark, Isurus paucus (Chondrichthyes, Lamnidae). Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis, 27, 690–691.
Compagno, L.J.V. (1984) FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the World. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lanniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, FAO, Rome, Italy, 249 pp.
Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. (2005) Sharks of the World. Princeton Field Guides. Harper Collins Publishing Ltd., London, UK, 368 pp.
Cubelio, S.S., Remya, R. & Kurup, B.M. (2011) A new species of Mustelus (Family: Triakidae) from Indian EEZ. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, 40, 28–31.
Davidson, L.N., Krawchuk, M.A. & Dulvy, N.K. (2016). Why have global shark and ray landings declined: improved management or overfishing? Fish and Fisheries, 17, 438–458.
Day, F. (1889) Fishes. Volume 1. In: Blanford, W.T. (Ed.), The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor & Francis, London, UK, pp. 1–548.
De Bruin, G.H.P., Russell, B.C. & Bogusch, A. (1995) FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fisheries Purposes. The Marine Fishery Resources of Sri Lanka. FAO, Rome, Italy, 400 pp.
De Silva, R.I. (1977) A guide to some sharks of Sri Lanka. Loris, 14, 225–232.
De Silva, R.I. (1978) Some skates and rays of Sri Lanka. Loris, 14, 301–306.
De Silva, R.I. (1984–1985) The sharks of Sri Lanka. A key to the different species and a preliminary checklist. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences), 17–18, 56–66.
De Silva, R.I. (1993) The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias in Sri Lanka. Loris, 20, 10–11.
De Silva, R.I. (2006) Taxonomy and status of the sharks and rays of Sri Lanka. In: Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. (Ed.), The Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Sri Lanka and Government of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp. 294–301.
De Silva, R I. (2013) Review of the status of some selachians ambiguously reported from Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Wildlife, 9, 44–46.
De Silva, R.I. (2013) First record of a prickly shark Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann, 1928 from the Indian Ocean including Sri Lanka. Loris, 26, 55.
De Silva, R.I. (2014) The Pondicherry shark Carcharhinus hemiodon in marine and freshwater habitats in Sri Lanka. Loris, 27, 46–48.
De Silva, R.I. (2015) The Sharks of Sri Lanka. Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 216 pp.
Dingerkus, G. & DeFino, T.C. (1983) A revision of the orectolobiform shark family Hemiscyllidae (Chondrichthyes, Selachii). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 176, 1–93.
Ebert, D.A. (2013) Deep-sea Cartilaginous Fishes of the Indian Ocean. Volume 1. Sharks. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 8, Rome, Italy. 256 pp.
Ebert, D.A., Akhilesh, KV. & Weigmann, S. (2018) Planonasus indicus n. sp., a new species of pygmy false catshark (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Pseudotriakidae), with a revised diagnosis of the genus and key to the family. Marine Biodiversity.
Ebert, D.A., De Silva, R.I. & Goonewardena, M.L. (2017) First record of the dwarf false catshark, Planonasus parini (Carcharhiniformes: Pseudotriakidae) from Sri Lanka. Loris, 27, 63–64.
Ebert, D.A., Fowler, S. & Compagno, L.J.V. (2013) Sharks of the World: A Fully Illustrated Guide. Wild Nature Press, Plymouth, UK, 528 pp.
Ebert, D.A. (2014a) Deep-sea Cartilaginous Fishes of the Indian Ocean. Volume 2. Batoids and Chimaeras. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 8, Rome, Italy, 129 pp.
Eschmeyer, W.N., Fricke, R. & van der Laan, R. (2018) Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. Available from: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp/ (Accessed 15 July 2018).
Fernando, D., Perera, N. & Ebert, D.A. (2015) First record of the megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, (Chondrichthyes: Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) from Sri Lanka, northern Indian Ocean. Marine Biodiversity Records, 8, e75.
Gaitán-Espitia, J.D., Solano-Iguaran, J.J., Tejada-Martinez, D. & Quintero-Galvis, J.F. (2016) Mitogenomics of electric rays: evolutionary considerations within Torpediniformes (Batoidea; Chondrichthyes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 178, 257–266.
Gilbert, C.R. (1967) A revision of the hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 119, 1–88.
Goonewardene, T.P. (1971) The hammerhead sharks in Ceylon Seas (family Sphyrnidae). Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station, Ceylon, 22, 1–3.
Henderson, A.C., Reeve, A.J., Jabado, R.W. & Naylor, G.J.P. (2016) Taxonomic assessment of sharks, rays and guitarfishes (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) from south-eastern Arabia, using the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (NADH2) gene. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 176, 399–442.
Herdman, W.A. & Hornell, J. (1906) Pearl production. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar (Herdman), 5, 1–42.
Ishihara, H., Homma, K., Takeda, Y. & Randall, J.E. (1993) Redescription, distribution and food habits of the Indo-Pacific dasyatidid stingray Himantura granulata. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 40, 23–28.
Joseph, L. (1999) Management of shark fisheries in Sri Lanka. In: Shotton, R. (Ed.), Case Studies of the Management of Elasmobranch Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 3780, Rome, Italy, pp. 339–366.
Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J.P. & Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. (2016a) A revised classification of the family Dasyatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa, 4139, 345–368.
Last, P.R. & White, W.T. (2008) Resurrection of the genus Neotrygon Castelnau (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae) with the description of Neotrygon picta sp. nov., a new species from northern Australia. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper, 022, 315–325.
Last, P.R. & White, W.T. (2013) Two new stingrays (Chondrichthyes: Dasyatidae) from the eastern Indonesian Archipelago. Zootaxa, 3722 (1), 1–21.
Last, P.R., White, W.T., de Carvalho, M.R., Séret, B., Stehmann, M.F.W. & Naylor, G.J.P. (2016b) Rays of the World. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA, pp. 790.
Last, P.R., Seret, B. & Naylor, G.J.P. (2016d) A new species of guitarfish, Rhinobatos borneensis sp. nov. with a redefinition of the family-level classification in the order Rhinopristiformes (Chondrichtyes: Batoidea). Zootaxa, 4117 (4), 451–475.
Last, P.R., White, W.T. & Séret, B. (2016c) Taxonomic status of maskrays of the Neotrygon kuhlii species complex (Myliobatoidei : Dasyatidae) with the description of three new species from the Indo-West Pacific. Zootaxa, 4083 (4), 533–561.
Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. & Last, P.R. (2016) Two new whiprays, Maculabatis arabica sp. nov. and M. bineeshi sp. nov. (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), from the northern Indian Ocean. Zootaxa, 4144 (3), 335–353.
Mendis, A.S. (1954) Fishes of Ceylon (A Catalogue, Key & Bibliography). Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Station, Department of Fisheries, Ceylon, 2, 1–222.
Misra, K.S. (1947) A check list of the fishes of India, Burma & Ceylon. Records of the Indian Museum, 45, 1–47.
Misra, K.S. (1948) An aid to the identification of the fishes of India, Burma and Ceylon. I. Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. Records of the Indian Museum, 49, 89–137.
Morón, J., Bertrand, B. & Last, P. (1998) A check-list of sharks and rays of western Sri Lanka. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 40, 142–157.
Muktha, M., Akhilesh, K.V., Sandhya, S., Jasmin, F., Jishnudev, M.A. & Kizhakudan, S.J. (2018 [online: 2016]) Re-description of the longtail butterfly ray, Gymnura poecilura (Shaw, 1804) (Gymnuridae: Myliobatiformes) from Bay of Bengal with a neotype designation. Marine Biodiversity, 48, 1085–1096.
Munro, I.S.R. (1955) The Marine and Fresh Water Fishes of Ceylon. Department of External Affairs, Canberra, Australia, 351 pp.
Nair, R.V. & Lal Mohan, R.S. (1973) On a new deep sea skate, Rhinobatos variegatus, with notes on the deep sea sharks Halaelurus hispidus, Eridacnis radcliffei and Eugaleus omanensis from the Gulf of Mannar. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 54, 71–80.
Naylor, G., Ryburn, J., Fedrigo, O. & López, J. (2005) Phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of modern elasmobranchs. In: Hamlett, W.C. (Ed.), Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Chondrichthyes: Sharks, Batoids, and Chimaeras, Volume 3. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 1–25.
Naylor, G.J.P., Caira, J.N., Jensen, K., Rosana, K.A.M., Straube, N. & Lakner, C. (2012b) Elasmobranch phylogeny: A mitochondrial estimate based on 595 species. In: Carrier, J.C., Musick, J.A. & Heithaus, M.R. (Eds.), The Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 31–56.
Naylor, G.J.P., Caira, J.N., Jensen, K., Rosana, K.A.M., White, W.T. & Last, P.R. (2012a) A DNA sequence–based approach to the identification of shark and ray species and its implications for global elasmobranch diversity and parasitology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 367, 1–262.
Pavan-Kumar, A., Kumar, R., Pitale, P., Shen, K.-N. & Borsa, P. (2018) Neotrygon indica sp. nov., the Indian Ocean blue-spotted maskray (Myliobatoidei, Dasyatidae). Comptes Rendus Biologies, 341, 120–130.
Platt, A.R., Woodhall, R.W. & George, A.L. Jr. (2007) Improved DNA sequencing quality and efficiency using an optimized fast cycle sequencing protocol. Biotechniques, 43, 58–62.
Randall, J.E. (1995) Coastal Fishes of Oman. University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, 432 pp.
Shipley, A.E. & Hornell, J. (1904) The parasites of the pearl oyster. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar (Herdman), Part II, 77–106.
Shipley, A.E. & Hornell, J. (1905) Further report on parasites found in connection with the pearl oyster fishery at Ceylon. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar (Herdman), Part III, 49–56.
Shipley, A.E. & Hornell, J. (1906) Report on the cestode and nematode parasites from the marine fishes of Ceylon. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar (Herdman), Part V, 43–96.
SL-NPOA-Sharks. (2013) Sri Lanka National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks. Report by the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, and the National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, 34 pp.
Southwell, T. (1911) Description of nine new species of cestode parasites, including two new genera from marine fishes of Ceylon. Ceylon Marine Biological Reports, 1, 216–225.
Southwell, T. (1912) A description of ten new species of cestode parasites from marine fishes of Ceylon, with notes on other cestodes from the same region. Ceylon Marine Biological Report, 1, 259–278.
Southwell, T. (1924) Notes on some tetrarhynchid parasites from Ceylon marine fishes. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 18, 459–491.
Southwell, T. (1925) A monograph on the Tetraphyllidea with notes on related cestodes. Memoirs of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (New Series), 2, 1–368.
Southwell, T. (1927) On a collection of cestodes from marine fishes of Ceylon and India. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 21, 351–373.
Southwell, T. (1929) A monograph on cestodes of the order Trypanorhyncha from Ceylon and India. Part I. Ceylon Journal of Science. Section B. Zoology and Geology, 15, 169–312.
Southwell, T. (1930) Cestoda. Vol. I. Taylor and Francis, London, 391 pp.
Straube, N., White, W.T., Ho, H.-C., Rochel, E., Corrigan, S., Li, C. & Naylor, G.J.P. (2013) A DNA sequence-based identification checklist for Taiwanese chondrichthyans. Zootaxa, 3752 (1), 256–278.
Swofford, D.L. (2003) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.
Veríssimo, A., Cotton, C.F., Buch, R.H., Guallart, J. & Burgess, G.H. (2014) Species diversity of the deep-water gulper sharks (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae: Centrophorus) in North Atlantic waters—current status and taxonomic issues. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 172, 803–830.
Weerakkody, P. & Fernando, S. (2000) Leafscale Gulper Shark Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre, 1788): The first record from Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Naturalist, 3, 44–45.
Weigmann, S., Vaz, D.F.B., White, W.T., de Carvalho, M.R. & Thiel, R. (2016) Distribution and comments on the morphology of Centroscymnus owstonii Garman, 1906 (Squaliformes: Somniosidae), with focus on its occurrence in the Indian Ocean. Marine Biodiversity, 46, 641–653.
White, W.T., Ebert, D.A. & Naylor, G.J.P. (2017) Revision of the genus Centrophorus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae): Part 2—Description of two new species of Centrophorus and clarification of the status of Centrophorus lusitanicus Barbosa du Bocage & de Brito Capello, 1864. Zootaxa, 4344 (1), 86–114.
White, W.T., Last, P.R. & Naylor, G.J. (2016) Rhinobatos manai sp. nov., a new species of guitarfish (Rhinopristiformes: Rhinobatidae) from New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Zootaxa, 4175 (6), 588–600.
White, W.T., Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J.P., Jensen, K. & Caira, J.N. (2010) Clarification of Aetobatus ocellatus (Kuhl, 1823) as a valid species, and a comparison with Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae). CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper, 032, 141–164.
Wienerroither, R.M., Bjelland, O., Bachmann, L. & Junge, C. (2015) Northernmost record of the little gulper shark Centrophorus uyato in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, with taxonomical notes on Centrophorus zeehaani. Journal of Fish Biology, 86, 834–844.