In his landmark revision of the Australian Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Phil Carne (1957) described Novapus bifidus Carne, 1957 from males and females collected at Cape York and Thursday Island. The type series is in the Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australia (ANIC); the Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; the South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia (SAM); and the Museum of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. He noted “In the collections of the South Australian Museum there are specimens designated as types of bifidus Lea. No description of this species has been published, and it is now described under the same specific name”. One of his paratypes is a female in SAM identified as “Lea’s unpublished ♀ type” and two other paratypes are males in SAM. Cassis & Weir (1992) noted that one of the SAM specimens has the registration number I4268, although they knew of only two paratypes (one male, one female) in that collection. The name has been attributed to Carne by most subsequent authors (Endrődi 1974, 1985; Carne & Allsopp 1987; Cassis & Weir 1992; Dechambre 2005; Atlas of Living Australia 2018.). Krajcik (2005, 2012) listed it in his scarab checklists but as “bifidus? Carne 1957”.
Arrow, G.J. (1937) Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae. In: Schenkling, S. (Ed.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 156. Junk, The Hague, pp. 1–124.
Atlas of Living Australia (2018) Novapus bifidus Carne, 1957. Available from: https://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:afd.taxon:07fc57ce-6269-4b6b-9e36-994ed7adee48# (accessed 22 October 2018)
Carne, P.B. (1957) Systematic Revision of the Australian Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, 284 pp.
Carne, P.B. & Allsopp, P.G. (1987) Novapus macfarlandi sp. n. and notes on other species of Novapus Sharp (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) from Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 26, 309–312.
Cassis, G. & Weir, T.A. (1992) Dynastinae. In: Houston, W.W.K. (Ed.), Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea. Volume 9. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, pp. 383–425.
Daniels, G. (2004) Bibliography of Australian Entomology 1687–2000. Volume 1. A–M. Daniels, Mount Ommaney, 879 pp.
Dechambre, R.-P. (2005) Les Coléoptères du Monde. Volume 30: Dynastidae Australiens et Océaniens. Hillside Books, Canterbury, 132 pp.
Dunn, K.L. (2007) The geographical movements of Hermann Elgner (d. 1913): a lepidopterist based in Torres Strait, Australia. Calodema, 10, 19–34.
Endrődi, S. (1974) Monographie der Dynastinae 4. Tribus: Pentodontini von Australien und Neu-Zeeland (Coleoptera). Folia Entomologica Hungarica (Series Nova), 27, 17–70.
Endrődi, S. (1985) The Dynastinae of the World. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 800 pp.
Krajcik, M. (2005) Dynastinae of the World. Checklist (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae). Animma.X Supplement, 2, 1–122.
Krajcik, M. (2012) Checklist of the World Scarabaeoidea. Animma.X Supplement, 5, 1–278.
Lea, A.M. (1910) Australian and Tasmanian Coleoptera inhabiting or resorting to the nests of ants, bees, and termites. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (New Series), 23, 116–230.
Lea, A.M. (1919) Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera, with descriptions of new species.–Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 43, 166–261.
Schoolmeesters, P. (2018). Scarabs: World Scarabaeidae Database (version Apr 2018). In: Roskov Y., et al. (Eds.), Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 24th September 2018. Available from: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/search/all/key/novapus+bifidus/fossil/1/match/1 (accessed 22 October 2018).
Sharp, D. (1875) Description de Coléoptères Lamellicornes nouveaux de l’Australie. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie pure et appliquée, (3) 3, 37–50.