Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2019-01-31

Validity of Lepadichthys misakius (Tanaka 1908) and redescription of Lepadichthys frenatus Waite 1904 (Gobiesocidae: Diademichthyinae)

Graduate School of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, 4–50–20 Shimoarata, Kagoshima 890–0056, Japan.
The Kagoshima University Museum, 1–21–30 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890–0065, Japan.
Pisces Clingfish description taxonomy anti-equatorial distribution morphological changes

Abstract

The clingfishes Lepadichthys frenatus Waite 1904 and Lepadichthys misakius (Tanaka 1908) are both redescribed as valid species, although the latter has previously been regarded as a junior synonym of the former. Lepadichthys frenatus and L. misakius are easily distinguished from their congeners by the following combination of characters: 14–19 dorsal-fin rays; 12–14 anal-fin rays; disc size moderate, its length 15.1–20.8 % of standard length (SL); and dorsal, anal and caudal fins connected by membranes. Lepadichthys misakius can be distinguished from L. frenatus by having 25–28 (modally 26 or 27) pectoral-fin rays [vs. 27–29 (29) in L. frenatus]; the upper end of the gill membrane level with the 5th to 8th (usually 6th) pectoral-fin ray base in lateral view [vs. 6th to 8th (7th)]; the lower 8th to 11th (9th) pectoral-fin ray base attached to the disc base by membrane [vs. 10th to 12th (11th)]; 7–11 (9) gill rakers on each arch [vs. 11–14 (12)]; anterior, posterior and least interorbital widths 9.0–11.8 (mean 10.7), 13.4–16.9 (15.3) and 3.2–8.8 (6.2) % SL, respectively [vs. 8.4–10.2 (9.4), 12.1–14.7 (13.5) and 2.8–5.9 (4.8) % SL, respectively]; and NC2 (nasal canal pore) usually located between the anterior and posterior margins of the posterior nostril (vs. usually located before the posterior nostril anterior margin). Morphological changes with growth of the two species are described in detail and a lectotype designated for L. frenatus.

 

References

  1. Amante, C. & Eakins, B.W. (2009) ETOPO1 1 arc-minute global relief model: procedures, data sources and analysis. NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, March 2009. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/ (accessed 18 June 2016)

    Arai, R. & Ida, H. (1975) The sea fishes of Yakushima and Tanegashima Islands, southern Kyushu, Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, 8, 183–204.

    Briggs, J.C. (1955) A monograph of the clingfishes (order Xenopterygii). Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin, 6, 1–244.

    Briggs, J.C. & Link, G. (1963) New clingfishes of the genus Lepadichthys from the northern Indian Ocean and Red Sea (Pisces, Gobiesocidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica, 44 (2), 101–105.

    Conway, K.W., Kim, D.M., Rüber, L., Espinosa-Perez, H. & Hastings, P.A. (2017b) Molecular phylogenetics of the New World clingfish genus Gobiesox (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae) and the origin of a freshwater clade. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 112, 138–147.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.04.024

    Conway, K.W., Stewart, A.L. & King, C. (2017a) A new species of the clingfish genus Trachelochismus from bay and estuarine areas of New Zealand (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae). Zootaxa, 4319 (3), 531–549.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4319.3.6

    Conway, K.W., Stewart, A.L. & Summers, A.P. (2018b) A new species of sea urchin associating clingfish of the genus Dellichthys from New Zealand (Teleostei, Gobiesocidae). ZooKeys, 740, 77–95.

    https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.740.22712

    Conway, K.W., Stewart, A.L. & Summers, A.P. (2018a). A new genus and species of clingfish from the Rangitāhua Kermadec Islands of New Zealand (Teleostei, Gobiesocidae). ZooKeys, 786, 75–104.

    https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.786.28539

    Craig, M.T., Bogorodsky, S.V., Randall, J.E. & Mal, A.O. (2015) Lepadichthys bilineatus, a new species of clingfish from Oman (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae), with a redescription of Lepadichthys erythraeus Briggs and Link from the Red Sea. Zootaxa, 3990 (1), 113–122.

    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3990.1.6

    Francis, M.P. (1993) Checklist of the coastal fishes of Lord Howe, Norfolk, and Kermadec Island, southwest Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science, 47 (2), 136–170.

    Fujiwara, K. (2018) Gobiesocidae. In: Motomura, H., Hagiwara, K., Senou, H. & Nakae, M. (Eds.), Identification guide to fishes of the Amami Islands, Japan. Kagoshima University Museum, Kagoshima, Yokosuka City Museum, Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History, Odawara, and National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, pp. 323–325.

    Fujiwara, K. & Motomura, H. (2018) Revised diagnosis and first northern hemisphere records of the rare clingfish Lepadichthys akiko (Gobiesocidae: Diademichthyinae). Species Diversity, 23 (1), 87–93.

    https://doi.org/10.12782/specdiv.23.87

    Haraguchi, Y. (2014) Gobiesocidae. In: Motomura, H. & Matsuura, K. (Eds.), Filed guide to fishes of Yoron Island in the middle of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Kagoshima University Museum, Kagoshima and the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, pp. 485.

    Hayashi, M. (1993) Gobiesocidae. In: Nakabo, T. (Ed.), Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 408–410 + 1281–1282.

    Hayashi, M. (2000) Gobiesocidae. In: Nakabo, T. (Ed.), Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. 2nd Edition. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1121–1123 + 1604.

    Hayashi, M. (2002) Gobiesocidae. In: Nakabo, T. (Ed.), Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. English edition. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 1121–1123, 1594.

    Hayashi, M. & Hagiwara, K. (2013) Gobiesocidae. In: Nakabo, T. (Ed.), Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species. 3rd Edition. Tokai University Press, Hadano, pp. 1326–1329, 2105–2106.

    Hayashi, M. & Hayashi, H. (1985) Two new records of gobiesocid fishes from Japan, and the morphological study of their key characters. Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum, 33, 49–67.

    Hoese, D.F. & Bray, D.J. (2006) Gobiesocidae. In: Hoese, D.F., Bray, D.J., Paxton, J.R. & Allen, G.R. (Eds), Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 35. Fishes. Part 3. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, pp. 1568–1576.

    Hutchins, J.B. (2000) Gobiesociformes. In: Randall, J.E. & Lim, K.K.P. (Eds.), A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement, 8, 598.

    ICZN (The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature) (1999) International code of zoological nomenclature, 4th edition. Adopted by the General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences. International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, xxix + 306 pp.

    Iwatsubo, H., Kato, S. & Motomura, H. (2016) Filed guide to fishes of Ei in southern Kyusyu, Japan. Kagoshima Museum of Aquatic Biodiversity, Makurazaki, the Kagoshima University Museum, Kagoshima and Seahorse Ways, Minamikyusyu, 80 pp.

    Johnson, J.W. (1999) Annotated checklist of the fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 43 (2), 709–762.

    Jordan, D.S. & Fowler, H.W. (1902) A review of the cling-fishes (Gobiesocidae) of the waters of Japan. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 25 (1291), 413–416.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.25-1291.413

    Jordan, D.S., Tanaka, S. & Snyder, J.O. (1913) A catalogue of the fishes of Japan. Journal of the College of Science, Tokyo Imperial University, 33, 1–497.

    Kato, S. (2014) Marin Fishes Illustrated. Seibundo-shinkosya, Tokyo, 383 pp.

    Kimura, Y., Hibino, Y., Miki, R., Minetoma, T. & Koeda, K. (2017) Filed guide to fishes of Kuchinoerabu-jima Island in the Osumi Group, Kagoshima, southern Japan. The Kagoshima University Museum, Kagoshima, 199 pp.

    Kner, R. (1868) Über neue Fische aus dem Museum der Herren Johann Cäsar Godeffroy & Sohn in Hamburg. (IV. Folge). Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 58, 293–356.

    Lindberg, G.U., Fedorov, V.V. & Krasyukova, Z.V. (1997) Fishes of the Sea of Japan and the adjacent parts of the Sea of Okhotsk and Yellow Sea. Part 7. Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Leningrad Oblast, 350 pp.

    Masuda, H., Araga, C. & Yoshino, T. (1975) Coastal fishes of southern Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, 382 pp.

    Masuda, H. & Kobayashi, Y. (1994) Ground Atlas of Fish Life Modes. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, 465 pp.

    Matsubara, K. (1955) Fish morphology and hierarchy. Part II. Ishizaki-shoten, Tokyo, 1605 pp.

    Matsubara, K. (1979) Fish morphology and hierarchy. Part II. 2nd edition. Ishizaki-shoten, Tokyo, 1605 pp.

    Matsubara, K., Tanaka, S., Mori, T. & Aoyagi, H. (1949) Pisces. In: Uchida, S. (Ed.), Illustrated encyclopedia of the fauna of Japan. Revised Edition. Hokuryukan, Tokyo, pp. 296–517.

    McCulloch, A.R. (1929) A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part III. Memoirs of the Australian Museum, 5, 329–436.

    https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1967.5.1929.475

    Motomura, H. & Aizawa, M. (2011) Illustrated list of additions to the ichthyofauna of Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan: 50 new records from the island. Check List, 7 (4), 448–457.

    https://doi.org/10.15560/7.4.448

    Motomura, H. & Harazaki, S. (2017) Annotated checklist of marine and freshwater fishes of Yaku-shima island in the Osumi Islands, Kagoshima, southern Japan, with 129 new records. Bulletin of the Kagoshima University Museum, 9, 1–183.

    Motomura, H., Kuriiwa, K., Katayama, E., Senou, H., Ogihara, G., Meguro, M., Matsunuma, M., Takata, Y., Yoshida, T., Yamashita, M., Kimura, S., Endo, H., Murase, A., Iwatsuki, Y., Sakurai, Y., Harazaki, S., Hidaka, K., Izumi, H. & Matsuura, K. (2010) Annotated checklist of marine and estuarine fishes of Yaku-shima Island, Kagoshima, southern Japan. In: Motomura, H. & Matsuura, K. (Eds.), Fishes of Yaku-shima Island—A World Heritage island in the Osumi Group, Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan. National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, pp. 65–248.

    Murase, A. (2015) Ichthyofaunal diversity and vertical distribution patterns in the rockpools of the southwestern coast of Yaku-shima Island, southern Japan. Check List, 11 (1682), 1–21.

    Okada, Y. (1938) A catalogue of vertebrates of Japan. Maruzen Co Ltd, Tokyo, iv + 412 pp.

    Okada, Y. & Matsubara, K. (1938) Key to the fishes and fish-like animals of Japan. Sanseido, Tokyo, xl + 584 pp., 166 pls.

    Okamura, O. (1997) Gobiesocidae. In: Okamura, O. & Amaoka, K. (Eds), Sea Fishes of Japan. Yama-kei Publishers Co Ltd, Tokyo, pp. 572–573.

    Randall, J.E. (1999) Report on fish collections from the Pitcairn Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, 461, 1–36.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.461.1

    Randall, J.E. (2005) Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific. New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, xii + 707 pp.

    Regan, C.T. (1921) Three new fishes from South Africa, collected by Mr. H. W. Bell Marley. Annals of the Durban Museum, 3 (1), 1–2.

    Sabaj, M.H. (2016) Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in Herpetology and Ichthyology: an online reference. Version 6.5. 16 August 2016. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Washington, D.C. Available from: http://www.asih.org/sites/default/files/documents/symbolic_codes_for_collections_v6.5_2016.pdf (accessed 28 July 2018)

    Saruwatari, T., Lopez, J.A. & Pietsch, T.W. (1997) Cyanine Blue: a versatile and harmless stain for specimen observation. Copeia, 1997, 840–841.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1447302

    Schmidt, P.J. (1930) On the fishes of the Riu-Kiu Islands. Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Science Congress, Java, 1929, 3, 513–517.

    Shinohara, G., Sato, Y. & Matsuura, K. (2000) Coastal fishes of Ishima Island, Tokushima, Japan. Monographs of the National Science Museum Tokyo, 33, 175–186.

    Shiogaki, M. & Dotsu, Y. (1971) Larvae and Juveniles of the Clingfishes, Lepadichthys frenatus and Aspasmichthys ciconiae. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 18 (2), 85–89.

    Shiogaki, M. & Dotsu, Y. (1983) Two new genera and two new species of clingfishes from Japan, with comments on head sensory canals of the Gobiesocidae. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 30 (2), 111–121.

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (1971) Another new species of the clingfish genus Derilissus from the Western Atlantic (Pisces: Gobiesocidae). Copeia, 1971, 291–294.

    https://doi.org/10.2307/1442829

    Snyder, J.O. (1912a) Japanese shore fishes collected by the United States Bureau of Fisheries steamer "Albatross" expedition of 1906. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 42 (1909), 399–450, pls. 51–61.

    Snyder, J.O. (1912b) The fishes of Okinawa, one of the Riu Kiu Islands. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 42 (1913), 487–519, pls. 62–70.

    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00963801.42-1913.487

    Takagi, M., Hirata, T., Hirata, S. & Nakata, T. (2010) Fishes of Ainan Ehime. Soufu Publishers Co Ltd, Matsuyama, 250 pp.

    Tanaka, S. (1908) On a small collection of tide-pool fishes from Misaki, with descriptions of two new species. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses, 7 (1), 17–26.

    Tanaka, S. (1951) Figures and Descriptions of the Fishes of Japan. Kazama-shobo, Tokyo, 234 pp.

    Temminck, C.J. & Schlegel, H. (1845) Pisces. Parts 7–9. In: von Siebold, P.F. (Ed.), Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium, quae in itinere per Japoniam suscepto annis 1823–30 collegit, notis observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit P. F. de Siebold. J. Muller & Co., Amsterdam, pp. 113–172.

    Waite, E.R. (1904) Additions to the fish fauna of Lord Howe Island, No. 4. Records of the Australian Museum, 5 (3), 135–186.

    https://doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.5.1904.1053

    Wang, W.H. (2011) Fishes of Taiwan. National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pintung, 896 pp.

    Wessel, P. & Smith, W.H.F. (1996) A global self-consistent, hierarchical, high-resolution shoreline database. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101 (B4), 8741–8743.

    https://doi.org/10.1029/96JB00104

    Whitley, G.P. (1943) Ichthyological descriptions and notes. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 68, 114–144.

    Whitley, G.P. (1964) Presidential address. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 89, 11–127.

    Yoshino, T. (1984) Lepadichthys frenatus. In: Masuda, H., Amaoka, K., Araga, C., Uyeno, T. & Yoshino, T. (Eds.), The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, pp. 327, Pl. 306H.