Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2019-01-06

A reappraisal of the California Roach/Hitch (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Hesperoleucus/Lavinia) species complex

Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 Department of Animal Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 Department of Biological Sciences, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Ave, Stockton, CA 95211
Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616
Pisces Genomics Minnows Endemic DPS

Abstract

The California Roach (Hesperoleucus symmetricus) and Hitch (Lavinia exilicauda) form a species complex largely endemic to California (CA), USA. Using previous studies of this complex along with a recent comprehensive genomic analysis, we developed a highly supported taxonomic hierarchy of two genera, five species, four subspecies and multiple distinct population segments within two presently recognized species. The genera Lavinia and Hesperoleucus are supported as representing distinct lineages, despite occasional hybridization between them. While hybridization is one pathway to some speciation in this complex, hierarchical levels correlate nicely between genomic results and earlier morphological work. Hesperoleucus symmetricus is newly divided into four species (H. parvipinnis—Gualala Roach, H. mitrulus—Northern Roach, H. venustus—Coastal Roach, and H. symmetricus—California Roach) and two subspecies (H. s. serpentinus—Red Hills Roach, H. s. symmetricus—California Roach). Within H. venustus, two subspecies are identified (H. v. navarroensis—Northern Coastal Roach, and H. v. subditus—Southern Coastal Roach), which are supported by previous morphological studies but resolve discrepancies between those studies. Finally, six distinct population segments are identified within different species/subspecies: Kaweah, Russian River, Navarro River, Monterey, and Tomales Bay. Clear Lake Roach are introgressed between California and Coastal Roach, making them distinct but difficult to formally name. Results should greatly improve management and conservation of each taxonomic entity and help resolve past ambiguities. Additional studies are needed to improve range-wide boundaries and to investigate population structure within all species and subspecies identified in both Lavinia and Hesperoleucus lineages.

 

References

  1. Abbott, R., Albach, D., Ansell, S., Arntzen, J.W., Baird, S.J., Bierne, N., Boughman, J., Brelsford, A., Buerkle, C.A., Buggs, R. & Butlin, R.K. (2013) Hybridization and speciation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26, 229–246.

    Aguilar, A. & Jones, W.J. (2009) Nuclear and mitochondrial diversification in two native California minnows: insights into taxonomic identity and regional phylogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 51, 373–381.

    Anacker, B.L. & Harrison, S.P. (2012) Climate and the evolution of serpentine endemism in California. Evolutionary Ecology, 26, 1011–1023.

    Andrews, K.R., Good, J.M., Miller, M.R., Luikart, G. & Hohenlohe, P.A. (2016) Harnessing the power of RADseq for ecological and evolutionary genomics. Nature Reviews Genetics, 17, 81–92.

    Avise, J.C. & Ayala, F.J. (1976) Genetic differentiation in speciose versus depauperate phylads: evidence from the California minnows. Evolution, 30, 46–58.

    Avise, J.C., Smith, J.J. & Ayala, F.J. (1975) Adaptive differentiation with little genic change between two native California minnows. Evolution, 29, 411–426.

    Ayres, W.O. (1854) Descriptions of new species of cyprinoids. Originally published in Daily Placer Times and Transcript, May 1854 and reprinted in 1855 in Proceedings of California Academy of Sciences, 1, 18–22.

    Baack, E.J. & Rieseberg, L.H. (2007) A genomic view of introgression and hybrid speciation. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 17(6), 513-518.

    Baird, S.F. & Girard, C.F. (1854) Descriptions of new species of fishes collected in Texas, New Mexico and Sonora, by Mr. John H. Clark, on the US and Mexican boundary survey and in Texas by Capt. Stewart Van Vliet, Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ,7, 24–29.

    Baumsteiger, J., Kinziger, A.P. & Aguilar, A. (2016) Novel concordance between geographic, environmental, and genetic structure in the ecological generalist prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) in California. Journal of Heredity, 107, 504–517.

    Baumsteiger, J., Moyle, P.B., Aguilar, A., O’Rourke, S.M. & Miller, M.R. (2017) Genomics clarifies taxonomic boundaries in a difficult species complex. PloS One, 12(12), e0189417.

    Brown, L.R. & Moyle, P.B. (1993) Distribution, ecology, and status of the fishes of the San Joaquin River drainage, California. California Fish and Game, 79, 96–114.

    Brown, L.R. & Moyle, P.B. (1997). Invading species in the Eel River, California: successes, failures, and relationships with resident species. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 49, 271–291.

    Brown, L.R., Moyle, P.B., Bennett, W.A. & Quelvog, B.D. (1992) Implications of morphological variation among populations of California roach Lavinia symmetricus (Cyprinidae) for conservation policy. Biological Conservation, 62, 1–10.

    CDFG (California Department of Fish and Game) (1991) Little North Fork Gualala River Electroshocking Summary, 1986-1991. Unpublished Report, Yountville, CA. 20 pp.

    Cook, D. (2005) Chinook Salmon Spawning Study, Russian River, Fall 2002–2004. File Report. Sonoma County Water Agency, Santa Rosa, CA. 20 pp.

    DeHaven, R.W. (2008) Adult and Juvenile Steelhead Population Surveys, Gualala River, California, 2008. Unpublished report, prepared by the author December 31, 2008, for use by agencies, groups and individuals involved in steelhead recovery efforts. 47 pp.

    De Queiroz, K. (2007) Species concepts and species delimitation. Systematic Biology, 56 (6), 879–886.

    Entrix Inc. (1992) South Fork Gualala River Fishery Resource Study. Prepared for the Sea Ranch Water Company. Walnut Creek, CA. 63 pp.

    Evermann, B. & Clark, H.W. (1931) A distributional list of the species of freshwater fish known to occur in California. California Division of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, 35, 1–67.

    Feliciano, J.B. (2004) A Study of the Salmonid Populations in the Navarro River Watershed: Tracking Declines and Tools for Monitoring. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 80 pp.

    Fong, D. (1999) 1997 California Freshwater Shrimp (Syncaris pacifica) Surveys within Point Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) Prepared for the GGNRA, Division of Resource Management and Planning, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Permits, Ecological Services, Portland Regional Office. 30 pp.

    Fricke, R. & Eschmeyer, W.N. (2018) A guide to the fish collections in the Catalog of Fishes. Electronic version. Available from: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/ catalog/fishcatmain.asp (accessed 6 August 2018).

    Gard, M. & Randall, P. (2004) Setting priorities for native fish conservation: An example from the South Yuba River watershed. California Fish and Game, 90, 1–12.

    Goodwin, P., Cuffe, C.K., Nielsen, J.L. & Light, T. (1993) Russian River Estuary Study, 1992–1993. Department of Planning, Sonoma County, California, U.S.A. 186 pp.

    Greenfield, D.W. & Deckert, G.D. (1973). Introgressive hybridization between Gila orcutti and Hesperoleucus symmetricus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in the Cuyama River Basin, California: II. Ecological aspects. Copeia, 1973, 417–427.

    Harrison, S. (2013) Plant and Animal Endemism in California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 189 pp.

    Higgins, P. (1997) Gualala River Watershed Literature Search and Assimilation. Redwood Coast Land Conservancy, Gualala CA. 57 pp.

    Hopkirk, J.D. (1973) Endemism in fishes of the Clear Lake region of central California. University of California Publications in Zoology, 96, 1–160.

    Hubbs, C.L. Follett, W.I. & Dempster, L.J. (1979) List of the fishes of California. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 133, 1–51

    Jones, W.J. (2001) DNA Sequence Divergence and Speciation in Two California Minnows (Cyprinidae: Lavinia exilicauda and L. symmetricus). PhD Dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. Ca. 150 pp.

    Jones, W.J., Quelvog, B.D. & Bernardi, G. (2002) Morphological and genetic analysis of the Red Hills roach (Cyprinidae: Lavinia symmetricus). Conservation Genetics, 3, 261–276.

    Jordan, D.S. & Evermann, B.W. (1896) A Check-list of the Fishes and Fishlike Vertebrates of North and Middle America. US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 584 pp.

    Kimsey, J.B. (1953) Population Sampling of Three North Coastal Streams Closed to Summer Trout Fishing -1952 Season. First Progress Report. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento. 15 pp.

    Kinziger, A.P., Hellmair, M., Fong, S.R., Goodman, D.H. & Kelsey, H. (2016) Evolution of rough sculpin (Cottus asperrimus) genetic divergence and late Quaternary displacement on the Hat Creek fault, California, USA. Conservation Genetics, 17, 1257–1267.

    Leidy, R.A. (1984) Distribution and ecology of stream fishes in the San Francisco Bay drainage, Hilgardia, 52(8), 1–175.

    Leidy, R.A. (2007) Ecology, Assemblage Structure, Distribution, and Status of Fishes in Streams Tributary to the San Francisco Estuary, California. San Francisco Estuary Institute, San Francisco. 194 pp.

    Linnaeus, C. (1758) Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum chararteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii). Tomus 1: Regnum animale. 10th Ed. Stockholm, 824 pp.

    Mallet, J. (2007) Hybrid speciation. Nature, 446(7133), 279.

    Miller, R.R. (1945) The status of Lavinia ardesiaca, a cyprinid fish from the Pajaro-Salinas River basin, California. Copeia, 1945, 197–204.

    Miller, R.R. (1963) Synonymy, characters, and variation of Gila crassicauda, a rare Californian minnow, with an account of its hybridization with Lavinia exilicauda. California Fish and Game, 49, 20–29.

    Moyle, P.B. (2002) Inland Fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 502 pp.

    Moyle, P.B., Crain, P.K., Whitener, K. & Mount, J.F. (2003) Alien fishes in natural streams: fish distribution, assemblage structure, and conservation in the Cosumnes River, California, USA. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 68, 143–162.

    Moyle, P.B. & Daniels, R.A. (1982) Fishes of the Pit River system, and Surprise Valley region. University of California Publications in Zoology, 115, 1–82.

    Moyle, P.B., Hobbs, J. & O'Rear, T. (2012) Fishes. In A. Palaima, ed. Ecology, Conservation and Restoration of Tidal Marshes: The San Francisco Estuary. University of California Press. Berkeley. pp. 161–173.

    Moyle, P.B., Katz, J.V.E. & Quiñones, R.M. (2011) Rapid decline of California’s native inland fishes: a status assessment. Biological Conservation, 144, 2414-2423.

    Moyle, P.B., Kiernan, J.D., Crain, P.K. & Quinones, R.M. (2013) Climate change vulnerability of native and alien freshwater fishes of California: a systematic assessment approach. PLoS One, 8(5), e63883.

    Moyle, P.B., Lusardi, R. Samuel, P. & Katz, J. (2017) State of the Salmonids: Status of California’s Emblematic Fishes 2017. Center for Watershed Sciences, University of California, Davis and California Trout, San Francisco, CA., 579 pp.

    Moyle, P.B. & Massingill, M. (1981) Hybridization between hitch, Lavinia exilicauda, and Sacramento blackfish, Orthodon microlepidotus, in San Luis Reservoir, California. California Fish and Game, 67, 196–198.

    Moyle, P.B. & Nichols, R.D. (1973) Ecology of some native and introduced fishes of the Sierra Nevada foothills in central California. Copeia, 1973, 478–490.

    Moyle, P.B., Quiñones, R.M., Katz, J.V.E. & Weaver, J. (2015) Fish Species of Special Concern in California. 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Sacramento Ca. 300 pp. https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Fishes/Special-Concern

    Moyle, P.B., Williams, J.E. & Wikramanayake, E.D (1989) Fish Species of Special Concern of California. California Department of Fish and Game. Sacramento. 272 pp.

    Murphy, G. (1943) Sexual dimorphism in the minnows Hesperoleucus and Rhinichthys. Copeia, 1943, 187–188.

    Murphy, G. (1948) Distribution of Variation of the Roach (Hesperoleucus) in the Coastal Region of California. M.A. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley. 55 pp.

    Page, L.M., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N., Mandrak, N.E., Mayden, R.L. & Nelson, J.S. (2013) Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 243 pp.

    Parker, C. & Pool, R. (1964) North Fork Gualala River Stream Survey, North Fork Gualala River surveyed by foot and automobile from the mouth to the headwaters, a total of 15 miles. September 17–18, 1964. File report, California Department of Fish and Game, Region 3, Yountville, CA. 2 pp.

    Pintler, H.E. & Johnson, W.C. (1958) Chemical control of rough fish in the Russian River drainage, California. California Fish and Game, 44, 91–124.

    Power, M.E., Bouma-Gregson, K., Higgins, P. & Carlson, S.M. (2015) The thirsty Eel: summer and winter flow thresholds that tilt the Eel River of northwestern California from salmon-supporting to cyanobacterially degraded states. Copeia, 2015, 200–211.

    Reid, S.B., Cowan, W. & Byers, S. (2003) Mainstem upper Pit River fish surveys including the North and South Fork Pit Rivers, September 2002. File Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Klamath Falls, Oregon. 53 pp

    Rutter, C. (1908) The fishes of the Sacramento-San Joaquin basin: with a study of their distribution and variation. Bulletin, U.S. Fish Commission, 27, 103–152.

    Sangster, G. (2014) The application of species criteria in avian taxonomy and its implications for the debate over species concepts. Biological Reviews, 89, 199–214.

    Scheerer, P.D., Gunckel, S.L., Heck M.P. & Jacobs, S.E. (2010) Status and distribution of native fishes in the Goose Lake Basin. Northwestern Naturalist, 91, 271–287.

    Schönhuth, S., Hillis, D.M., Neely, D.A., Lozano-Vilano, L., Perdices, A. & Mayden, R. L. (2012) Phylogeny, diversity, and species delimitation of the North American round-nosed minnows (Teleostei: Dionda), as inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62, 427–446.

    Seehausen, O., Butlin, R.K., Keller, I., Wagner, C.E., Boughman, J.W., Hohenlohe, P.A., Peichel, C.L., Saetre, G.P., Bank, C., Brannstrom, A. & Brelsford, A. (2014) Genomics and the origin of species. Nature Reviews Genetics, 15, 176–192.

    Shapovalov, L. & Dill, W.A. (1950) A check list of the fresh-water and anadromous fishes of California. California Fish and Game, 36, 382–391.

    Shapovalov, L., Dill, W.A. & Cordone, A.J. (1959) A revised checklist of the freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. California Fish and Game, 45, 159–180.

    Smith, J.J. (1982) Fishes of the Pajaro River system. University of California Publications in Zoology, 115, 83–170.

    Smith, J.J. (2007) Steelhead Distribution and Ecology in the Upper Pajaro River System and Mainstem Pajaro River. Unpublished Report 7, Department of Biology, San Jose State University. Ca. 40 pp.

    Snyder, J.O. (1905) Notes on the fishes of the streams flowing into the San Francisco Bay. Report for U.S. Bureau Fisheries for 1904, 327–338.

    Snyder, J.O. (1908) The fishes of the coastal streams of Oregon and northern California. Bulletin, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, 27, 153–189.

    Snyder, J.O. (1913) The fishes of the streams tributary to Monterey Bay, California. Bulletin, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, 32, 49–72.

    Stone, L. (1876) Report of Operations in 1873: Clear Lake. United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner for 1873–74 and 1874-75, Appendix B, 377–381.

    Taylor, T.L., Moyle, P.B. & Price, D.G. (1982) Fishes of the Clear Lake basin. University of California Publications in Zoology, 115, 171–224.

How to Cite

BAUMSTEIGER, J., & MOYLE, P. B. (2019). A reappraisal of the California Roach/Hitch (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, <em>Hesperoleucus</em>/<em>Lavinia</em>) species complex. Zootaxa, 4543(2), 221–240. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4543.2.3