Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2019-01-06

The fishes of St Helena Island, central Atlantic Ocean—new records and an annotated check-list

Ascension Island Conservation & Fisheries Department, Ascension Island Government, Georgetown, Ascension Island.
Marine Section, Environmental Management Department, St Helena Government, Jamestown, St Helena
Im Ramstal 76, 97922 Lauda-Königshofen, Germany.
Im Ramstal 76, 97922 Lauda-Königshofen, Germany.
Marine Section, Environmental Management Department, St Helena Government, Jamestown, St Helena
Centro de Ciências do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, PT 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Pisces St Helena South Atlantic marine biodiversity endemic reef fish

Abstract

A check-list of the fishes of St Helena Island is presented. The following species are recorded for the first time from St. Helena Island: Rhincodon typus, Mobula tarapacana, Muraena melanotis, Caranx latus, Seriola rivoliana, Balistes capriscus, Lutjanus jocu, Centropyge aurantonotus, Acanthurus coeruleus, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum, Tetrapturus pfluegeri, Coelorinchus geronimo, Pentaceros richardsoni, Gephyroberyx darwinii, Brotula cf multibarbata, Poromitra crassiceps, Echiostoma barbatum, Malacosteus niger, Pachystomias microdon. Including these nineteen new records there are 189 fish species currently known from St Helena. Three of them appear to be undescribed. Eight species and two subspecies are currently considered endemic to St. Helena Island.

 

References

  1. Ahl, E. (1923) Zur Kenntnis der Knochenfischfamilie Chaetodontidae insbesondere der Unterfamilie Chaetodontinae. Archiv für Naturgeschichte Berlin, (N.F.) 89 (A, 5), 1–205, pls. 1–2.

    Allen, G.R. (1991) Riffbarsche der Welt. Mergus, Melle, 1–271.

    Amaoka, K. & Imamura, H. (2000) A new flounder, Monolene helenensis (Pleuronectiformes: Bothidae) from the eastern tropical Atlantic. Ichthyological Research, 47 (3), 243–247.

    Anderson, W.D., Jr. & Springer, V.G. (2005) Review of the perciform fish genus Symphysanodon Bleeker (Symphysanodontidae), with descriptions of three new species, S. mona, S. parini, and S. rhax. Zootaxa, 996, 1–44.

    Arnaud, F., Arnaud, P.M., Intès, A., & Le Loeuff, P. (1976) Transport d´ invertébrés benthiques entre l´Afrique du Sud et Sainte Hèléne par les laminaires (Phaeophyceae). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 3e série, no 384, mai–juin 1976, Écologie générale 30, 49–55.

    Arnold, R.J. & Pietsch, T.W. (2012) Evolutionary history of frogfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: Antennariidae): A molecular approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 62, 117–129.

    Baker, P.E. (1973) Islands of the South Atlantic. In Ocean Basins and Margins, The South Atlantic (A. E. M. Nairn and F. G. Stehli, Eds). New York: Plenum Press. 1, 493–553.

    Bath, H. (1990) Über eine neue Art der Gattung Scartella von den Kapverdischen Inseln (Pisces: Blenniidae). Mitteilungen Pollichia, 77, 395–407.

    Bath, H. (1996) Beitrag zur Osteologie der Arten der Tribus Parablenniini. Die Beziehungen der Knochen des Schädeldaches zum Seitenorgan–System und zu den Weichteilbildungen der Kopfoberseite sowie die systematische Bedeutung der Befunde nebst Bemerkungen zu Lupinoblennius dispar Herre 1942. (Pisces: Blenniidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica, 76 (1/2), 65–92.

    Bauchot, M.-L. (1967) Poissons marins de l'Est Atlantique Tropical. Téléostéens Perciformes. V. Blennioidei. Atlantide Report, 9, 63–91, pls. 7–9.

    Bennett, G. (1860) Gatherings of a naturalist in Australasia: being observations principally on the animal and vegetable productions of New South Wales, New Zealand, and some of the Austral Islands. John van Voorst, London. xii + 456 pp, Pls. 1–8.

    Ben–Tuvia, A. & Golani, D. (1984) A west African fangtooth moray eel Enchelycore anatina from the Mediterranean cost of Israel. Copeia, 1984 (2), 541–544.

    Bernal, M.A. & Rocha, L.A. (2011) Acanthurus tractus Poey 1860, a valid western Atlantic species of surgeonfish (Teleostei, Acanthuridae), distinct from Acanthurus bahianus Castelnau, 1855. Zootaxa, 2905, 63–68.

    Blache, J. (1967) Contribution à la connaissance des poissons Anguilliformes de la côte occidentale d'Afrique. Quatrième note. Le genre Lycodontis McClelland, 1845. Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles, v. 29 (no. 3), 1122–1187.

    Blache, J. & Bauchot, M.-L. (1972) Contribution à la connaissance des poissons Anguilliformes de la côte occidentale d'Afrique. 13e note: les genres Verma, Apterichthus, Ichthyapus, Hemerorhinus, Caecula, Dalophis avec la description de deux genres nouveaux (Fam. des Ophichthidae). Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles, 34 (3), 692–773.

    Blache, J, Bauchot, M.-L. (1976a) Contribution à une revision générale des Ophichthidae (Pisces, Anguilliformi). 1. Le genre Herpetoichthys Kaup, 1856. Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Zoologie) (3), 262, 441–452.

    Blache, J, Bauchot, M.-L. (1976b) Contribution à la connaissance des poisons Anguilliformes de la côte occidentale d’Afrique. 16e note: les familles des Congridae et des Colocongridae. Bulletin de l’Institut Fondametal d’Afrique Noire, 38A (2), 369–444.

    Blache, J. & Cadenat, J. (1971) Contribution à la connaissance des poissons anguilliformes de la côte occidentale d'Afrique. Dixième note: les genres Myrichthys, Bascanichthys et Callechelys (Fam. des Ophichthidae). Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér. A) Sciences Naturelles, 33 (1), 158–201.

    Bleeker, P. (1863) Mémoire sur les poissons de la côte de Guinée. Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem, (Serie 2) 18 (for1862), 1–136, pls. 1–28.

    Bloch, M.E. & Schneider, J.G. (1801) M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae Iconibus cx Ilustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Sander, Berolini, i–lx + 1–584, Pls. 1–110.

    Böhlke, E.B., McCosker, J.E. & Böhlke, J.B. (1989) Family Muraenidae. In: Böhlke, E. B. (ed.): Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, part nine, vol. 1. Order Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes. Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (part 9), pp. 104–206.

    Boulenger, G.A. (1895) Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the perciform fishes in the British Museum. Second edition. Volume I. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, 2nd edition v. 1. British Museum, London, xix + 394 pp, pls. 1–15.

    Bowen, B.W., Bass, A.L., Muss A., Carlin, J. & Robertson, D.R. (2006) Phylogeography of two Atlantic squirrelfishes (Family Holocentridae): exploring links between pelagic larval duration and population connectivity. Marine Biology, 149, 899–913.

    Brito, A. & Falcon, J.M. (1996) Capture of the St. Helena butterfly fish, Chaetodon sanctaehelenae (Chaetodontidae) in the Canary Islands. Cybium, 20 (1), 99–100.

    Brito, A., Pascual, P.J., Falcón, J.M., Sancho, A. & González, G. (2002) Peces de las Islas Canarias. Catálogo comentado e ilustrado. F. Lemus, Tenerife. 419 pp.

    Brown, J. (2014) Marine life of St Helena. St Helena Government, St Helena, iii + 220 pp.

    Cadenat, J. & Marchal, E. (1963) Résultats des campagnes océanographiques de la Reine–Pokou aux îles Sainte–Hélène et Ascension. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles, 25 (4), 1235–1315, 51 unnumbered pls.

    Campos, E., Busalacchi, A., Garzoli, S., Lutjeharms, J., Matano, R., Nobre, P. & Wainer, I. (1999) The South Atlantic and the climate. Proceedings of the OCEANOBS, 99.

    Carlin, J.L., Robertson, D.R. & Bowen, B.W. (2003) Ancient divergences and recent connections in two tropical Atlantic reef fishes Epinephelus adscensionis and Rypticus saponaceus (Percoidei: Serranidae). Marine Biology, 143, 1057–1869.

    Clark, R.S. (1913) Scottish National Antarctic Expedition– "Scotia" collection of fishes from St. Helena. Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, 19 (art. 9), 47–53.

    Collette, B.B. (1999) Mackerels, molecules, and morphology. In: Séret, B. & Sire, J.-Y. (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th Indo–Pacific Fish Conference, Noumea, 1997. Société Française d'Ichtyologie, Paris, pp. 149–164.

    Collette, B.B. (2003) Family Belonidae Bonaparte 1832—needlefishes. California Academy of Sciences, Annotated Checklists of Fishes, 16, 1–22.

    Collette, B.B. (2016) Scombridae. Mackerels and Tunas. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 2896–2915.

    Collette, B.B. & Nauen, C.E. (1983) FAO species catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) Fisheries Synopsis, 125, vii + 137 pp.

    Compagno, L.J.V. (2016) Etmopteridae. Lantern sharks and black dogfishes. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 2. Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1179–1188.

    Costagliola, D., Robertson, D.R., Guidetti, P. Stefanni, S., Wirtz, P., Heiser, J.B. & Bernardi,G. (2004) Evolution of coral reef fish Thalassoma spp. (Labridae). 2. Evolution of the eastern Atlantic species. Marine Biology, 144, 377–383.

    Cunningham, J.T. (1910) On the marine fishes and invertebrates of St. Helena. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910, (1), 86–130, pls. 4–7.

    Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. & Valenciennes, A. (1831) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome septième. Livre septième. Des Squamipennes. Livre huitième. Des poissons à pharyngiens labyrinthiformes. F. G. Levrault, Paris, xxix +531 pp, pls. 170–208. [Cuvier authored pp. 1–440, Valenciennes 441–531.]

    Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. & Valenciennes, A. (1832) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome huitième. Livre neuvième. Des Scombéroïdes. F.G. Levrault, Paris, xix + 5 + 509 pp, pls. 209–245. [Cuvier authored pp. 1–470; Valenciennes 471–509.]

    Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. & Valenciennes, A. (1833) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome neuvième. Des Scombéroïdes. F. G. Levrault, Paris: xxix + 3 + 512 pp, pls. 246–279.

    Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. & Valenciennes, A. (1836) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome onzième. Livre treizième. De la famille des Mugiloïdes. Livre quatorzième. De la famille des Gobioïdes. F. G. Levrault, Paris, xx + 506 + 2 pp., pls. 307–343. [Valenciennes authored volume.]

    Cuvier, G. & Valenciennes, A. (1846) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix–huitième. Suite du livre dix–huitième. Cyprinoïdes. Livre dix–neuvième. Des Ésoces ou Lucioïdes. P. Bertrand, Paris, xix + 2 + 505 + 2 pp., Pls. 520–553. [Valenciennes authored volume.]

    Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. & Valenciennes, A. (1847) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome dix–neuvième. P. Bertrand, Paris. 544 p

    Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. & Valenciennes, A. (1839) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome treizième. Des Labroïdes. F. G. Levrault, Paris, xix + 105 + 1 pp., pls. 369–388. [Valenciennes authored volume.]

    Ebeling, A.W. & Weed, W.H. III (1963) Melamphaidae III. Systematics and distribution of the species in the bathypelagic fish genus Scopelogadus Vaillant. Dana Report 60, 1–58.

    Edwards, A.J. (1990). Fish and Fisheries of Saint Helena Island ISBN 0–9516480–0–4, 152 pp.

    Edwards, A.J. (1993) New records of fishes from the Bonaparte Seamount and Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic. Journal of Natural History, 27 (2), 493–503

    Edwards, A.J. & Glass, C.W. (1987a) The fishes of Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The shore fishes. Journal of Natural History, 21 (3), 617–686.

    Edwards, A.J. & Glass, C.W. (1987b) The fishes of Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean. II. The pelagic fishes. Journal of Natural History, 21 (6), 1367–1394.

    Edwards, A. & Lubbock, R. (1983) Marine zoogeography of St. Paul's Rocks. Journal of Biogeography, 10, 65–72.

    Ege, V. (1933) On some new fishes of the families Sudidae and Stomiatidae. Preliminary note. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn, 94, 223–236.

    Eschmeyer, W.N. (1965) Western Atlantic scorpionfishes of the genus Scorpaena, including four new species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 15 (1), 84–164.

    Eschmeyer, W.N. (1969) A systematic review of the scorpionfishes of the Atlantic Ocean (Pisces: Scorpaenidae). Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences, 79, iv + 143 pp.

    Eschmeyer, W.N. (1971) Two new Atlantic scorpionfishes. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, (Series 4) 37 (17), 501–508.

    Evseenko, S.A. (2004) Family Pleuronectidae Cuvier 1816—righteye flounders. California Academy of Sciences Annotated checklists of Fishes, 37, 1–37.

    Fernandez–Silva, I. & Ho, H.C. (2017) Revision of the circumtropical glasseye fish Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Perciformes: Priacanthidae), with resurrection of two species. Zootaxa, 4273 (3), 341–361.

    Floeter, S.R., Rocha, L.A., Robertson, D.R., Joyeux, J.C., Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Wirtz, P., Edwards, A.J., Barreiros, J.P., Ferreira, C.E.L., Gasparini, J.L., Brito, A., Falcón, J.M., Bowen, B.W. & Bernardi, G. (2008) Atlantic reef fish biogeography and evolution. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 22–47.

    Fowler, H.W. (1936) The marine fishes of West Africa based on the collection of the American Museum Congo expedition, 1909–1915. Part II. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 70 (2), 607–1493.

    Ferraris, C.J., Jr. (2016b) Gonorynchidae. Beaked salmon. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1740–1741.

    Freitas, R. (2014) The coastal ichthyofauna of the Cape Verde Islands: a summary and remarks on endemism. Zoologia Caboverdiana, 5/1, 1–13.

    Fricke, R. (1983) A new species of the genus Callionymus from St. Helena (Teleostei: Callionymidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale `Giacomo Doria', 84, 393–399.

    Fricke, R. (1997) Tripterygiid fishes of the western and central Pacific, with descriptions of 15 new species, including an annotated checklist of world Tripterygiidae (Teleostei). Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, ix + 607 pp.

    Fricke, R. (1999) Fishes of the Mascarene Islands (Réunion, Mauritius, Rodriguez). An annotated checklist with descriptions of new species. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, viii + 759 pp.

    Fricke, R. (2002) Annotated checklist of the dragonet families Callionymidae and Draconettidae (Teleostei: Callionymoidei), with comments on callionymid fish classification. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde A (Biologie), 645, 1–103.

    Fricke, R. (2009) Systematics of the Tripterygiidae (triplefins). In: Patzner, R.A., E.J. Gonçalves, P.A. Hastings and B.G. Kapoor (eds.): The biology of blennies. Science Publishers, Enfield NH, pp. 31–67.

    Fricke, R. (ed.) (2018) References in the Catalog of fishes. Online version, updated 5 November 2018. Internet publication, San Francisco (California Academy of Sciences). Available from: http://research.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/Catalog/fishcatmain.asp (Accessed 4 Jan. 2019)

    Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & Laan, R. van der (eds.) (2018) Catalog of fishes: Genera, species, references. Online version, updated 5 Novmeber 2018. Internet publication, San Francisco (California Academy of Sciences). Available from: http://research.calacademy.org/research/Ichthyology/Catalog/fishcatmain.asp (Accessed 4 Jan. 2019)

    Fricke, R., Golani, D. & Appelbaum-Golani, B. (2016) Diplodus levantinus (Teleostei: Sparidae), a new species of sea bream from the southeastern Mediterranean Sea of Israel, with a checklist and a key to the species of the Diplodus sargus species group. Scientia Marina, 80 (3), 1–16.

    Froese, R. & Pauly, D. (eds.) (2017) FishBase. www.fishbase.org, version (01/2018).

    Gaither, M.R., Schultz, J.K., Bellwood, D., Rocha, L., Pyle, R.L., DiBattista, J.D. & Bowen, B.W. (2014) Evolution of the pygmy angelfishes: recent divergences, introgression, and the usefulness of color as a taxonomic trait. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 74, 38–47

    Gibbs, R.H., Jr., Clarke, T.A. & Gomon, J.R. (1983) Taxonomy and distribution of the stomioid fish genus Eustomias (Melanostomiidae), I: subgenus Nominostomias. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 380, i–iv + 1–139.

    Gomon, M.F. (2006) A revision of the labrid fish genus Bodianus with descriptions of eight new species. Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 30, 1–133.

    Gomon, M.F. & Lubbock, R. (1980) A new hogfish of the genus Bodianus (Teleostei: Labridae) from islands of the mid–Atlantic ridge. Northeast Gulf Science v3 (2) [for Dec. 1979], 104–111.

    Greenfield, D.W. (1989) Priolepis dawsoni n. sp. (Pisces: Gobiidae), a third Atlantic species of Priolepis. Copeia, 1989 (2), 397–401.

    Günther, A. (1862) Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Acanthopterygii, Pharyngognathi and Anacanthini in the collection of the British Museum. Volume 4. British Museum, London, xxi + 534 pp.

    Günther, A. (1868) Report on a collection of fishes made at St. Helena by J. C. Melliss, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868, (part 2), 225–228, pls. 18–19.

    Günther, A. (1869). Report of a second collection of fishes made at St. Helena by J. C. Melliss, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1869 (2), 238–239, Pl. 16.

    Günther, A. (1870) Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Physostomi, containing the families Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae, Muraenidae, Pegasidae, and of the Lophobranchii, Plectognathi, Dipnoi, Leptocardii, in the British Museum. Volume 8: British Museum, London, xxv + 549 pp.

    Haedrich, R.L. (1967) The stromateoid fishes: systematics and a classification. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 135 (2), 31–139.

    Haedrich, R.L. (2016) Ariommatidae. Ariommas. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 2924–2928.

    Heemstra, P.C. (2016a) Zeniontidae. Zeniontids. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 2215–2217.

    Heemstra, P.C. (2016b) Howellidae. Pricklefishes. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 2696–2701.

    Heemstra, P.C. & Randal, J.E. (1977) A revision of the Emmelichthyidae (Pisces: Perciformes). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 28 (3), 361–396.

    Heemstra, P.C. & Randal, J.E. (1993) Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae); an annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Species Catalogue 16. FAO, Rome, viii + 382 pp, pls. 1–31.

    Hollard, H.L.G.M (1857) Monographie de la famille des Ostracionides. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) 7, 121–170, pl. 13.

    Holleman, W. (2007) Fishes of the genus Helcogramma (Blennioidei: Tripterygiidae) in the western Indian Ocean, including Sri Lanka, with descriptions of four new species. Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin, 7, 51–81.

    Hulley, P.A. & Paxton, J. R. (2016) Myctophidae. In: Carpenter, K. E. & De Angelis, N. (eds.): The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO, pp. 1860–1928.

    Johnson, R.K. & Cohen, D.M. (1974) Results of the research cruises of FRV "Walther Herwig" to South America. XXX. Revision of the chiasmodontid fish genera Dysalotus and Kali, with descriptions of two new species. Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 25 (1/2), 13–46.

    Kanazawa, R.H. (1958) A revision of the eels of the genus Conger with descriptions of four new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 108 (3400), 219–267, pls. 1–4.

    Kenaley, C.P. (2009) Revision of Indo–Pacific species of the loosejaw dragonfish genus Photostomias (Teleostei: Stomiidae: Malacosteinae). Copeia, 2009 (1), 175–189.

    Kimura, S., Katahira, K. & Kuriiwa, K. (2013) The red–fin Decapterus group (Perciformes: Carangidae) with the description of a new species, Decapterus smithvanizi. Ichthyological Research, 60 (4), 363–379.

    Knudsen, S.W. & Clements, K.D. (2013) Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae. Zootaxa, 3751 (1), 1–101.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3751.1.1

    Knudsen, S.W. & Clements, K.D. (2016) World–wide species distributions in the family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 101, 252–266.

    Kuiter, R.H. (2009) Seahorses and their relatives. Aquatic Photographics, Seaford, Australia, 1–333.

    Larson, H.K. & Buckle, D.J. (2012) A revision of the goby genus Gnatholepis Bleeker (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobionellinae), with description of a new species. Zootaxa, 3529, 1–69.

    Leis, J.M. (2016) Diodontidae. Porcupine fishes (burrfishes, spiny puffers). In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 3074–3079.

    Lubbock, R. (1980) The shore fishes of Ascension Island. Journal of Fish Biology, 17 (3), 283–303.

    Lubbock, R & Sankey, RD (1975) A new angelfish of the genus Centropyge (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae) from Ascension Island. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Zoology, 28 (5), 227–231. Pl. I.

    Marcus, E. (1938) Papers from Dr Th. Mortensen’s Pacific Expedition 1914–16. LXIX. Bryozoen von St Helena. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening, 101, 184–251.

    Martinez–Takeshita, N., Purcell, C.M., Chabot, C.L., Craig, M.T., Paterson, C.N., Hyde, J.R. & Allen, L.G. (2015) A tale of three tails: cryptic speciation in a globally distributed marine fish of the genus Seriola. Copeia, 103 (2), 357–368.

    Matsuura, K. (2014) Taxonomy and systematics of tetraodontiform fishes: a review focusing primarily on progress in the period from 1980 to 2014. Review for IPFC9 Special Issue. Ichthyological Research, 62 (1), 72–113 [1–42]. [First appeared online in 2014 [1–42], printed version appeared on 24 Jan. 2015.]

    Mayer, G.F. (1974) A revision of the cardinalfish genus Epigonus (Perciformes, Apogonidae), with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 146 (3), 147–203.

    McCosker, J.E. (2004) A new species of finless snake eel (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from Ascension Island, with comments on Ichthyapus acutirostris. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 55 (7), 169–173.

    McCosker, J.E. (2016) Ophichthidae. Snake eels. Pp 1654–1666. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO).

    McCosker, J.E., Böhlke, E.B. & Böhlke, J.E. (1989) Family Ophichthidae. In: Böhlke, E.B. (ed.): Volume One: Orders Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research, pp. 254–412.

    Melliss, J.C. (1875) St Helena: A physical, historical and topographical description of the Island including its geology, fauna, flora and meterology L Reeve & Co, London.

    Miller, P.J. (2016) Eleotridae. Sleepers. In: Carpenter, K. E. & De Angelis, N. (eds.): The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3, pp. 2827–2829.

    Moore, J.A. (2016a) Trachichthyidae. Roughies. In: Carpenter, K.E. & De Angelis, N. (eds.): The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO, pp. 2187–2192.

    Moore, J.A. (2016b) Berycidae. Alfonsinos. In: Carpenter, K. E. & De Angelis, N. (eds.): The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO, pp. 2192–2194.

    Mortensen, T. (1933) The echinoderms of St Helena in Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk naturhistorisk Forening, 93, 401–472, pls. 20–22. Kobenhavn.

    Moura, R.L. de & Castro, R.M.C. (2002) Revision of Atlantic sharpnose pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae: Canthigaster), with description of three new species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 115 (1), 32–50.

    Munroe, T.A. (1990) Eastern Atlantic tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes), with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of Marine Science, 47, 464–515.

    Munroe, TA, Brito, A. & Hernández, C. (2000) Symphurus insularis: A new eastern Atlantic dwarf tonguefish (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Copeia, 2000 (2), 491–500.

    Muss, A., Robertson, R., Wirtz, P., Bowen, B. & Stepien, C.A. (2001) Phylogeography of the genus Ophioblennius: the role of ocean currents and geography in reef fish evolution. Evolution, 55, 561–572.

    Nakamura, I. (1983) Systematics of the billfishes (Xiphiidae and Istiophoridae). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 28 (5/6), 255–396.

    Nakamura, I. (1985) Billfishes of the world. FAO species catalogue. Volume 5, 65 pages. FAO, Rome

    Nakamura, I. & Parin, N.V. (1993) FAO species catalogue. Snake mackerels and cutlassfishes of the world (families Gempylidae and Trichiuridae). FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Fisheries Synopsis, 125, 15, i–vii + 1–136.

    Nelson, J.S., Grande, T.C. & Wilson, M.V.H. (2016) Fishes of the world. Fifth edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken NJ, xli + 707 pp.

    Nielsen, J.G. (1963) Soleoidea (Pisces, Heterosomata). Atlantide Report, 7, 7–35.

    Norman, J.R. (1931) Notes on flatfishes (Heterosomata)—I. Notes on flatfishes of the family Bothidae in the British Museum, with descriptions of three new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (Series 10) 8 (47), 507–510.

    Norman, J.R. (1935a) Coast fishes. Part I. The South Atlantic. Discovery Reports, 12, 1–58.

    Norman, J.R. (1935b) A revision of the Lizard–fishes of the genera Synodus, Trachinocephalus, and Saurida. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935, (1), 99–135.

    Orrell, T.M. & Hartel, K.E. (2016) Platytroctidae. Tubeshoulders. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1771–1782.

    Page, L.M., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N., Mandrak, N.E., Mayden, R.L. & Nelson, J.S. (2013). Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 7th edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland, 384 pp.

    Parin, N.V. (1994) Three new species and new records of the black scabbard fishes genus Aphanopus (Trichiuridae). Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 34 (6), 740–746. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology, 35 (2),128–138.]

    Parin, N.V. & Belyanina, T.N. (1996) Geographic distribution and early ontogenetic stages of flying fish subgenus Procypselurus (genus Cheilopogon, Exocoetidae) in the Atlantic Ocean. Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 36 (6), 753–761. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology 36 (9), 713–722.]

    Parin, N.V. & Borodulina, O.D. (1986) Preliminary review of the bathypelagic fish genus Antigonia Lowe (Zeiformes, Caproidae). Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova = Transactions of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 121, 141–172. [In Russian, English summary.]

    Parin, N.V. & Borodulina, O.D. (1996) Revision of the Astronesthes indicus species group (Astronesthidae), with descriptions of five new species. Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 36 (5), 581–596. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology, 36 (8), 551–565.]

    Parin, N.V. & Piotrovsky, A.S. (2004) Stromateoid fishes (suborder Stromateoidei) of the Indian Ocean (species composition, distribution, biology, and fisheries). Journal of Ichthyology, 44, Supplement 1, S33–S62.

    Parin, N.V. & Shakhovskoy, I.B. (2000) A review of the flying fish genus Exocoetus (Exocoetidae) with descriptions of two new species from the southern Pacific Ocean. Journal of Ichthyology, 40 (Supplement 1), S31–S63.

    Patzner, R.A., Hastings, P.A., Springer, V.G., Wirtz, P. & Gonçalves, E.J. (2009) List of valid species of blennies. In: In: Patzner, R.A., E.J. Gonçalves, P.A. Hastings and B. G. Kapoor (eds.): The biology of blennies. Science Publishers, Enfield NH, pp. 443–473.

    Pietsch, T.W. & Grobecker, D.B. (1987) Frogfishes of the world: Systematics, zoogeography, and behavioral ecology. Stanford University Press, Stanford, xxii + 420 pp, pls. 1–56.

    Post, A. (1973) Ergebnisse der Forschungsreisen des FFS "Walther Herwig" nach Südamerika. XXVII. Macroparalepis Ege, 1933 (Osteichthyes, Myctophoidei, Paralepididae). Revision der Gattung und Beschreibung zweier neuer Arten. Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 23 (3), 202–242.

    Quéro, J.-C., Hureau, J.-C, Karrer, C., Post, A. & Saldanha, L. (1990) Check–list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic. CLOFETA. UNESCO, Paris, 3 vols., xxxii + 1492 pp. [v. 1, pp. i–xxxii + 1–519; v. 2, pp. 520–1080; v. 3, pp. 1081–1492.]

    Randall, J.E. (1968) Caribbean reef fishes. T. F. H. Publications, Hong Kong, 318 pp.

    Randall, J.E. (2002) Surgeonfishes of the world. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu, Hawai'i, U.S.A., i.x + 1–123.

    Randall, J.E. & Bartsch, P. (2004) The labrid fish Julis blochii Valenciennes, a junior synonym of Thalassoma pavo (Linnaeus). Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, 80 (1), 123–127.

    Randall, J.E. & Greenfield, D.W. (2007) Redescription of Gnatholepis cauerensis (Bleeker, 1853), with discussion of the validity of the species. Zoologische Mededelingen, (Leiden) 81 (16), 303–308.

    Rangel, C.A., Gasparini, J.L. & Guimarães, R.Z.P. (2004) A new species of combtooth blenny Scartella Jordan, 1886 (Teleostei: Blenniidae) from Trindade Island, Brazil. Aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology, 8 (3), 89–96.

    Rangel, C.A. & Mendes, L.F. (2009) Review of blenniid fishes from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil, with description of a new species of Scartella (Teleostei: Blenniidae). Zootaxa, 2006, 51–61.

    Richardson, A.J. & Brito, A. (2015) The polygon moray, Gymnothorax polygonius. (Poey, 1875): A new record from Ascension Island, South Atlantic. Arquipelago, 32, 83–85.

    Rocha, L.A., Rocha, C.L., Robertson, D.R. & Bowen, B.W. (2008) Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic reef fishes indicates both origin and accumulation of diversity in the Caribbean. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8, 157.

    Robertson, D.R., Karg, F., De Moura, R.L., Victor, B.C. & Bernardi, G. (2006) Mechanisms of speciation and faunal enrichment in Atlantic parrotfishes. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution, 40, 795–807.

    Robins, C.R. & Robins, C.H. (1966) The R/V Pillsbury deep-sea biological expedition to the Gulf of Guinea, 1964-65—5—Xenoconger olukun, a new xenocongrid eel from the Gulf of Guinea. Studies in Tropical Oceanography, (Miami) 4 (1), 117–124.

    Russell, B.C. (2016) Paralepididae. Barracudinas. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1844–1848.

    Sakai, K. & Nakabo, T. (2014) Taxonomic review of Kyphosus (Pisces: Kyphosidae) in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Ichthyological Research, 61 (3), 265–292

    Sauvage, H.-E. (1879) Description de quelques poissons d'espèces nouvelles de la collection du Muséum d'histoire naturelle. Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris, (Sér. 7) 3, 204–209.

    Schultz, L.P. (1958) Review of the parrotfishes family Scaridae. Bulletin of the United States National Museum, 214: i–v + 1–143, pls. 1–27.

    Shakhovskoy, I.B. & Parin, N.V. (2013) A review of flying fishes of the subgenus Hirundichthys (genus Hirundichthys, Exocoetidae). 1. Oceanic species: H. speculiger, H. indicus sp nova. Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 53 (2), 133–162. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology, 53 (2), 117–145.]

    Shcherbachev, Yu. N. (1993) Preliminary review of the genus Physiculus (Moridae, Gadiformes) in the Indian Ocean and adjacent waters of the South Atlantic. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii Imeni P.P. Shirshova = Transactions of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 128, 147–178.

    Smith, D.G. (1984) A redescription of the rare eel Myroconger compressus (Pisces: Myrocongridae), with notes on its osteology, relationships and distribution. Copeia, 1984 (3), 585–594.

    Smith, D.G. (1989a) Family Myrocongridae. In: Böhlke, E. B. (ed.): Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, part nine, vol. 1. Order Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes. Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem, pp. 98–103.

    Smith, D.G. (1989b) Family Congridae. In: Böhlke, E. B. (ed.): Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, part nine, vol. 1. Order Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes. Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem, pp. 460–567.

    Smith, D.G. (2012) A checklist of the moray eels of the world (Teleostei: Anguilliformes: Muraenidae). Zootaxa, 3474, 1–64.

    Smith, D.G. (2016a) Congridae. Conger eels. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1680–1694.

    Smith, D.G. (2016b) Derichthyidae. Longneck eels. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1669–1674.

    Smith, D.G. & Brito, A. (2016) Muraenidae. Moray eels. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 1614–1642.

    Smith, M.M. & Heemstra, P.C. (eds) (1995) Smith's Sea Fishes. Third impression. Johannesburg, Berlin, xxxi + 1047 pp, pls. 1–144.

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (2016a) Dactylopteridae. Flying gurnards. Pp. 2248–2249. In: Carpenter, K. E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 3. Bony fishes part 1 (Elopiformes to Scorpaeniformes). FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO).

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (2016b) Carangidae. Jacks, crevalles, scads, bumpers, runners, pompanos, leerfish, vadigo, amberjacks, pilot fishes. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 2454–2514.

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Collette, B.B. (2013) Fishes of Bermuda. Aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 19 (4), 165–186.

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F., Collette, B.B. & Luckhurst, B.E. (1999) Fishes of Bermuda: history, zoogeography, annotated checklist, and identification keys. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Special Publication 4: x + 424 pp, pls. 1–12.

    Springer, V.G. (1962) A review of the blenniid fishes of the genus Ophioblennius Gill. Copeia, 1962 (no. 2), 426–433.

    Springer, V.G. & Fricke, R. (2000) Description of two new blenniid fish species: Entomacrodus lemuria from the western Indian Ocean and E. williamsi from the western Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 113 (2), 386–396.

    Starnes, W.C. (1988) Revision, phylogeny and biogeographic comments on the circumtropical marine percoid fish family Priacanthidae. Bulletin of Marine Science, 43 (2), 117–203.

    Trunov, I.A. (1976) New species and new species recorded for the first time in the pelagic area of the tropical Atlantic of the families Serranidae, Emmelichthyidae and Ariommidae. Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 16 (2) (97), 263–273. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology v, 16 (2), 229–238.]

    Trunov, I.A. (1991) Fishes of the family Moridae from the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean (genera Mora Risso and Physiculus Kaup). Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 31 (3), 373–379. [In Russian. English translation in Journal of Ichthyology, 31 (6), 110–116.]

    Trunov, I.A. (2006) Ichthyofauna of seamounts around the island of Ascension and St. Helena Island (Atlantic Ocean). Voprosy Ikhtiologii, 46 (4), 471–477. [In Russian. English translation appeared in Journal of Ichthyology 46 (7), 493–499.]

    Vaske Junior, T., de Lima, K.L., Ribeiro, A.C.B. & Lessa, R.P. (2008) Record of the St. Helena deepwater scorpionfish, Pontinus nigropunctatus (Günther) (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae), in the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil Pan–American Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 3 (1), 46–48.

    Westneat, M.W. (2016) Labridae. Wrasses, hogfishes, razor fishes. In: Carpenter, K.E. & Angelis, N. de (eds.): The living marine resources of the eastern Central Atlantic. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Perciformes to Tetraodontiformes) and sea turtles. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome (FAO), pp. 2740–2758.

    Wheeler, A.C. (1955) A preliminary revision of the fishes of the genus Aulostomus. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (Series 12) 8 (92, 73), 613–623.

    Wirtz, P., Bingeman, J., Bingeman, J., Fricke, R., Hook, Y.J. & Young, J. (2014) The fishes of Ascension Island, central Atlantic Ocean—new records and an annotated check–list. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
    https://doi.org/10.1017/Soo25315414001301

    Wirtz, P., Brito, A., Falcón, J., Freitas, R., Fricke, R., Monteiro, V., Reiner, F. & Tariche, O. (2013) The coastal fishes of the Cape Verde Islands—new records and an annotated check–list. Spixiana, 36, 113–142.

    Wirtz, P., Ferreira, C.E.L., Floeter, S.R., Fricke, R., Gasparini, J.L., Iwamoto, T., Rocha, L.R., Sampaio, C.L.S. & Schliewen, U. (2007) Coastal fishes of São Tomé and Principe islands, Gulf of Guinea (eastern Atlantic Ocean)—an update. Zootaxa, 1523, 1–48.

    Wirtz, P., Fricke, R. & Biscoito, M. (2008) Coastal fishes of Madeira Island—new records and an annotated check–list. Zootaxa, 1715, 1–26.

How to Cite

BROWN, J., BEARD, A., CLINGHAM, E., FRICKE, R., HENRY, L., & WIRTZ, P. (2019). The fishes of St Helena Island, central Atlantic Ocean—new records and an annotated check-list. Zootaxa, 4543(2), 151–194. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4543.2.1