Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2018-11-30
Page range: 331–346
Abstract views: 89
PDF downloaded: 3

Gyretes Brullé (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) from Brazil: Morphology of eggs and early instars

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Coordenação de Biodiversidade- CBio, Curso de Pós-graduação em Entomologia, 69067-375, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Coordenação de Biodiversidade- CBio, Curso de Pós-graduação em Entomologia, 69067-375, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Coordenação de Biodiversidade- CBio, Curso de Pós-graduação em Entomologia, 69067-375, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Coordenação de Biodiversidade- CBio, Curso de Pós-graduação em Entomologia, 69067-375, Manaus, AM, Brazil.
Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Biodiversity and Experimental Biology, Institute of Biodiversity and Experimental and Applied Biology, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Coleoptera Aquatic insect whirligig beetles Gyrinidae Gyretes eggs larvae chaetotaxy DNA barcoding scanning electron microscopy


Taxonomic information regarding Gyrinidae is mostly based on adults, especially due to the difficulty in collecting immatures and assigning them to a particular species. Association between immatures and adults is sometimes difficult because closely related species can be found in the same habitat. To solve this problem a feasible technique is rearing under laboratory conditions. However, this method is challenging because larval survival rate is usually low, and emulation of natural conditions is difficult. Molecular techniques, especially the use of the COI gene, have been applied to identify species and to associate different life stages. However, in some species groups this marker has not been successful in distinguishing closely related species. The objectives of this study are to describe the egg and the first two instars of Gyretes nubilus Ochs, 1965 and the egg of G. minax Ochs, 1967 and to evaluate the utility of COI to associate immatures and adults. The association of these immature stages with adults was done either rearing adults under laboratory conditions or by using DNA sequence data (COI), corroborating the utility of this molecular marker to associate immature and adults in Gyretes. These immature stages are described, including chaetotaxic analysis of larvae for the first time for the genus Gyretes Brullé, 1835. The eggs are described based on scanning electron microscopy. The eggs are similar to those of other Gyrinidae genera in having a micropylar region in the anterior pole and a longitudinal fissure, and by the absence of an aeropyle, but they differ mainly in characters related to chorionic structure and reticulation. Larvae of Gyretes can be distinguished from those of the other Neotropical Gyrinidae genera by a combination of several characters, including the frontoclypeal seta FR3 short, presence of three conspicuous additional setae on lateral region of parietal (contiguous to stemmata), and posterior margin of lacinia smooth, with apex not indented.



  1. Archangelsky, M. & Michat, M.C. (2007) Morphology and chaetotaxy of the larval stages of Andogyrus seriatopunctatus Régimbart (Coleoptera: Adephaga: Gyrinidae). Zootaxa 1645, 19–33.

    Archangelsky, M., Manzo, V., Michat, M.C. & Torres, P.L.M. (2009) Coleoptera. In: Dominguez, E. & Fernández, H.R. (Eds.), Macroinvertebrados bentônicos sudamericanos. Sistemática y biologia. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, pp. 411–468.

    Arndt, E., Beutel, R.G. & Joost, W. (1993) Description of the larva of Andogyrus buqueti (Aubé, 1838) (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 28, 139–144.

    Aubé, C. (1838) Species général des Hydrocanthares et Gyriniens, par le docteur Ch. Aubé; pour faire suite au species general des Coléoptères de la collection de M. Le Comte Dejean. MéquignonPère et fils, Libraires-editeurs, Paris, xvi + 804 pp.

    Bachmann, A.O. (1961) Apuntes para una hidrobiología argentina. I. Andogyrus seriatopunctatus (Régimbart) en la Argentina. Descripción de la larva, pupa y capullo y observaciones biológicas. Actas y Trabajos del Primer Congreso Sudamericano de Zoología, La Plata, Argentina, 1959, 3, 3–10.

    Bachmann, A.O. (1966) El género Andogyrus en la Argentina (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 28, 90–94.

    Baker, G.T. & Wai, K. Ma. (1987) Chorionic structure of Dineutes hornii Rbts. (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). Italian Journal of Zoology, 54, 209–212.

    Beutel, R.G. & Roughley, R.E. (1994) Phylogenetic analysis of Gyrinidae based on characters of the larval head (Coleoptera: Adephaga). Entomologica Scandinavica, 24, 459–468.

    Beutel, R.G. & Roughley, R.E. (2005) Gyrinidae. In: Handbook of Zoology. Part 38. Coleoptera, Beetles. Vol. I. Morphology and Systematics. De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 55–64.

    Bousquet, Y. & Goulet, H. (1984) Notation of primary setae and pores on larvae of Carabidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62, 573–588.

    Čiampor, F. & Ribera, I. (2006) Hedyselmis opis: Description of the larva and its phylogenetic relation to Graphelmis (Coleoptera: Elmidae: Elminae). Journal of Entomology, 103, 627–636.

    Čiamporova-Zaťovičová, Ciampor, F. & Kodada, J. (2007) Stenelmis puberula Reitter (Coleoptera: Elmidae) description of larva and its association with adults, using DNA sequences. Zootaxa, 1661, 17–28.

    Costa, C., Vanin, S.A. & Casari-Chen, S.A. (1988) Gyrinidae. In: Larvas de Coleoptera do Brasil. Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, pp. 83–84.

    Crespo, F.A. (1989a) Descripción de los estados preimaginales de Gyrinus (Oreogyrinus) argentinus Steinheil,1869 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 45, 163–172.

    Crespo, F.A. (1989b) Descripción de los estados preimaginales de Neogyrinus ovatus (Aubé, 1838) comb. nov. (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). Revista de la Sociedade Entomológica Argentina, 45, 237–240.

    Curiel, J. & Morrone, J.J. (2012) Association of larvae and adults of Mexican species of Macrelmis (Coleoptera: Elmidae): a preliminary analysis using DNA sequences. Zootaxa 3361, 56–62.

    Dejean, P.F.M.A. (1833) Catalogue des Coléoptères de la collection de M. le comte Dejean. Méquignon-Marvis, Paris, 433 pp.

    Elias, M., Hill, R.I., Willmott, K.R., Dasmahapatra, K.K., Brower, A.V., Mallet, J. & Jiggins, C.D. (2007) Limited performance of DNA barcoding in a diverse community of tropical butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 274, 2881–2889.

    Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994) DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3, 294–297.

    Geoffroy, E.-L. (1762) Histoire abregée des insectes qui se trouvent aux environs de Paris, dans laquelle ces animaux sont rangés suivant un ordre méthodique. Tome Premier. Durand, Paris, xxviii + 523 pp., 10 pls.

    Gustafson, G.T. & Miller, K.B. (2017) Systematics and evolution of the whirligig beetle tribe Dineutini (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae: Gyrininae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 20, 1–33.

    Hajibabaei, M., Singer, G.A.C., Hebert, P.D.N. & Hickey, D.A. (2007) DNA barcoding: how it complements taxonomy, molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. Trends in genetics, 23, 167–172.

    Hall, T.A. (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic acids symposium Series, 41, 95–98.

    Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S. & Waard, J.R. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 270, 313–321.

    Hebert, P.D.N., Penton, E.H.J., Burns, M., Janzen, D.H. & Hallwachs, W. (2004) Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astrapes fulgerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 14812–14817.

    Hinton, H.E. (1981) Coleoptera, Gyrinidae. In: Biology of Insect Egg. Vols. 1–3. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 650–771.

    Kawada, R. & Buffington, M.L. (2016) A scalable and modular dome illumination system for scientific microphotography on a budget. PLoS ONE, 11 (5), e0153426.

    Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 16, 111–120.

    Komatsu, S. & Kobayashi, Y. (2012) Embryonic development of a whirligig beetle, Dineutus mellyi, with special reference to external morphology (Insecta: Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). Journal of morphology, 273, 541–560.

    Laporte, F.L. de (1834) Études entomologiques, ou description d’insectes nouveaux et observations sur leur synonymie. Première partie. Carnassiers. Méquignon-Marvis Père et Fils, Paris, 94 pp., pls. 1–2.

    Leech, H.B. & Chandler, H.P. (1956) Aquatic Coleoptera. In: Usinger, R.L. (Ed.), Aquatic Insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 293–371.

    MacLeay, W.S. (1825) Annulosa javanica, or an attempt to illustrate the natural affinities and analogies of the insects collected in Java by Thomas Horsfiled, M.D. F.L. & G.S. and deposited by him in the museum of the Honourable East-India Company. Number I. Kingsbury, Parbury and Allen, London, xii + 50 pp., 1 pl.

    Madaric, B.B., Stankovic, V.M., Corak, M., Ugarkovic, D. & Komarek, A. (2013) Contribution to molecular systematics of water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae, Coleoptera). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 51, 165–171.

    Meier, R., Shiyang, K., Vaidya, G. & Ng, P.K.L. (2006) DNA barcoding and taxonomy in Diptera: a tale of high intraspecific variability and low identification success. Systematic Entomology, 55, 715–728.

    Meyer, C.P. & Paulay, G. (2005) DNA barcoding: error rates based on comprehensive sampling. PLoS Biology, 3, 2229–2238.

    Michat, M.C., Archangelsky, M. & Fernández, L.A. (2010) Larval description and chaetotaxic analysis of Gyrinus monrosi Mouchamps, 1957 (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) Koleopterologische Rundschau, 80, 1–14.

    Michat, M., Alvarenga, T.M., Silva, M.S. & Alarie, Y. (2016) First larval description and chaetotaxic analysis of the neotropical whirligig beetle genus Enhydrus Laporte (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). Revista brasileira de Entomologia, 60, 231–237.

    Michat, M.C. & Gustafson, G.T. (2016) Larval morphology and chaetotaxy of Macrogyrus oblongus (Boisduval, 1835) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). Aquatic Insects, 37, 87–98.

    Michat, M.C., Gustafson, G.T. & Bergsten, J. (2017) Larval morphology and chaetotaxy of Dineutus sinuosipennis Laporte, 1840, with a key for the identification of larvae of the tribe Dineutini (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae). ZooKeys, 718, 95–114.

    Miller, K.B., Alarie, Y., Wolfe, G.W. & Whiting, M.F. (2005) Association of insect life stages using DNA sequences: The larvae of Philodytes umbrinus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Systematic Entomology, 30, 499–509.

    Miller, K.B., Alarie, Y. & Withing, M.F. (2007) Description of the larva of Notaticus fasciatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) associated with adults using DNA sequence data. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 100, 787–797.[787:DOTLON]2.0.CO;2

    Miller, K.B. & Bergsten, J. (2012) Phylogeny and classification of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera:Gyrinidae): relaxed-clock model outperforms parsimony and time-free Bayesian analyses. Systematic Entomology, 37, 706–746.

    Mouchamps, R. (1957) Sur quelques Gyrinus de l´Amérique du Sud (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) (10ª note). Revue française d'Entomologie, 24, 244–252.

    Ochs, G. (1965) Vierter Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Taumelkäfer des Amazonas-Gebiets (Col., Gyrinidae). Amazoniana, 1, 36–73.

    Ochs, G. (1967) Fünfter Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Taumelkäfer des Amazonas-Gebiets (Col., Gyrinidae). Amazoniana, 1, 135–171.

    Régimbart, M. (1883) Essai monographique de la famille des Gyrinidae. 1re partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 51, 379–458.

    Saxod, R. (1964) L'oeuf, l'eclosion, la cuticle embryonnaire, et la larve neonate de Gyrinus substriatus Steph. Travaux du Laboratoire de Pisciculture de l’Université de Grenoble, 56, 17–28.

    Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Flook, P. (1994) Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved Polymerase Chain Reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87, 65–701.

    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725–2729.

    Thompson, J.D., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 4673–4680.

    Xi, Q.-Y., Deng, R.-Q., Wang, J.-W., Jia, F.-L. & Wang, X.-Z. (2008) Phylogeny of the Gyrinidae and Hydradephaga (Insecta: Coleoptera) based on COI gene: a case study using codon-partitioning schemes in phylogentic tree reconstruction. Acta Entomologica Sinica 51, 166–181.

    Whitworth, T.L., Dawson, R.D., Magalon, H. & Baudry, E. (2007) DNA barcoding cannot reliably identify species of the blowfly genus Protocalliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 274, 1731–1739.

    Wiedemann, C.R.W. (1821) Neue exotische käfer. Magazin der Entomologie Herausgegeben von E. F. Germar, 4 (2), 107–183.

    Wiemers, M. & Fiedler, K. (2007) Does the DNA barcoding gap exist?—a case study in blue butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Frontiers in zoology, 4, 8.

    Zhou, X., Kjer, K.M. & Morse, J.C. (2007) Associating larvae and adults of Chinese Hydropsychidae caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) using DNA sequences. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 26, 719–742.