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Monograph
Published: 2018-10-01

Global guide of the flat wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae)

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Fernando Ferrari 514, Goiabeiras, 29.075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Av. Vitória 1729, Jucutuquara, 29.040-780, ES, Brasil
Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Fernando Ferrari 514, Goiabeiras, 29.075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Fernando Ferrari 514, Goiabeiras, 29.075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil
Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Fernando Ferrari 514, Goiabeiras, 29.075-910, Vitória, ES, Brazil
Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA, Av. El Dorado No. 42-42 Bloque IV, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Soheul, Pocheon, Gyeonggi 11186, Republic of Korea
Chrysidoidea Systematics Taxonomy synopsis synonymies homonymies

Abstract

The flat wasp family Bethylidae Haliday lacks global scale literature on their alpha taxonomy. The only world revision for the family was by Kieffer in 1914 and is fully out of date and somewhat useless; the only catalog for the family was made by Gordh & Móczár in 1990 and does not include hundreds of changes made since then; and the most recent world genera keys were proposed by Terayama in 2003, but do not reflect the current knowledge we have for the family. Given this scenario, we present a global guide of Bethylidae with diagnoses, taxonomic evaluation, keys, and a checklist of all their extant genera and subfamilies. We visited the main collections around the world, analyzed about 2,000 holotypes, and examined at least 400,000 specimens. To eliminate homonymies, we add the prefix “neo” to the original specific epithet when possible. The family is now composed by 2,920 species allocated in 96 genera distributed in eight subfamilies: Bethylinae, Pristocerinae, Epyrinae, Mesitiinae, Scleroderminae, Lancepyrinae, Holopsenellinae and Protopristocerinae. The latter three are extinct. One new family-group synonym is proposed: Fushunochrysidae Hong syn. nov. of Bethylidae. Two incertae sedis genera are allocated into Bethylinae: Cretobethylellus Rasnytsyn and Omaloderus Walker. One new genus-group synonym is revalidated: Pristepyris Kieffer stat. rev. from Acrepyris Kieffer. Sixteen new genus-group synonyms are proposed: Fushunochrysites Hong syn. nov. and Sinibethylus Hong syn. nov. of Eupsenella Westwood; Messoria Meunier syn. nov. of Goniozus Förster; Acrepyris Kieffer syn. nov. of Pristepyris Kieffer; Apristocera Kieffer syn. nov. and Parapristocera Brues syn. nov. of Pristocera Klug; Usakosia Kieffer syn. nov. of Prosapenesia Kieffer; Isobrachium Förster syn. nov., Leptepyris Kieffer syn. nov., Neodisepyris Kurian syn. nov., Rhabdepyris Kieffer syn. nov. of Epyris Westwood; Codorcas Nagy syn. nov., Hamusmus Argaman syn. nov. and Ukayakos Argaman syn. nov. of Heterocoelia Dahlbom; Domonkos Argaman syn. nov. of Incertosulcus Móczár; Ateleopterus Förster syn. nov. of Sclerodermus Latreille. One new genus-group synonym is revalidated: Topcobius Nagy syn. rev. of Sulcomesitius Móczár. One new genus-group revalidation is proposed: Incertosulcus Móczár stat. rev. from Anaylax Móczár. The following species-group nomenclatural acts are established: 153 new or revalidated combinations, 16 new names to avoid secondary homonyms, 11 species with revalidated status, and one synonym. Keys to the subfamilies and genera are provided. The text is supported by 599 illustrations organized onto 92 plates.

 

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    Azevedo, C.O., Helmer, J.L. & Barreto, F.C.C. (2006) Análise da fauna de Bethylidae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea) de oito localidades do Paraná, Brasil. Boletim do Museu Biológico Mello Leitão, Nova Série, 20, 83–94.

    Azevedo, C.O., Helmer, J.L. & Morato, E. (2002) Diversidade de Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brasil e seu uso no plano de manejo e conservação da área. Acta Amazonica, 32, 71–81.
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    Azevedo, C.O. & Lanes, G.O. (2007) Rediscovery of the Oriental Foenobethylus gracilis with discussion of allied genus. Mittelugen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins, 32, 133–141.

    Azevedo, C.O. & Lanes, G.O. (2009) Cladistic assessment and redescription of Galodoxa torquata Nagy (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), a striking species with swallow tailed metasomal sternite. Zoologische Mededelingen Leiden, 83, 841–851.

    Azevedo, C.O. & Lanes, G.O. (2010) Panorama da diversidade de Bethylidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) da Mata Atlântica brasileira. Boletim do Museu Biológico Mello Leitão, Nova Série, 27, 55–66.

    Azevedo, C.O., Madl, M. & Olmi, M. (2010b) A catologue of the Bethylidae, Chrysididae, Dryinidae, Embolemidae, Sclerogibbidae and Scolebythidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) of the Malagasy subregion. Linzer Biologische Beitrage, 42, 845–918.

    Azevedo, C.O., Moreira, A.R. & Kawada, R. (2005) Taxonomia de Bakeriella (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) da Bolívia. Iheringia, Série Zoológica, 85, 165–172.
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    Azevedo, C.O. & Mugrabi, D.F. (2014) Three new species of Tuberepyris Lanes et Azevedo (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae), with amended diagnosis of the genus. Zootaxa, 3794 (4), 556–564.
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    Azevedo, C.O. & van Noort, S. (2018) Flat wasp fauna from Cousine Island, Seychelles, with description of a new species of Holepyris (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Atoll Bulletin Research, 615, 1–12.
    https://doi.org/10.5479/si.0077-5630.615

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How to Cite

AZEVEDO, C. O., ALENCAR, I. D., RAMOS, M. S., BARBOSA, D. N., COLOMBO, W. D., VARGAS, J. M. R., & LIM, J. (2018). Global guide of the flat wasps (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae). Zootaxa, 4489(1), 1–294. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4489.1.1