Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2018-07-23

Redescription of P. dorsipapillatus (von Marenzeller, 1893) and additional comments on the other species in the genus Pholoides Pruvot, 1895 (Polychaeta: Sigalionidae)

Universität Rostock, Institut für Biowissenschaften, Allgemeine und Spezielle Zoologie, Universitätsplatz 2, D-18055 Rostock, Germany.
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Deutsches Zentrum für Marine Biodiversitätsforschung, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 3, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.
Universität Rostock, Institut für Biowissenschaften, Allgemeine und Spezielle Zoologie, Universitätsplatz 2, D-18055 Rostock, Germany.
Annelida Atlantis-Meteor-complex CLSM COI DIVA 3 expedition H3a morphology Pholoides asperus Pholoides brasiliensis Pholoides sinepapillatus seamounts taxonomy 16S rDNA


Pholoides Pruvot, 1895 is a species-poor genus of small scale-bearing polychaetes. Pholoides species are restricted to the continental shelf, living in sandy and muddy substrates, or on hard bottoms. During the DIVA 3 expedition grab samples were taken on four seamounts of the Meteor Seamount complex. One of the most common polychaetes in these samples was P. dorsipapillatus (von Marenzeller, 1893). Based on this material a comparison with the type material is undertaken leading to a re-description of P. dorsipapillatus. Diagnostic characters of all accepted Pholoides species were evaluated using light, scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. CLSM in particular proved to be an excellent tool for investigating these small species, and especially the type material. Blossom-like sensory buds, found at certain appendages of P. dorsipapillatus, could be an important diagnostic character to distinguish P. dorsipapillatus from other Pholoides species. Sequence information on three different gene fragments, the mitochondrial COI and 16S and the nuclear H3a, were obtained, and could serve for future phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies.



  1. Anton-Erxleben, F. (1977) Ein Beitrag zur Ultrastruktur der Elytrenoberflächen der Aphroditidae, Polynoidae und Sigalionidae (Polychaeta, Errantia, Nereimorpha). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburger Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 74, 31–44.

    Aungtonya, C. (2003) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) study of important characters in the identification of Sigalionidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Hydrobiologia, 496, 1–16.

    Averinzev, V.G. (1978) The polychaetous annelids of the Aphroditiformia of the shelf and upper bathyal of Australian and New Zealand Region and of Macquarie Island (on the base data of 16th cruise of R/V ‘DM. Mendeleev’). Trudy Institua Okeanologii Im P. P. Shirshova, 113, 51–72.

    Barnich, R. & Fiege, D. (2003) The Aphroditoidea (Annelida: Polychaeta) of the Mediterranean Sea. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main, 559, 1–167.

    Blake, J.A. (1995) Family Pholoidae Kinberg, 1858. In: Blake J.A., Hilbig, B. & Scott, P.H. (Eds.), Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Vol. 5. The Annelida. Part 3. Polychaeta: Phyllodocida (Syllidae and Scale-bearing families), Amphinomida and Eunicida. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California, pp. 175–188.

    Carr, C.M., Hardy, S.M., Brown, T.M., Macdonald, T.A. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2011) A tri-oceanic perspective: DNA barcoding reveals geographic structure and cryptic diversity in Canadian polychaetes. PLoS ONE, 6 (7), e22232.

    Colgan, D., McLauchlan, A., Wilson, G.D.F., Livingston, S.P., Edgecombe, G.D., Macaranas, J., Cassis, G. & Gray, M.R. (1998) Histone H3 and U2 snRNA DNA sequences and arthropod molecular evolution. Australian Journal of Zoology, 46, 419–437.

    Da Rocha Miranda, V. & Dos Santos Brasil, A.C. (2014) Two new species and a new record of scale-worms (Polychaeta) from Southwest Atlantic deep-sea coral mounds. Zootaxa, 3856 (2), 211–226.

    Gonzalez, B.C., Martínez, A., Borda, E., Iliffe, T.M., Eibye-Jacobsen, D. & Worsaae, K. (2017) Phylogeny and systematics of Aphroditiformia. Cladistics, 34 (3), 1–35.

    Glasby, C.J., Fauchald, K. & Hutchings, P.A. (2000) Glossary. In: Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Glasby, C.J. (Eds.), Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp. 401–412.

    Hartman, O. & Fauchald, K. (1971) Deep-water benthic polychaetous annelids off New England to Bermuda and other North Atlantic Areas. Part II. Allan Hancock Monographs in Marine Biology, 6, 1–327.

    Imajima, M. (1997) Polychaetous annelids from Sagami Bay and Sagami Sea collected by the Emperor Showa of Japan and deposited at the Showa Memorial Institute, National Science Museum, Tokyo (II), orders included within the Phyllodocida, Amphinomida, Spintherida and Eunicida. National Science Museum Monographs, 23, 1–221.

    Johnson, H.P. (1897) A preliminary account of the marine annelids of the Pacific coast, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 3, 1 (5), 153–199.

    Kessing, B., Croom, H., Martin, A., McIntosh, C., Owen McMillan, W. & Palumbi, S. (1989) The simple fool’s guide to PCR. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 23 pp.

    Kinberg, J.G.H. (1856) Nya slägten och arter af Annelider. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar, Stockholm, 12 (9 & 10), 381–388.

    Meißner, K., Bick, A., Guggolz, T. & Götting, M. (2014) Spionidae (Polychaeta: Canalipalpata: Spionida) from seamounts in the NE Atlantic. Zootaxa, 3786 (3), 201–245.

    Michels, J. & Büntzow, M. (2010) Assessment of Congo red as a fluorescence marker for the exoskeleton of small crustaceans and the cuticle of polychaetes. Journal of Microscopy, 238 (2), 95–101.

    Miranda, V.D.R. & Brasil, A.C.D.S. (2014) Two new species and a new record of Scale-worms (Polychaeta) from Southwest Atlantic deep-sea coral mounds. Zootaxa, 3856 (2), 211–226.

    Norlinder, E., Nygren, A., Wiklund, H. & Pleijel, F. (2012) Phylogeny of scale-worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida), assessed from 18SrRNA, 28SrRNA, 16SrRNA, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65 (2), 490–500.

    Padovanni, N. & Amaral, A.C.Z. (2014) New species of the scale worm genus Pholoides (Polychaeta: Sigalionidae) from south-east Brazil. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 94 (08), 1587–1595.

    Pettibone, M.H. (1953) Some scale-bearing polychaetes of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 89 pp.

    Pettibone, M.H. (1992) Contribution to the Polychaete Family Pholoidae Kinberg. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 532, 1–24.

    Pruvot, G. (1895) Coup d'oeil sur la distribution général des invertébrés dans la région de Banyuls (Golfe du Lion). Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale, 3 (3), 629–658.

    Purschke, G. (2005) Sense organs in polychaetes (Annelida). Hydrobiologia, 535, 53–78.

    Thompson, J., Higgins, D.G. & Gibson, T.J. (1994) W: CLUSTAL. Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic acids research, 22, 4673–4680.

    Uebelacker, J.M. (1984) Family Pholoididae Fauchald, 1977. In: Uebelacker, J.M. & Johnson, P.G. (Eds.), Taxonomic guide to the polychaetes of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Barry M. Vittor & Associates. Mobile, Alabama, pp. 1–4.

    von Marenzeller, E. (1893) Berichte der Commission für Erforschung des Östlichen Mittelmeeres. Zweite Reihe. Zoologische Ergebnisse II. Polychäten des Grundes, gesammelt 1890, 1891 und 1892. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 60, 25–48.

    Wehe, T. (2007) Revision of the scale worms (Polychaeta: Aphroditoidea) occurring in the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. Part II. Sigalionidae. Fauna of Arabia, 23, 41–124.