Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2018-06-27

Agalma clausi (Bedot, 1888) (Siphonophora: Physonectae)—complementary description with notes on species distribution and ecology

Department of Marine Plankton Research, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland
National Oceanography Centre, Empress Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, U.K.
Coelenterata Agalma clausi siphonophore redescription


Siphonophores are colonial hydrozoans, which in spite of often growing to great lengths are an inconspicuous and understudied component of pelagic ecosystems. Although they are widely distributed, many species have rarely been collected, or often been misidentified so their taxonomy still requires some clarification. Here we redescribe one such species, Agalma clausi Bedot, 1888, supplementing information on its morphology, ecology and distribution based on the material collected in the tropical sector of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas. We also provide comments on the probable status of another Agalma species, A. haeckeli Bigelow, 1911.



  1. Bedot, M. (1888) Sur l'Agalma clausi n. sp. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 5, 73–91.

    Bedot, M. (1896) Les siphonophores de la Baie d’Amboine. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 3, 367–414, 1 plate.

    Bigelow, H.B. (1911) The Siphonophorae. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 38, 171–402.

    Brandt, J.F. (1834) Prodromus descriptionis animalium ab H. Mertensio in orbis terrarium circumnavigatione observatorum. Fascic. I. Polypos, Acalephas Discophoras et Siphonophoras, nec non Echinodermata continens. Recueil Actes des séances publiques de l'Acadadémie impériale des Science de St. Pétersbourg, 1834, 201–275.

    Carré, C. & Carré, D. (1995) Ordre des Siphonophores. In: Doumenc, D. (Ed.), Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Tome III. Fascicule 2. Cnidaires. Cténaires. Masson, Paris, pp. 523–596.

    Claus, C. (1863) Neue Beobachtungen über die Structur und Entwickelung der Siphonophoren. Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 12, 536–563.

    Claus, C. (1879) Die Gattungen und Arten der Platysceliden in Systematischer Übersicht. Arbeiten aus dem Zoologischen Institut der Universität zu Wien, 2, 147–198.

    Daniel, R. (1985) The fauna of India and adjacent countries. Coelenterata: Hydrozoa Siphonophora. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, 440 pp.

    Dunn, C.W. (2005) The colony-level evolution and development of the Siphonophora. Ph. D. Thesis, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 264 pp.

    Dunn, C.W., Pugh, P.R. & Haddock, S.H.D. (2005) Molecular phylogenetic of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology, 54, 916–935.

    Eschscholtz, F. (1825) Bericht über die zoologische Ausbeute während der Reise von Kronstadt bis St. Peter und Paul. Oken’s Isis, 16, 733–747, 1 pl.

    Fewkes, J.W. (1880) Contributions to a knowledge of the tubular jellyfishes Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 7, 127–146, 3 pls.

    Fewkes, J.W. (1889) On a method of defence among certain medusae. Proceeding of the Boston Society of the Natural History, 24, 200–208.

    Gasca, R., Suarez-Morales, E. & Haddock, S.H.D. (2007) Symbiotic associations between crustaceans and gelatinous zooplankton in deep and surface waters off California. Marine Biology, 151, 233–42.

    Haddock, S.H.D., Dunn, C.W. & Pugh, P.R. (2005a) A re-examination of siphonophore terminology and morphology, applied to the description of two new prayine species with remarkable bio-optical properties. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85, 695–708.

    Haddock, S.H.D., Dunn, C.W., Pugh, P.R. & Schnitzler, C.E. (2005b) Bioluminescent and red-fluorescent lures in a deep-sea siphonophore. Science, 309, 263.

    Haeckel, E. (1869) Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Siphonophoren. Utrechter Gesellschaft für Kunst und Wissenschaft gekrönte Preisschrift, 1869, 1–119, 14 pls.

    Haeckel, E. (1888a) System der Siphonophoren auf phylogenetischer Grundlage entworfen. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 22, 1–46.

    Haeckel, E. (1888b) Report on the Siphonophorae collected by HMS Challenger during the years 1873–1876. Report of the Scientific Results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, Zoology, 28, 1–380.

    Harbison, G.R., Biggs, D.C. & Madin, L.P. (1977) The associations of Amphipoda Hyperiidea with gelatinous zooplankton—II. Associations with Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Radiolaria. Deep-Sea Research, 24, 465–488.

    ICZN (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, 306 pp.

    Kölliker, A. (1853) Die Schwimmpolypen oder Siphonophoren von Messina. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 96 pp.

    Leloup, E. (1935) Les siphonophores de la rade de Villefranche-sur-Mer (Alpes Maritimes, France). Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 11, 1–11.

    Leuckart, R. (1853) Zoologische Untersuchungen. I. Die Siphonophoren. J. Ricker'sche Buchhandlung, Giessen, 95 pp., 3 pls.

    Leuckart, R. (1854) Zur nähern Kenntnis der Siphonophoren von Nizza. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 20, 249–377.

    Madin, L.P. & Harbison, G.R (1977) The association of Amphipoda Hyperiidea with gelatinous zooplankton. I. Association with Salpidae. Deep Sea Research, 24, 449–463.

    Mańko, M.K., Słomska, A.W & Jażdżewski, K. 2017. Siphonophora of the Gulf of Aqaba and their associations with crustaceans. Marine Biology Research, 13, 480–485.

    Mills, C.E., Pugh, P.R., Harbison, G.R. & Haddock, S.H.D. (1996) Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Alborán Sea, south western Mediterranean. Scientia Marina, 60, 145–163.

    Munro, C., Siebert, S., Zapata, F., Howison, M., Damian-Serrano, A., Church, S.H., Goetz, F.E., Pugh, P.R., Haddock, S.H.D. & Dunn, C.W. (2018) Improved phylogenetic resolution within Siphonophora (Cnidaria) with implications for trait evolution. bioRxiv, 251116.

    Pugh, P.R. (2003) A revision of the family Forskaliidae (Siphonophora, Physonectae). Journal of Natural History, 37, 1281–1372.

    Pugh, P.R. & Baxter, E.J. (2014) A review of the physonect siphonophore genera Halistemma (Family Agalmatidae) and Stephanomia (Family Stephanomiidae). Zootaxa, 3897 (1), 1–111.

    Pugh, P.R. & Haddock, S.H.D. (2016) A description of two new species of the genus Erenna (Siphonophora: Physonectae: Erennidae), with notes on recently collected specimens of other Erenna species. Zootaxa, 4189 (3), 401–446.

    Purcell, J.E. (1980) Influence of siphonophore behavior upon their natural diets: evidence for aggressive mimicry. Science, 209, 1045–1047.

    Purcell, J.E. (1981) Dietary composition and diel feeding patterns of epipelagic siphonophores. Marine Biology, 65, 83–90.

    Purcell, J.E. (1984) The function of nematocysts in prey capture by epipelagic siphonophores (Coelenterate, Hydrozoa). Biological Bulletin, 166, 310–327.

    Sars, M. (1846) Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae. Druck und Verlag von Johann Dahl, Christiania, 94 pp., 10 plates.

    Schneider, K.C. (1898) Mittheilungen über Siphonophoren. III. Systematische und andere Bemerkungen. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 21, 51–200.

    Totton, A.K. (1965) A Synopsis of the Siphonophora. British Museum (Natural History), London, 230 pp., 20 pls.

How to Cite

MAŃKO, M. K., & PUGH, P. R. (2018). <em>Agalma clausi</em> (Bedot, 1888) (Siphonophora: Physonectae)—complementary description with notes on species distribution and ecology. Zootaxa, 4441(2), 311–331.