Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2017-08-31

Revision of the Nearctic Parathalassius Mik (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Parathalassiinae), with a review of the world fauna

Diptera Unit, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Invertebrate Biodiversity, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0C6, CANADA
Diptera Unit, Canadian National Collection of Insects, Invertebrate Biodiversity, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0C6, CANADA
Diptera Empidoidea Dolichopodidae Parathalassiinae Parathalassius Nearctic Palaearctic new species morph-ology DNA barcodes cryptic diversity phylogeny zoogeography ecology sandy coastal beaches dunes El Segundo


The Nearctic species of Parathalassius Mik are revised and the world species are reviewed. Twelve species are recorded from the Nearctic Region including nine new species: P. abela sp. nov., P. aldrichi Melander, P. candidatus Melander, P. dilatus sp. nov., P. infuscatus sp. nov., P. melanderi Cole, P. midas sp. nov., P. sinclairi sp. nov., P. socali sp. nov., P. susanae sp. nov., P. uniformus sp. nov., and P. wheeleri sp. nov. Lectotype designations are made for P. aldrichi Melander and P. melanderi Cole. A key to the 15 world species is provided and the distributions of the Nearctic species are mapped. COI mitochondrial DNA barcode sequences were obtained for 12 species of Parathalassius. A morphological                 phylogenetic analysis of the included species is presented and known ecological information is summarized.



  1. Becker, T. (1907) Die Ergebnisse meiner dipterologischen Frühjahrsreise nach Algier und Tunis.1906. Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie, 7, 97–128.

    Brooks, S.E. & Cumming, J.M. (2010) What’s new in New World Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). In: 7th International Congress of Dipterology, San Jose, Costa Rica, Abstract Volume, pp. 51.

    Brooks, S.E. & Cumming, J.M. (2011) The New World genera of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Empidoidea: Dolichopodidae s. lat.), with new species of Thalassophorus and Eothalassius. The Canadian Entomologist, 143, 423–446.

    Brooks, S.E. & Cumming, J.M. (2012) The Microphorella chillcotti species group: a distinctive lineage of parathalassiine flies from western North America (Diptera: Empidoidea: Dolichopodidae s.l.). In: Festschrift commemorating the coordinators of the Manual of Nearctic Diptera and their contributions to building the Canadian National Collection of Insects. Part 2. The Canadian Entomologist, 144, 108–121.

    Brooks, S.E. & Cumming, J.M. (2016) Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae from the Pacific coast of South America. Zootaxa, 4066 (3), 311–322.

    Brooks, S.E. & Ulrich, H. (2012) Microphorella similis sp. nov. from Switzerland, a close relative of the type species, M. praecox (Loew) (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Parathalassiinae). Zootaxa, 3489, 45–57.

    Chvála, M. (1988) Revision of Palearctic Microphoridae (Diptera) 3. Parathalassiinae (Parathalassius Mik and Microphorella Becker). Acta entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 85, 352–372.

    Chvála, M. (1989) Microphoridae. In: Soós, Á. & Papp, L. (Eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Vol. 6. Therevidae—Empididae. Elsevier Science Publishers & Akadémiai Kiadó, Amsterdam & Budapest, pp. 171–174.

    Chvála, M. (2013) Fauna Europaea: Microphoridae. Fauna Europaea version 2.6.2. Available from: (accessed 12 August 2015)

    Cole, F.R. (1912) Some Diptera of Laguna Beach. Annual Report of Laguna Marine Laboratory, 1, 150–162.

    Cumming, J.M. & Wood, D.M. (2009) Adult morphology and terminology, In: Brown, B.V., Borkent, A., Cumming, J.M., Wood, D.M. and Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.), Manual of Central American Diptera. Vol. 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp. 9–50.

    Cumming, J.M., Brooks, S.E. & Saigusa, T. (2014) Revision of the Hesperempis genus group (Diptera: Empidoidea: Empididae). The Canadian Entomologist, 146, 170–210.

    Dussart, B.H. (1986) Parathalassius fagesi gen. et sp. nov. (Centropagidae), Copépode nouveau de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 27, 63–68.

    George, J.N. & Mattoni, R.A. (2006) Rhaphiomidas terminatus terminatus Cazier, 1985 (Diptera: Mydidae): notes on the rediscovery and conservation biology of a presumed extinct species. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 82, 30–35.

    Hajibabaei, M., deWaard, J.R., Ivanova, N.V., Ratnasingham, S., Dooh, R.T., Kirk, S.L., Mackie, P.M. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2005) Critical factors for assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 360, 1959–1967.

    Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S. & de Waard, J.R. (2003) Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergence among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 270, S96–S99.

    Maddison, W.P. & Maddison, D.R. (2003) MacClade 4: Analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. Version 4.06. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

    Mattoni, R.A. (1990) Species diversity and habitat evaluation across the El Segundo sand dunes at LAX. Report to Airport Commission, Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, California, 153 pp.

    Melander, A.L. (1906) Some new or little-known genera of Empididae. Entomological News, 17, 370–379.

    Melander, A.L. (1928) Diptera, Fam. Empididae. In: Wytsman, P. (Ed.), Genera Insectorum, 185 (1927), 1–434.

    Melander, A.L. (1965) Family Empididae (Empidae, Hybotidae). In: Stone, A., Sabrosky, C.W., Wirth, W.W., Foote, R.H. & Coulson, J.R. (Eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America north of Mexico. United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook, No. 276, pp. 446–481.

    Mik, J. (1891) Vorläufige Notiz über Parathalassius Blasigii, ein neues Dipteron aus Venedig. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung, 10, 216–217.

    Ratnasingham, S. & Hebert, P.D.N. (2007) BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data System ( Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 355–364.

    Saigusa, T. (2006) Homology of wing venation of Diptera. Unpublished handout distributed at the 6th International Congress of Dipterology, Fukuoka, 26 pp.

    Saigusa, T. (2012) A new Asio-Nearctic subgenus of Rhamphomyia (Diptera: Empididae: Empidinae). The Canadian Entomologist, 144, 291–322.

    Shamshev, I.V. (1998) Two new species of the genus Parathalassius Mik (Diptera: Microphoridae) from the Russian Far East, with a key to world species. An International Journal of Dipterological Research, 9 (1), 3–8.

    Sinclair, B.J. & Saigusa, T. (2002) A new species of the seepage midge genus Trichothaumalea Edwards from Japan (Diptera: Thaumaleidae). Insect Systematics and Evolution, 33, 175–184.

    Sinclair, B.J. & Cumming, J.M. (2006) The morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera). Zootaxa, 1180, 1–172.

    Sinclair, B.J., Brooks, S.E., Cumming, J.M. & Coovert, G.A. (2011) Revision of the Nearctic species of Heleodromia (Diptera: Empidoidea: Brachystomatidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 143, 629–651.

    Stuckenberg, B.R. (1999) Antennal evolution in the Brachycera (Diptera), with a reassessment of terminology relating to the flagellum. Studia dipterologica, 6, 33–48.

    Swofford, D.L. (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods), Version 4.0b10. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.