Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2017-08-24
Page range: 373–388
Abstract views: 143
PDF downloaded: 59

Society Islands beach bum black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) 

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E9.
Pacific Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai‘i 96817-2704, USA.
Diptera Simuliidae Simulium Inseliellum Society Islands new species


Aspects of the body of work on the Central and Western Pacific black fly Simulium (Inseliellum) are briefly reviewed. Female adults collected from beaches in Tahiti and Raiatea are described as Simulium (Inseliellum) littopyga n. sp., Simulium (Inseliellum) littosocius n. sp. and Simulium (Inseliellum) littosodalis n. sp.. Immature stages of the three species are not associated.



  1. Adler, P.H. & Crosskey, R.W. (2017) World Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): a comprehensive revision of the taxonomic and geographical inventory [2017], 126 pp. Available from: (accessed 3 July 2017)

    Adler, P.H., Currie, D.C. & Wood, D.M. (2004) The Black Flies of (Simuliidae) of North America. Royal Ontario Museum and Comstock University Press, Ithaca, 941 pp.

    Cheesman, E. (1932) Hunting insects in the South Seas. Philip Allen, London, 243 pp.

    Craig, D.A. (1974) The labrum and cephalic fans of larval Simuliidae (Diptera: Nematocera). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52, 133–159.

    Craig, D.A. (1975) The larvae of Tahitian Simuliidae (Diptera: Nematocera). Journal of Medical Entomology, 12, 463–476.

    Craig, D.A. (1977) Mouthparts and feeding behaviour of Tahitian larval Simuliidae (Diptera: Nematocera). Quaestiones Entomologicae, 13, 195–218.

    Craig, D.A. (1987) A taxonomic account of the black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Society Islands – Tahiti, Moorea and Raiatea. Questiones Entomologicae, 23, 372–429.

    Craig, D.A. (1997) A taxonomic revision of the Pacific black fly subgenus Inseliellum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 75, 855–904.

    Craig, D.A. (2003) Geomorphology, development of running water habitats, and evolution of black flies on Polynesian islands. BioScience, 53, 1079–1093.[1079:GDORWH]2.0.CO;2

    Craig, D.A. (2004) Three new species of Inseliellum (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Polynesia. Zootaxa, 450, 1–18.

    Craig, D.A. & Craig, R.E.G. (1986) Simuliidae (Diptera: Culicomorpha) of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, South Pacific. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 13, 357–366.

    Craig, D.A. & Currie, D.C. (1999) Phylogeny of the central-western Pacific subgenus Inseliellum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77, 610–623.

    Craig, D.A. & Joy, D.A. (2000) New Species and redescriptions in the Central-Western Pacific Subgenus Inseliellum (Diptera: Simuliidae).Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93, 1236–1262.[1236:NSARIT]2.0.CO;2

    Craig, D.A., Craig, R.E.G. & Crosby, T.K. (2012) Simuliidae (Insecta: Diptera). Fauna of New Zealand, 68, 1–336.

    Craig, D.A. & Fossati, O. & Séchan, Y. (1995) Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia: redescriptions and new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73, 775–800.

    Craig, D.A., Currie, D.C. & Joy, D.A. (2001) Geographical history of the central-western Pacific black fly subgenus Inseliellum (Diptera: Simuliidae: Simulium) based on a reconstructed phylogeny of the species, hot-spot archipelagoes and hydrological considerations. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 1101–1127.

    Crosskey, R.W. (1990) The natural history of blackflies. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 711 pp.

    Currie, D.C. & Craig, D.A. (1987) Larval feeding strategies. In: Kim, K.C. & Merritt, R.W. (Eds.), Black flies: ecology, population management, and annotated world list. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, pp. 155–170.

    Davies, L. (1965) The structure of certain atypical Simuliidae (Diptera) in relation to evolution within the family, and the erection of a new genus for the Crozet Island black-fly. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, 176, 159–180.

    Dumbleton, L.J. (1962) Aberrant head-structure in larval Simuliidae (Diptera). Pacific Insects, 4, 77–86.

    Edwards, F.W. (1927) Diptera Nematocera from the South Pacific collected by the ‘St. George’ Expedition, 1925. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 9, 20, 236–244.

    Edwards, F.W. (1932) Marquesan Simuliidae. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 98, 103–109.

    Edwards, F.W. (1933) Society Island insects. Tahitian Simuliidae. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 113, 35–38.

    Englund, R.A. (2008) Invasive species threats to native aquatic insect biodiversity and conservation measures in Hawai‘i and French Polynesia. Journal of Insect Conservation. 12, 415–428.

    Fossati, O. & Séchan, Y. (1993) Evaluation des populations adultes de Simulium buissoni Roubaud, pendant et après une campagne larvicide, Janvier - Octobre 1993. Rapp. ORSTOM/ ITRMLM, ITRM/ DOC. ENT., 13.93, 1–17.

    Grenier, P. & Rageau, J. (1960) Simulies (Dipt., Simuliidae) de Tahiti. Remarques sur la classification des Simuliidae. Bulletin de la Société de Patholologie Exotique, 53, 727–742.

    Hernádez-Triana, L.M., Montes De Oca, F., Prosser, S.W.J., Hebert, D.N., Gregory, T.R. & McMurtrie, S. (2017) DNA barcoding as an aid for species identification in austral black flies (Insecta: Diptera: Simuliidae). Genome, 60, 348–357.

    Hunter, F.F. & Jain, H. (2000) Do gravid black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) oviposit at their natal site? Journal of Insect Behavior, 13, 585–595.

    Joy, D.A. & Conn, J.E. (2001) Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analysis of an insular radiation in Pacific black flies (Simulium). Systematic Biology, 50, 18–38.

    Joy, D.A., Craig, D.A. & Conn, J.E. (2007) Genetic variation tracks ecological segregation in Pacific island black flies. Heredity, 99, 452–459.

    Lavondes, H. & Pichon, G. (1972) Des nono et des hommes. Bulletin de la Société des Études Océaniennes, 15, 150–179.

    Malmqvist, B., Strasevicius, D., Hellgren, O., Adler, P.H. & Bensch, S. (2004). Vertebrate host specificity of wild-caught blackflies revealed by mitochondrial DNA in blood. Proceeding of the Royal Society London B, 271 (Supplement), 152–155.

    McGaha Jr., T.W., Young, R.M., Burkett-Cadena, N.D., Iburg, J.P., Beau, J.M., Hassan, S. Katholi, C.R., Cupp, E.W., Baker, B.J. & Unnasch, T.R. (2015) Identification of communal oviposition pheromones from the black fly Simulium vittatum. PLoS ONE, 10 (3), e0118904.

    Palmer, R.W. & Craig, D.A. (2000) An ecological classification of primary labral fans of filter-feeding black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78, 199–218.

    Schröder, P. (1985) Feeding biology of Tahitian Blackfly larvae (Dipt. Simuliidae). Notes et Documents, d’Hygiène et de Santé Publique, Entomologie Médicale, 11, 1–230.

    Schröder, P. (1988) Gut-passage, particle selection and ingestion of filter-feeding blackfly (Dipt., Simuliidae) larvae inhabiting a waterfall in Tahiti (French-Polynesia). Aquatic Insects, 10, 1–16.

    Spironello, M., Hunter, F.F. & Craig, D.A. (2002) A cytological study of the Pacific black fly Simulium cataractarum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 1810–1816.

    Spironello, M. & Brooks, D.R. (2003) Dispersal and diversification: macroevolutionary implications of the MacArthur–Wilson model, illustrated by Simulium (Inseliellum) Rubstov (Diptera: Simuliidae). Journal of Biogeography, 30, 1563–1573.