Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2017-06-26

Taxonomic revision of the water scavenger beetle genus Sternolophus Solier, 1834 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)

Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria Insect Taxonomy Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran
Johann Straußgasse 39, A–2340 Mödling, Austria
Coleoptera Water scavenger beetles Hydrophilidae Sternolophus new species aquatic insects taxonomy


The Old World water scavenger beetle genus Sternolophus Solier is revised. Six new species are described: Sternolophus acutipenis sp. n., S. insulanus sp. n., S. jaechi sp. n., S. mandelai sp. n., S. prominolobus sp. n. and S. solitarius sp. n. Three taxa are reinstated as valid species: Sternolophus angustatus (Boheman), S. elongatus Schaufuss and S. mundus (Boheman). The subgenera within the genus are rejected and Neosternolophus Zaitzev syn. n. is synonymized with Sternolophus s. str. Lectotypes are designated for Hydrophilus angolensis Erichson, H. angustatus, H. rufipes Fabricius, Sternolophus brachyacanthus Régimbart, S. comoriensis Fairmaire, S. elongatus, S. frater Schaufuss, and S. rufipes var. foveoliceps Kolbe. On the basis of similar morphological characters, two species-groups are proposed for some of the species within the genus: The angolensis group including S. angolensis, S. inconspicuus (Nietner), S. mundus, and S. solitarius, and the solieri group including S. angustatus, S. elongatus, S. mandelai, S. rufipes Fabricius, and S. solieri Castelnau. Sternolophus unicolor (Castelnau) is considered a nomen dubium. Male genitalia and other diagnostic morphological characters are illustrated, and distribution maps are presented for all 17 species.



  1. Balke, M. (1998) Revision of New Guinea Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Insecta: Coleptera: Dytiscidae): The running water species, part 1. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 100 (B), 301–341.

    Bameul, F. (1986) Les Hydrophiloidea des îles Mascareignes (Coleoptera). Revue suisse de Zoologie, 93, 875–910.

    Bameul, F. (1992) Revision of the genus Psalitrus d'Orchymont from Southern India and Sri Lanka (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Omicrini). Systematic Entomology, 17, 1–20.

    Bameul, F. (1993) Two new Oriental Mircogioton d’Orchymont, 1937 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae). Elytron, 7, 133–145.

    Balfour-Browne, J. (1945) Aquatic Coleoptera of Oceania (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, and Palpicornia). Occasional Papers of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 18 (7), 103–132.

    Balfour-Browne, J. (1951) Coleoptera: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae. In: Expedition to South-West Arabia, 1937–1938. British Museum of Natural History, London, pp. 179–220, pls. 10–11.

    Balfour-Browne, J. (1957) Contribution à l’étude de la faune entomologique du Ruanda-Urundi (Mission P. Basilewsky 1953). CXVIII. Coleoptera Hydrophilidae. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo belge, 58, 14–25.

    Baudi, F. (1864) Coleopterorum messisin insula Cypro et Asia minore ab Eugenio Truqui congregatae recensitio: de Europaeis notis quibusdam additis. Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift, 8 (3–4), 195–233.

    Bedel, L. (1881a) Quelques modifications nouvelles à introduire dans la nomenclature des Hydrophilides. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, Series 5, 10 (1880), cxlvii–cxlviii.

    Bedel, L. (1881b) Diverses synonymies nouvelles d’Hydrophilidæ et de Sphæridiidæ. Annales de la Société entomologiquede France, Series 6, 1, Ixxxvi–lxxxvii.

    Bedel, L. (1891) Synopsis des grands Hydrophiles (Genre Stethoxus Solier). Revue d'Entomologie, 10, 306–323.

    Blackburn, T. (1888) Notes on Australian Coleoptera with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 3, 805–875.

    Boheman, C.H. (1851) Insecta Caffrariæ annis 1838–1845 a J. A. Wahlberg collecta. In: Coleoptera. Vol. 1. Fritze & Norstedt, Stockholm, 625 pp., pls. 8 .

    Castelnau, F.L. (1840) Histoire naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères. Histoire naturelle des Animaux articulés, Annelides, Crustacés, Arachnides, Myriapodes et Insectes. Vol. 2. P. Duménil, Paris, 565 pp., pls. 38.

    Dammhahn, M., Soarimalala, V. & Goodman, S. (2012) Trophic niche differentiation and microhabitat utilization in a species-rich Montane forest small mammal community of eastern Madagascar. BIOTYOPICA, 45 (1), 111–118.

    Erichson, W.F. (1843) Beitrag zur Insecten-Fauna von Angola, in besondere Beziehung zur geographischen Verbreitung der Insecten in Afrika. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 9 (I), 199–267.

    Fabricius, J.C. (1792) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta: Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus. Vol. 1. C. G. Proft, Copenhagen, 330 pp., pls. 20.

    Fairmaire, L. (1869) Notes sur les coléoptères recueillis par Charles Coquerel à Madagascar et sur les côtes d’Afrique. 2e partie. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 9 (4), 179–260.

    Fikáček, M., Hájek, J. & Prokop, J. (2008) New records of the water beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae) from the central European Oligocene-Miocene deposits, with a confirmation of the generic attribution of Hydrobiomorpha enspelense Wedmann 2000. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, New Series, 44 (2), 187–199.

    Fikáček, M., Gentili, E. & Short, A.E.Z. (2010a) Order Coleoptera, family Hydrophilidae. In: van Harten, A. (Ed.), Arthropod fauna of the UAE, 3, pp. 135–165.

    Fikáček, M., Prokop, J. & Nel, A. (2010b) Fossil water scavenger beetles of the subtribe Hydrobiusina (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) from the Late Oligocene locality of Aix-en-Provence (France). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 50 (2), 445–458.

    Fikáček, M., Wedmann S. & Schmied, H. (2010c) Diversification of the greater hydrophilines clade of giant water scavenger beetles dated back to the Middle Eocene (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina). Invertebrate Systematics, 24, 9–22.

    Gemminger, M. & Harold, B. (1868) Catalogus Coleopterorum hucusque descriptorum synonymicus et systematicus. Vol. 2. E.H. Gummi, Monachii, 328 pp. [pp. 425–752, pls. 6 unn. (index)]

    Gentili, W., Hebauer, F., Jäch, M.A., Ji, L. & Schödl, S. (1995) Hydrophilidae: 1. Checklist of the Hydrophilidae recorded from China (Coleoptera). In: Jäch, M.A. & Ji, L. (Eds.), Water beetles of China. Vol. 1. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich and Wiener Coleopterologenverein, Wien, pp. 207–219.

    Gomy, Y. (2000) Nouvelle list chorologique des Coléoptères de l’Archipel des Mascareignes. Société réunionnaise des Amis du Muséum, Saint-Denis, 140 pp.

    Gundevia, H. & Ramamurty, P. (1977) The male accessory reproductive glands and spermatophore in Hydrophilus olivaceous (Polyphaga-Coleoptera). Zeitschrift für Mikroscopisch-Anatomische Forschung, 91 (3), 475–492.

    Hansen, M. (1991) The hydrophiloid beetles: phylogeny, classification and a revision of the genera (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). Biologiske Skrifter, 40, 1–367.

    Hansen, M. (1999) Hydrophiloidea (s. str.) (Coleoptera). World Catalogue of Insects. Vol. 2. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, 416 pp.

    Hansen, M. (2004) Family Hydrophilidae. In: Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (Eds.), Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 2. Hydrophiloidea - Histeroidea - Staphylinoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, pp. 44–68.

    Hebauer, F. (1994) The Hydrophilidae of Israel and Sinai (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). Zoology in the Middle East, 10, 74–37.

    Hebauer, F. (1988) Hydrophiloidea aus Namibia (Coleoptera; Hydrophilidae, Spercheidae). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 39, 153–161.

    Hebauer, F. (1995) Die Hydrophilidae und Spercheidae Namibias Unter Berücksichtigung des Materials der Namibia-Expedition des Museums für Naturkunde Berlin 1992, ergänzt durch Nachweise aus früheren Namibia- und Kalahari-Expeditionen (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea: Hydrophilidae et Spercheidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 71 (2), 251–275.

    Hebauer, F. (1997) Annotated checklist of Hydrophilidae and Helophoridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of the Arabian Peninsula with a description of a new genus and species. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 16, 255–276.

    Hebauer, F. (2001) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hydrophilidae von Neuguinea. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungsreisen von M. Balke und L. Hendrich nach West Neuguinea (Irian Jaya) in den Jahren 1990–1998 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Acta Coleopterologica, 17 (1), 3–72.

    Hebauer, F. (2002) Hydrophilidae of Northern India and Southern Himalaya (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Acta Coleopterologica, 18 (1), 3–72.

    Hebauer, F. & Ryndevich, S.K. (2005) New data on the distribution of Old World Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Acta Coleopterologica, 21 (1), 43–51.

    Hebauer, F. (2006a) Checklist of the Hydrophiloidea of Africa and adjacent archipelagos (Coleoptera: Epimetopidae, Georissidae, Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Spercheidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift, 116, 19–36.

    Hebauer, F. (2006b) Results of the Benin Mission 2001 and the Zambia Mission 2002 of F. & L. Kantner (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Acta Coleopterologica, 22 (2), 11–24.

    Hendrich, L. & Yang, C.M. (1999) A contribution to the knowledge of the water beetle fauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia (Coleoptera: Noteridae: Dytiscidae: Hydrophilidae: Hydraenidae: Scirtidae: Limnichidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 6 (Supplement), 253–262.

    Hayashi, M., Yahiro, K. & Kitabayashi, E. (2003) Fossil insects and their palaeoenviroments of Pliocene Tsubusagawa Formation in Ajimu Basin, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, 30, 167–173.

    Hope, F.W. (1841) Observations on the Coleoptera of Port Essington, in Australia, with descriptions of the following new species. Journal of Proceedings of Entomological Society of London, 1841–1846, 43–50. [pp. 43–48 issued 1841; pp. 49–50 issued 1842]

    Hope, F.W. (1842) Observations on the Coleoptera of Port Essington, in Australia, with descriptions of the following new species. Annals and Magazine of natural History, 9, 423–430.

    Horn, W., Kahle, I., Friese, G. & Gaedike, R. (1990) Collectiones entomologicae. Eine Kompendium über den verbleib entomologischer Sammlungen der Welt bis 1960. Teil I & II. Akadademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Berlin, 573 pp. [pp. 1−220 & 221−573]

    Jäch, M.A. & Balke, M. (2010) Introduction. In: Jäch, M.A. & Balke, M. (Eds.), Water beetles of New Caledonia. Part 1. Vol. 3. Monographs on Coleoptera. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich and Wiener Coleopterologenverein, Vienna, pp. 1–29.

    Jung, S.W., Park, Y.J., Ham, S.A., Kim, M.C., Oh, H.S. & Bae, Y.J. (2011) Diversity and composition of benthic macroinvertebrates from Jeju Island in Korea. Entomological Research Bulletin, Korean Entomological Institute, Korea University, 27, 37−52. [in Korean]

    Knisch, A. (1924) Hydrophilidae. In: Junk, W. & Schenkling, S. (Eds.), Coleopterorum Catalogus. Vol. 14. Part 79. W. Junk, Berlin, pp. 1–306.

    Kolbe, H.J. (1887) Beiträge zur zoogeographie Westafrikas nebst einem Bericht über die während der Loango-Expedition von Herrn Dr. Falkenstein bei Chinchoxo gesammelten Coleoptera. Nova Acta Academiae Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicae Naturae Curiosum, 50, 153–364, pls. XIV–XVI.

    Kollar, V. & Redtenbacher, L. (1844) Aufzählung und Beschreibung der von Freih. Carl von Huegel auf seiner Reise durch Kaschmir und das Himalayagebirge gesammelten Insecten. In: Hügel, C. (Ed.), Kaschmir und das Reich der Siek. Vol. 4. Part 2. Stuttgart, 393–564, 582–585 pp.

    Lacordaire, T. (1854) Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Genera des Colóptères, ou exposé méthodique et critique de tous les genres proposes jusquici dans cet orde dinsectes, Tome Premier. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, xx + 486 pp.

    Lee, S.H., Lee, C.E. & Park, H.C. (1988) A taxonomy of the aquatic Hydrophilidae of South Korea (Coleoptera). Nature and Life, 18 (2), 79–91. [in Korean]

    MacLeay, W. (1871) Notes on a collection of Insects from Gayndah. Transactions of the Entomological Society of New South Wales, 2 (1873), 79–205.

    Marseul, S.A. de (1874) Palpicornia. Abeille, 13 (1875), 47–51.

    Montrouzier, P. (1860) Essai sur la faune entomologique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles de Pins, Art. Lifu. etc. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, Series 3, 8, 229–308.

    Motschulsky, V. (1854) Diagnoses de Coléoptères nouveaux, trouvés par M. M. Tatarinoff et Gaschkéwitsh aux environs de Pékin. In: Etudes Entomologiques. Vol. 2. Société de Litérature Finnoise, Helsinki, pp. 44–51.

    Mulsant, E. (1851) Description d’une Coléoptère nouveau de la famille des Hydrophiliens constituant un nouvelle coupe générique. Mémoires de l’Académie de Lyon, Classe des Sciences, 1 (2), 75–76.

    Mulsant, E. (1856) A la monographie des Palpicornes. Présentées à la Société Linnéenne de Lyon, Additions et observations, 11, 166–174.

    Nasserzadeh, H. (2010) Hydrophilidae: The genus Sternolophus Solier (Coleoptera). In: Jäch, M.A. & Balke, M. (Eds.), Water Beetles of New Caledonia. (Part 1). Vol. 3. Monographs on Coleoptera. Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich and Wiener Coleopterologenverein, Vienna, pp. 251–255.

    Nasserzadeh, H., Hosseinie, S. & Monsefi, M. (2005) Morphology of the reproductive systems of the Iranian species of Hydrochara Berthold (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Koleopterologische Rundschau, 75, 227–245.

    Nietner, J. (1856) Entomological papers, being chiefly Descriptions of New Ceylon Coleoptera, with such observations on their habitats, & c., as appear in any way interesting. No.2. Unkown publisher, Colombo, 16 pp.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1911) Contribution à l’étude des generes Sternolophus Solier, Hydrophilus Leach, Hydrous Leach (Fam. Hydrophilidæ). Mémoires de la Société entomologique de Belgique, 19, 53–72, pls. 6.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1912) Notes synonymiques. Aphodiinae - Hydrophilidae. Revue zoologique africaine, 2, 44–46.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1919) Contribution a l’ étude des sous-familles des Sphaeridiinae et des Hydrophilinae (Col. Hydrophilidae). Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 88, 105–168.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1923) Neue oder interessante Sphaeridiinen und Hydrophilinen der Malayischen Region. Treubia, 3, 416−421.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1928) Palpicornia. Catalogue of Indian Insects. Part 14. Government of India Central Publication Branch, Calcutta, 146 pp., pls. 2.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1929) Contribution à l’étude des Palpicornia. VII. Bulletin et Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique, 69, 79–96.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1932a) Zur Kenntnis der Kolbenwasserkäfer (Palpicornia) von Sumatra, Java und Bali. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement band, 9, 623−714, pls. XIV−XVIL.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1932b) Résultats scientifiques du voyage aux Indes orientales néerlandaises du LL.AA.RR. le Prince et la Princesse Léopold de Belgique. Hydrophilidae. Mémoires du Musée d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, Hors Série, 4 (4), 35–38.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1935) Aquatic Insects of China. Article XX. Catalogue of Chinese Palpicornia, (Coleoptera). Peiping Natural History Bulletin, 9 (3), 186–225.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1936) Scientific results of the Vernay-Lang Kalahari expedition, March to September, 1930. Hydrophilidae. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 17 (2), 110–116.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1937) Check List of the Palpicornia of Oceania (Coleoptera, Polyphaga). Occasional Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Museum, VIII (13), 147–160.

    Orchymont, A.d’ (1947) Report on Palpicornia (Coleoptera), Mr. Omer-Cooper's investigation of the Abyssinian fresh waters (Hugh Scott expedition). Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 117 (4), 716–741.

    Régimbart, M. (1902) Voyage du Dr. W. Horn a Ceylan. Coléoptères aquatiques. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 71, 468–475.

    Régimbart, M. (1905) Materiali per lo studio della fauna Eritrea raccolti nel 1901-03 del Dr. A. Andreini tenente medico. II. Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae et Hydrophilidae. Bollettino della Società entomologica italiana, 36 (1904), 201–226.

    Régimbart, M. (1907) Hydrophilides provenant du Voyage de M. L. Fea dans l’Afrique Occidentale. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 43 (3), 46–62.

    Reiche, L. (1854) Catalogue des espéces d’Insectes Coléoptères recueilliespar M. F. de Saulcy pendant son voyage en Orient. Gide et J. Baudry, Paris, 19 pp.

    Reiche, L. & Saulcy, F. de (1856) Espéces nouvelles ou peu connues de Coléoptères, recueillies par M. F. de Saulcy, membre de l’ lnstitut, dans son voyage en Orient. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 4 (3), 353–422, pls. 12.

    Satô, M. & Miyatake, Y. (1964) Aquatic beetles of Iriomote-jima collected by the member of the second Expedition of Kyushu University to the Yaeyama Group, the Ryukyus. Report of the Committee on Forein Scientific Research, Kyushu University, 2, 135–144.

    Satô, M. (1984) Specific name of Sternolophus rufipes and its allied species. Coleopterist’s News, 63, 1–2. [in Japanese]

    Satô, M. (1998) Aquatic Coleoptera of the Ryukyu Archipelago, III. Coleopterist 's News, 121, 7–13. [in Japanese]

    Say, T. (1835) Descriptions of new North American Coleopterous Insects, and observations on some already described. Boston Journal of natural History, 1 (1835–37), 151–203.

    Schaufuss, L.W. (1883) Descriptions de trois nouveaux Hydrophilides. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, Series 6, 2, Bull. cxc.

    Short, A.E.Z. (2010) Phylogeny, Evolution, and Classification of the Giant Water Scavenger Beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilini: Hydrophilina). Systematics and Biodiversity, 8 (1), 17–37.

    Short, A.E.Z. & Fikáček, M. (2011) World catalogue of the Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera): additions and corrections II (2006–2010). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 51 (1), 83–122.

    Smetana, A. (1980) Revision of the genus Hydrochara Berth. (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 111, 1–100.

    Solier, A.J.J. (1834) Observations sur la tribu des Hydrophiliens, et principalement sur le genre Hydrophilus de Fabricius. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, 3, 299–318.

    Spangler, P.J. (1979) Results of the Austrian hydrobiological mission 1974 to the Seychelles, Comoro, and Mascarene Archipelagos. Part IV: The aquatic beetles collected on mission to Réunion and Comoro Islands (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Gyrinidae). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 83, 701–710.

    Villa, A. & Villa, G.B. (1838) Alterum supplementum Coleopterorum Europae sive additio ad Catalogum et Supplementum I. dupletorum collections Villa. Mediolani, 1838, 51–66.

    Watanabe, N. (1975) Comparative morphology of the male genitalia in the subfamily Hydrophilinae (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). I. Tribe Hydrophilini. Annotationes Zoolgicae Japonenses, 48 (2), 129−137.

    Watanabe, N. (1976) Morphological study of the male 9th abdominal segment in the subfamily Hydrophilinae (Coleoptera). 1. Tribe Hydrophilini. Entomological Review Japan, 29 (1–2), 43–47.

    Watts, C.H.S. (1989) Revision of the Australian Sternolophus Solier (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). Records of the South Australian Museum, 23, 89–95.

    Zaitzev, F.A. (1908) Catalogue des Coléoptères aquatiques des familles des Dryopidae, Georyssidae, Cyathoceridae, Heteroceridae et Hydrophilidae. Horae Societatis Entomologica Rossicae, XXXVIII, 283–420.

    Zaitzev, F.A. (1909) Analytische übersicht der mir bekannten Arten der Gattung Sternolophus Solier nebst Bemerkungen über die anderen Arten dieser Gattung (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). Russkoe éntomologicheskoe Obozrênie, 8 (1908), 228–233.

    Zaitzev, F.A. (1910) Coléoptères aquatiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Russkoe éntomologicheskoe Obozrênie, 10, 223–226.