Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2017-05-10

Two new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada: Ramazzottiidae, Macrobiotidae) from the supralittoral zone of the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula rocky shores

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo AlegrePorto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA – Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco 34, 1149-041, Lisboa, Portugal
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo AlegrePorto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal Laboratory of Coastal Biodiversity, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo AlegrePorto, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal Laboratory of Coastal Biodiversity, Centre of Marine and Environmental Research CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal Estación de Bioloxía Mariña da Graña, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Casa do Hórreo, Rúa da Ribeira 1, 15590, A Graña (Ferrol), Spain
Macrobiotus halophilus sp. nov. Macrobiotus hufelandi group Macrobiotus persimilis subgroup Ramazzottius littoreus sp. nov. supralittoral lichens taxonomy Thorpe normalisation Tardigrada

Abstract

Two new species of Eutardigrada were found in supralittoral lichens, growing on rocky shores at two localities of the Western Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Ramazzottius littoreus sp. nov., found in San Cibrao (North of Spain), has the dorsal cuticle sculptured with small tubercles and claws with accessory points similar to R. oberhaeuseri. It can be distinguished from all the other known Ramazzottius species with the same type of cuticular sculpture by the dotted egg shell and the peculiar reticulation visible at the bulbous base of egg processes. Macrobiotus halophilus sp. nov., found in Cascais (Centre of Portugal), belongs to the Macrobiotus hufelandi group. The slightly wrinkled egg shell and egg processes in the shape of inverted chalice with dentate distal disc, identifies it as a member of the Macrobiotus persimilis subgroup. The new dioecious species differs from the six other species of the M. persimilis subgroup by a unique combination of some characters (small and very sparse circular cuticular pores, granulation on legs I–III and dentate lunules on legs IV), by measurements of some structures (claws and buccal apparatus), and by the number, dimension and shape of egg processes.

References

  1. Bartels, P.J., Nelson, D.R. & Exline, R.P. (2011) Allometry and the removal of body size effects in the morphometric analysis of tardigrades. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 49 (Supplement 1), 17–25.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0469.2010.00593.x

    Baumman, H. (1966) Der Lebenslauf von Hypsibius (H.) oberhaeuseri Doyère (Tardigrada). Veröeffentlichungen aus den Übersee-Museum, Bremen, Series A, 3, 245–258.

    Bertolani, R. (1971) Rapporto-sessi e dimorfismo sessuale in Macrobiotus (Tardigrada) Rend. Accademia Nazionalle Lincei, Series 8, 50, 377–382.

    Bertolani, R. & Kinchin, I.M. (1993) A new species of Ramazzottius (Tardigrada, Hypsibiidae) in a rain gutter sediment from England. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 109, 327–333.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1993.tb02538.x

    Bertolani, R. & Rebecchi, L. (1988) The tardigrades of Emilia (Italy). I Rossena. Bolletino di Zoologia, 55, 367–371.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/11250008809386634

    Bertolani, R. & Rebecchi, L. (1993) A revision of the Macrobiotus hufelandi group (Tardigrada, Macrobiotidae), with some observations on the taxonomic characters of eutardigrades. Zoologica Scripta, 22 (2), 127–152.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.1993.tb00347.x

    Bertolani, R., Guidetti, R. & Rebecchi, L. (1994) Tardigradi dell’Appennino umbro-marchigiano. Biogeographia, 17, 113–124.
    https://doi.org/10.21426/B617110362

    Bertolani, R., Guidetti, R., Marchioro, T., Altiero, T., Rebecchi, L. & Cesari, M. (2014) Phylogeny of Eutardigrada: New molecular data and their morphological support lead to the identification of new evolutionary lineages. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 76, 110–126.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2014.03.006

    Binda, M.G. & Pilato, G. (1972) Tardigradi muscicoli di Sicilia (IV nota). Bollettino Sedute Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, Catania, 11, 47–60.

    Binda, M.G. & Pilato, G. (1986) Ramazzottius nuovo genere di eutardigrado (Hypsibiidae). Animalia, 13, 159–166.

    Binda, M.G. & Pilato, G. (1994) Notizie sui Tardigradi delle Isole Hawaii con descrizione di due specie nuove, Animalia, 21 (1/3), 57–62.

    Biserov V.I. (1985) Hypsibius subanomalus sp. n. (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae) from the Astrakhan District. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 64 (1), 131–135.

    Biserov, V.I. (1997/98) Tardigrades of the Caucasus with a taxonomic analysis of the genus Ramazzottius (Parachela: Hypsibiidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger, 236, 139–159.

    Biserov, V.I. (1999) A review of the Tardigrada from Novaya Zemlya, with descriptions of three new species, and an evaluation of the environment in this region. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 238, 169–182.

    Dastych, H. (1993) A new genus and four new species of semiterrestrial water-bears from South Africa (Tardigrada). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 90, 175–186.

    Dastych, H. (2006) A new tardigrade species of the genus Ramazzottius Binda & Pilato, 1986 (Tardigrada) from the nival zone of the Mont Blanc Massive (the Western Alps), with some morphometric remarks. Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 103, 33–45.

    Dastych, H. (2011) Ramazzottius agannae sp. nov., a new tardigrade species from the nival zone of the Austrian Central Alps (Tardigrada). Entomologisch Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut, 15, 184, 237–253.

    Doyère, L.M. (1840) Mémoire sur les Tardigrades. I. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, Série 2, 14, 269–362.

    Fontoura, P., Pilato, G., Lisi, O. & Morais, P. (2009a) Tardigrades from Portugal: four new records and description of two new species. Zootaxa, 2030, 21–38.

    Fontoura, P., Pilato, G., Morais, P. & Lisi, O. (2009b) Minibiotus xavieri, a new species of tardigrade from the Parque Biológico de Gaia, Portugal (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae). Zootaxa, 2267, 55–64.

    Glime, J. M. (2013) Tardigrade Survival. Chapt. 5-1. In: Glime, J.M. (Ed.), Bryophyte Ecology. Vol. 2. Bryological Interaction. Ebook 5-1-1 sponsored by Michigan Technological University and the International Association of Bryologists. Last updated 2 July 2013. Available from: http://www.bryoecol.mtu.edu (accessed 27 March 2017)

    Guil, N. (2002) Diversity and distribution of tardigrades (Bilateria, Tardigrada) from the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands and Chafarinas Islands. Graellsia, 58 (2), 75–94.
    https://doi.org/10.3989/graellsia.2002.v58.i2.279

    Guil, N. (2008) New records and within-species variability of Iberian tardigrades (Tardigrada), with comments on the species from the Echiniscus blumi-canadensis series. Zootaxa, 1757, 1–30.

    Guil, N. & Guidetti, R. (2005) A new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae) from Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands (Spain). Zootaxa, 889, 1–11.
    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.889.1.1

    Guil, N., Guidetti, R. & Machordom, A. (2007) Observations on the “tenuis group” (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae) and description of a new Macrobiotus species. Journal of Natural History, 41 (41–44), 2741–2755.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222930701742637

    Guil, N., Rodrigo, E. & Machordom, A. (2015) Soil tardigrade biodiversity with description of a new tardigrade genus and its phylogenetic position. Systematics and Biodiversity. 13 (3), 234–256.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14772000.2014.986554

    Kaczmarek, Ł. & Michalczyk, Ł. (2004) New records of Tardigrada from Cyprus with a description of the new species Macrobiotus marlenae (hufelandi group) (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae). Genus, 15 (1), 141–152.

    Kaczmarek, Ł. & Michalczyk, Ł. (2009) Two new species of Macrobiotidae, Macrobiotus szeptyckii (harmsworthi group) and Macrobiotus kazmierskii (hufelandi group) from Argentina. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 52B (1–2), 87–99.
    https://doi.org/10.3409/azc.52b_1-2.87-99

    Kaczmarek, Ł., Michalczyk, Ł. & Diduszko, D. (2006) Ramazzottius bunikowskae, a new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae) from Russia. Zootaxa, 1229, 49–57.

    Kaczmarek, Ł., Bartels, P.J., Roszkowska, M. & Nelson, D.R. (2015) The zoogeography of marine Tardigrada. Zootaxa, 4037 (1), 1–189.
    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4037.1.1

    Kaczmarek, Ł., Cytan, J., Zawierucha, K., Diduszko, D. & Michalczyk, Ł. (2014) Tardigrades from Peru (South America), with descriptions of three new species of Parachela. Zootaxa, 3790 (2), 357–379.
    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3790.2.5

    Kinchin, I.M. (1992) An introduction to the invertebrate microfauna associated with mosses and lichens with observation from maritime lichens on the west coast of the British Isles. Microscopy, 36, 721–731.

    Kinchin, I.M. (1994) The Biology of Tardigrades. Portland Press, London, 186 pp.

    King, P.E., Fordy, M.R. & Morgan, C.I. (1981) The marine flora and fauna of the Isles of Scilly. Tardigrada. Journal of Natural History, 15 (1), 145–150.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938100770101

    Marchioro, T., Rebecchi, L., Cesari, M., Hansen, J.G., Viotti, G. & Guidetti, R. (2013) Somatic musculature of tardigrades: phylogenetic signal and metameric patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 169, 580–603.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12079

    Marley, N.J., McInnes, S. & Sands, C.J. (2011) Phylum Tardigrada: A re-evaluation of the Parachela. Zootaxa, 2819, 51–64.

    Maucci, W. (1988) Tardigrada from Patagonia (Southern South America) with description of three new species. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 16, 5–13.

    McInnes, S.J. (1994) Zoogeographic distribution of terrestrial/freshwater tardigrades from current literature. Journal of Natural History, 28, 257–352.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00222939400770131

    Meyer, H.A., Domingue, M.N. & Hinton, J.G. (2014) Tardigrada of the West Gulf Plain, with descriptions of two new species from Louisiana. Southeastern Naturalist, 13 (Special Issue 5), 117–130.
    https://doi.org/10.1656/058.013.s511

    Michalczyk, Ł. & Kaczmarek, Ł. (2003) A description of the new tardigrade Macrobiotus reinhardti (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae, harmsworthi group) with some remarks on the oral cavity armature within the genus Macrobiotus Schultze. Zootaxa, 331, 1–24.

    Michalczyk, Ł., Wełnicz, W., Frohme, M. & Kaczmarek, Ł. (2012) Redescriptions of three Milnesium Doyère, 1840 taxa (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Milnesiidae), including the nominal species for the genus. Zootaxa, 3154, 1–20.

    Møbjerg, N., Halberg, K.A., Jørgensen, A., Persson, D., Bjørn, M., Ramløv, H. & Kristensen, R.M. (2011) Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades. Acta Physiologica, 202, 409–420.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02252.x

    Morgan, C.I. & Lampard, D.J. (1986) Supralittoral lichens as a habitat for tardigrades. Glasgow Naturalist, 21, 127–138.

    Nelson, D.R., Guidetti, R. & Rebecchi, L. (2015) Phylum Tardigrada. In: Thorp, J., Rogers, D.C. (Eds.), Ecology and General Biology. Thorp and Covich’s Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York, pp. 347–380.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-385026-3.00017-6

    Pilato, G. (1969) Evoluzione e nuova sistemazione degli Eutardigradi. Bollettino di Zoologia, 36 (3), 827–845.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/11250006909436925

    Pilato, G. (1981) Analisi di nuovi caratteri nello studio degli Eutardigradi. Animalia, 8, 51–57.

    Pilato, G. & Rebecchi, L. (1992) Ramazzottius semisculptus, nuova specie di Hypsibiidae (Eutardigrada). Animalia, 19 (1/3), 227–234.

    Pilato, G. & Binda, M.G. (2001) Biogeography and Limnoterrestrial Tardigrades: Are They Truly Incompatible Binomials? Zoologischer Anzeiger, 240, 511–516.
    https://doi.org/10.1078/0044-5231-00061

    Pilato, G., Bertolani, R. & Binda, M.G. (1982) Studio degli Isohypsibius del grupo elegans (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae) con descrizione di due nuove specie. Animalia, 9, 185–198.

    Pilato, G., D’Urso, V. & Lisi, O. (2013) Ramazzottius thulini (Pilato, 1970) bona species and description of Ramazzottius lybicus sp. nov. (Eutardigrada, Ramazzottidae). Zootaxa, 3681 (3), 270–280.
    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3681.3.6

    Pilato, G., Kaczmarek, Ł., Michalczyk, Ł. & Lisi, O. (2003) Macrobiotus polonicus, a new species of Tardigrada from Poland (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae, “hufelandi group”). Zootaxa, 258 (1), 1–8.
    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.258.1.1

    Pilato, G., Costa, G., Conti, E., Binda, M.G. & Lisi, O. (2007) Morphometric analysis of some metric characters of two Macrobiotus species (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae). Journal of Limnology, 66 (Supplement 1), 26–32.
    https://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2007.s1.26

    Ramazzotti, G. & Maucci, W. (1983) Il Phulym Tardigrada. Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, 41, 1–1012.

    Rebecchi, L. & Bertolani, R. (1988) New cases of parthenogenesis and polyploidy in the genus Ramazzottius (Tardigrada, Hypsibiidae) and a hypothesis concerning their origin. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 14, 187–196.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01688170.1988.10510377

    Rebecchi, L. & Bertolani, R. (1994) Maturative pattern of ovary and testis in eutardigrades of freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 26 (2), 107–118.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07924259.1994.9672407

    Richters, F. (1904) Arktische Tardigraden. Fauna Arctica, 3, 493–508.

    Richters, F. (1926) Tardigrada. In: Kükenthal, W. & Krumbach, T. (Eds.), Handbuch der Zoologie. Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, pp.1–68.

    Sands, C.J., McInnes, S.J., Marley, N.J., Goodall-Copestake, W.P., Convey, P. & Lince, K. (2008) Phylum Tardigrada: an “individual approach”. Cladistics, 24, 1–18.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2008.00219.x

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. & Kulessa, J. (2007) Muscular architecture of Milnesium tardigradum and Hypsibius sp. (Eutardigrada, Tardigrada) with some data on Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri. Zoomorphology, 126, 265–281.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-007-0046-0

    Schultze, C.A.S. (1834) Macrobiotus hufelandi animal e crustaceorum classe novum reviviscendi post diuturnam asphyxiam et ariditatem potens, etc. 8 Seiten. C. Curths, Berlin, 6 pp.

    Schuster, R.O., Nelson, D.R., Grigarick, A.A. & Christenberry, D. (1980) Systematic criteria of the Eutardigrada. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 99 (3), 284–303.
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3226004

    Stephenson, T.A. & Stephenson, A. (1949) The universal feature of zonation between tide-marks on rocky coasts. Journal of Ecology, 37, 289–305.
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2256610

    Thulin, G. (1928) Über die Phylogenie und das System der Tardigraden. Hereditas, 11, 207–266.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5223.1928.tb02488.x

    Tumanov, D.V. (2006) Five new species of the genus Milnesium (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Milnesiidae). Zootaxa, 1122, 1–23.

    Vicente, F., Fontoura, P., Cesari, M., Rebecchi, L., Guidetti, R., Serrano, A. & Bertolani, R. (2013) Integrative taxonomy allows the identification of synonymous species and the erection of a new genus of Tardigrada Echiniscidae (Tardigrada, Heterotardigrada), Zootaxa, 3613 (6), 557–572.
    https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3613.6.3

How to Cite

FONTOURA, P., RUBAL, M., & VEIGA, P. (2017). Two new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada: Ramazzottiidae, Macrobiotidae) from the supralittoral zone of the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula rocky shores. Zootaxa, 4263(3), 450–466. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4263.3.2