Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Type: Article
Published: 2016-09-22
Page range: 71–92
Abstract views: 97
PDF downloaded: 0

Prosorhynchus Odhner, 1905 (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) (Epinephelidae), including Prosorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp., from the Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam

Aquaculture and Sea-Ranching, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock, Germany. Fisheries College, Dinh Bang, Tu Son, Bac Ninh, Vietnam
Aquaculture and Sea-Ranching, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, 18059 Rostock, Germany.
Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, Dinh Bang, Tu Son, Bac Ninh, Vietnam.
Geochemistry and Environment, Vietnam Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK.
Platyhelminthes Digenea Bucephalidae Epinephelidae Epinephelus coioides Gulf of Tonkin Vietnam Prosorhynchus luzonicus Prosorhynchus maternus Prosorhynchus tonkinensis n. sp.


A total of 169 specimens of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) were collected from fishermen and marine fish farms in the Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam. Five different species of Prosorhynchus Odhner, 1905 were recorded, including P. tonkinensis n. sp. The new species differs from all other Prosorhynchus species in the presence of an indented posterior extremity. It can be distinguished from the most closely related P. atlanticus Manter, 1940 and P. crucibulum Rudolphi, 1819 by the extension of the uterus always to the level of the ovary, the width and premouth distance in the former, and the arched vitellarium and smaller egg size in the latter, and a different host and geographical region. Prosorhynchus sp. A (not fully identified in this study) has been earlier reported from E. coioides from New Caledonia (see Prosorhynchus sp. B of Bray and Justine, 2013), P. luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 is reported throughout South-East Asia, and Prosorhynchus sp. B (no further identification possible based on a single specimen in this study) and P. maternus Bray & Justine, 2006 are reported for the first time from Vietnam. The present study demonstrates a close relationship of the Prosorhynchus species composition in Vietnam with the Indo-Australian region, warranting further comparative studies among the different epinephelids.



  1. Bott, N.J. & Cribb, T.H. (2009) Prosorhynchine trematodes (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from epinephelines (Perciformes: Serranidae) on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Systematic Parasitology,72, 57–69.

    Bott, N.J., Miller, T.L. & Cribb, T.H. (2013) Bucephalidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of Plectropomus (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in the tropical Pacific. Parasitology Research, 112, 2561–2584.

    Bray, R.A. (1973) Some digenetic trematodes in fishes from the Bay of Biscay and nearby waters. In: Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Zoology), pp. 151–183.

    Bray, R.A. & Justine, J.L. (2006) Prosorhynchus maternus sp. n. (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from the Malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia. Folia Parasitologica, 53, 181–188.

    Bray, R.A. & Justine, J.L. (2013) Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. Parasite, 20, 1–26.

    Bray, R.A., & Palm, H.W. (2009) Bucephalids (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from marine fishes off the south-western coast of Java, Indonesia, including the description of two new species of Rhipidocotyle and comments on the marine fish digenean fauna of Indonesia. Zootaxa, 2223, 1–24.

    Cribb, T.H., Bray, R.A., Wright, T. & Pichelin, S. (2002) The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephelinae): knowledge, nature and evolution. Parasitology 124 Suppl, S23–S42.

    Eckmann, F. (1932) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Trematodenfamilie Bucephalidae. Julius Springer in Berlin, 5, 92–111.

    Bui, Q. T. (1998) Parasite and fish disease of cultured grouper in Halong. Scientific reports. Research Institute for Aquaculture No 1.(RIA.1). Bac Ninh, Vietnam, 14p [In Vietnamese]

    Etchegoin, J.A., Timi, J.T., Cremonte, F. & Lanfranchi, A.L. (2005) Redescription of Prosorhynchus australis Szidat, 1961 (Digenea, Bucephalidae) parasitizing Conger orbignianus Valenciennes, 1842 (Pisces, Congridae) from Argentina. Acta Parasitologica, 50, 102–104.

    FAO (2014) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014 (SOFIA). Rome. Available from: (Accessed 21 Sept. 2016)

    Hafeezullah, M & Siddiqi, A.H. (1970) Digenetic trematodes of marine fishes of India. Part I. Bucephalidae and Cryptogonimidae. Indian Journal of Helminthology, XXII, 1–22.

    Hanson, M.L. (1950) Some digenetic trematodes of marine fishes of Bermuda. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 17, 74–89.

    Klimpel, S., Busch, M.W., Kellermanns, E., Kleinertz, S., Palm, H.W. & Busch, M.W. (2009) Metazoan Deep-Sea Fish Parasites. Verlag Natur & Wissenschaft, Solingen (Germany), 383 pp.

    Kohn, A. (1967) Sôbre um nôvo gênero de Prosorhynchinae Nicoll, 1914 e novos dados sôbre Prosorhynchus bulbosus Kohn, 1961 e Rhipidocotyle quadriculatum Kohn, 1961 (Trematoda, Bucephaliformes). Memorias Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 65, 107–114.

    Kongkeo, H., Wayne, C., Murdjani, M., Bunliptanon, P. & Chien, T. (2010) Current practices of marine finfish cage culture in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. Aquaculture Asia Magazine, 15 (2), 32–39.

    Kruse, G.O.W. (1977) Some digenetic trematodes from fishes of Bering Sea with descriptions of Prosorhynchus mizellei sp. n. (Bucephalidae) and Pseudopecoelus nossamani sp. n. (Opecoelidae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 44, 73–82.

    Madhavi, R. (1974) Digenetic trematodes from marine fishes of Waltair coast, Bay of Bengal. Family Bucephalidae. Rivista di Parassitologia, 35, 189–199.

    Manter, H.W. (1934) Some digenetic trematodes from deep-water fish of Tortugas, Florida. Papers from Tortugas Laboratory, 28, 257–345.

    Manter, H.W. (1940a) Digenetic trematodes of fishes from the Galapagos Islands and the neighboring Pacific. Allan Hancock pacific Expeditions, 2, 325–497.

    Manter, H.W. (1940b) Gasterostomes (Trematode) of Tortugas, Florida. Paper from the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 33, 1–19.

    Manter, H.W. (1953) Two new species of Prosorhynchinae (Trematoda: Gasterostomata) from the fiji Islands. In:Dayal, J. & Singh, K. (Eds), Thapar, G. S., Commenmoration Volume, 1953. Uninversity of Lucknow, Lucknow, pp. 193–200.

    Matthews, R.A. (1973) The life-cycle of Prosorhynchus crucibulum (Rudolphi, 1819) Odhner, 1905, and a comparison of its cercaria with that of Prosorhynchus squamatus Odhner, 1905. Parasitology, 66, 133–164.

    McFarlane, S.H. (1936) A study of the endoparasitic trematodes from marine fishes of Departure Bay, B.C. Journal of the Biological Board of Canada, 2, 335–347.

    Nahhas, F.M. & Cable, R.M. (1964) Digenetic and aspidogastrid trematodes from marine fishes of Curacao and Jamaica. Tulane Studies In Zoology, 11, 169–228.

    Nguyen, N.V. (2002) Marine Resources in the nearshore waters of Vietnam-Content II: Marine resource, Scientific report, Research Institute for marine fisheries. Haiphong, Vietnam, 80 pp. [In Vietnamese]

    Odhner, T. (1905) Die Trematoden des arktischen Gebietes. Fauna Arctica, 4, 289–374.

    Overstreet, R.M. (1969) Digenetic trematodes of marine teleost fishes from Biscayne bay, Florida. Tulane Studies in Zoology and Botany, 15 (4), 119–181.

    Palm, H.W. (2004) The Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863. PLSPL-IPB Press, Bogor, Indonesia, 710 pp.

    Palm, H.W. & Rückert, S. (2009) A new approach to visualize ecosystem health by using parasites. Parasitology Research, 105, 539–553.

    Palm, H.W., Yulianto, I., Theisen, S., Rueckert, S. & Kleinertz, S. (2015) Epinephelus fuscoguttatus mariculture in Indonesia: Implications from fish parasite infections. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 2, 54–70.

    Petersen, E.H., Glencross, B.D., Tien, N. Van, Tuan, L.A., Tuan, V.A. & Phuong, T.H. (2015) Recent changes in the bioeconomic of finfish mariculture in Vietnam. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 6. 9 pp.

    Reimer, L.W. (1985) Bucephalidae (Digenea) aus Fichen der Küste von Mocambique. Angewandte Parasitologie, 26, 13–26.

    Rückert, S. (2006) Marine Fischparasiten in Indonesien: Befallssituation und Bedeutung für die Maricultur von Zackenbarschen, in Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Facultät. Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf. 240 pp.

    Rückert, S., Klimpel, S., Al-Quraishy, S., Mehlhorn, H. & Palm, H.W. (2009) Transmission of fish parasites into grouper mariculture (Serranidae: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822)) in Lampung Bay, Indonesia. Parasitology Research, 104, 523–532. 10.1007/s00436-008-1226-7

    Rückert, S., Klimpel, S. & Palm, H.W. (2010) Parasites of cultured and wild brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775) in Lampung Bay, Indonesia. Aquaculture Research, 41, 1158–1169.

    Siddiqi, A.H & Cable, R.M. (1960) Digenetic trematodes of marine fishes of Puerto Rico. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Island, 17, 257–369.

    Szidat, L. (1961) Versuch einer Zoogeographie des Süd-Atlantik mit Hilfe von Zeitparasiten der Meeresfishe. Parasitologische Schriftenreihe, 13, 1–98.

    Velasquez, C.C. (1959) Studies on the family Bucephalidae Poche 1907 (Trematoda) from Philippine food fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 45, 135–147.

    Vo, D.T. (2010) The parasites from groupers (Epinephelus spp.). PhD thesis in Biology. Vietnam Ecademy of Science and technology, Institute of Ocenography, 184 pp. [In Vietnamese]

    Vo, D.T., Bristow, G.A., Nguyen, D.H., Vo, D.T., Nguyen, T.N.N. & Tran, T.C. (2011) Digenean trematodes of cultured grouper in Khanh Hoa Province , Vietnam. In: Bondad-Reantaso, M.G., Jones, J.B., Corsin, F. & Aoki, T. (Eds.), Diseases in Asian Aquaculture VII, Fish Health Section, Selangor, Malaysia: Asian Fisheries Society, pp. 39–52.

    Vo, D.T., Bristow, G.A., Nguyen, D.H., Vo, D.T. & Nguyen, T.N.N. (2012) The parasites of grouper and seabass in Vietnam. Vietnamese Agriculture Publishing House, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, 180 pp. [In Vietnamese and English]

    Durio, W.O. & Manter, H.W. (1968) Some digenetic trematodes of marine fishes of New Caledonia. Part I. Bucephalidae, Monorchiidae, and some small families. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 35 (2), 143–153.

    Winter, H.A. (1960) Algunos trematodos digeneos de pecesnarinos de aguas de Oceano Pacifico del sur de California, U.S.A. y de litoral Mexicano. Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de México, 30, 183–208.

    Yamaguti, S. (1939) Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 26. Trematodes of fishes, VI. Japanese Journal of Zoology, 8, 211–230.

    Yamaguti, S. (1970) Digenetic trematodes of Hawaiian fishes. Keigaku Publishing Co., Tokyo, 436 pp.

    Yulianto, I., Hammer, C., Wiryawan, B. & Palm, H.W. (2015) Potential and risk of grouper (Epinephelus spp., Epinephelidae) stock enhancement in Indonesia. Journal of Coastal Development 18, 394.