Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Article
Published: 2016-07-19

A new ant genus from southern Argentina and southern Chile, Patagonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501, USA Field Museum of Natural History, Department of Science and Education, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
Field Museum of Natural History, Department of Science and Education, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA
Hymenoptera key to species myrmicinae new ant genus Patagonia Patagonomyrmex Pogonomyrmecini Pogonomyrmex South America

Abstract

The ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) comprises 71 described species that occur in North America, South America, and Hispaniola, and it is the nominal genus in the recently established tribe Pogonomyrmecini. A molecular phylogeny using 3,647 base pairs from fragments of one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome oxidase I) and five nuclear genes (long-wavelength rhodopsin, elongation factor 1α F1, elongation factor 1α F2, wingless, rudimentary) inferred that Pogonomymrex was not monophyletic. The vast majority of species belonged to a monophyletic clade (Pogonomyrmex sensu stricto), whereas species in the Po. angustus-group formed a second lineage outside of Pogonomyrmex and Hylomyrma, the latter being the only other genus in the tribe. To maintain monophyly of Pogonomyrmex, we create the genus Patagonomyrmex gen. n., which consists of the three angustus-group species (Patagonomyrmex angustus comb. n., Patagonomyrmex laevigatus comb. n., and Patagonomyrmex odoratus comb. n.) that are sister to all other pogonomyrmecines. The genus is restricted to southern Argentina and southern and southcentral Chile. Workers are characterized by: (1) poorly-developed psammophore that consists of short to medium-length hairs scattered over the ventral surface of the head, (2) anterior clypeal margin strongly convex in full-face view, (3) clypeus strongly convex in profile, (4) superior and inferior propodeal spines long, (5) dorsal surface of promesonotum smooth and shiny, lacking rugae or if rugae present, then interrugae strongly granulate-punctate, (6) anteroventral margin of peduncle of the petiole with a small, acuminate spine, and (7) palp formula 5,4. We also provide information on biology, distribution maps, and a key to workers, queens, and males in English and Spanish.

 

References

  1. Anderson, K.E., Gadau, J., Mott, B.M., Johnson, R.A., Altamirano, A., Strehl, C. & Fewell, J.H. (2006) Distribution and evolution of genetic caste determination in Pogonomyrmex seed-harvester ants. Ecology, 87, 2171–2184.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2006)87[2171:DAEOGC]2.0.CO;2

    Bolton, B. (1994) Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 222 pp.

    Bolton, B. (2014) An Online Catalog of the Ants of the World. Available from: http://antcat.org (accessed 22 March 2016)

    Brady, S.G., Schultz, T.D., Fisher, B.L. & Ward, P.S. (2006) Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 103, 18172–18177.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0605858103

    Cole, A.C. (1968) Pogonomyrmex Harvester Ants: A Study of the Genus in North America. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee, 222 pp.

    Cole, B.J. & Wiernasz, D.C. (1999) The selective advantage of low relatedness. Science, 285, 891–893.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.285.5429.891

    Drummond, A.J., Ashton, B., Buxton, S., Cheung, M., Cooper, A., Duran, C., Field, M., Heled, J., Kearse, M., Markowitz, S., Moir, R., Stones-Havas, S., Sturrock, S., Thierer, T. & Wilson, A. (2012) Geneious v5.6. Available from: http://www.geneious.com (Accessed 15 Jul. 2016)

    Emery, C. (1921) Hymenoptera, Family Formicidae, Subfamily Myrmicinae [part]. Genera Insectorum, 174A, 1–94.

    Gordon, D.M. & Kulig, A.W. (1996) Founding, foraging, and fighting: colony size and the spatial distribution of harvester ant nests. Ecology, 77, 2393–2409.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2265741

    Hölldobler, B. (1971) Homing in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badius. Science, 171, 1149–1151.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.171.3976.1149

    Hölldobler, B. (1976) Recruitment behavior, home range orientation and territoriality in harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1, 3–44.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00299951

    Huelsenbeck, J.P. & Ronquist, F. (2001) MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics, 17, 754–755.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

    Ipinza-Regla, J.H. (1985) Formicidos en el contentido gástrico de Liolaemus monticola. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 12, 165–168.

    Ipinza-Regla, J.H. & Covarrubias, R. (1982) Distribución de especies de la subfamilia Myrmicinae Formicidae en Chile. Revista Española de Entomología, 58, 135–141.

    Ipinza-Regla, J.H., Covarrubias, R. & Guevara, R.F.L. (1983) Distribucion altitudinal de Formicidae en Los Andes de Chile central. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, 55, 103–128.

    Johnson, R.A. (2001) Biogeography and community structure of North American seed-harvester ants. Annual Review of Entomology, 46, 1–29.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.46.1.1

    Johnson, R.A. (2002) Semi-claustral colony founding in the seed-harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus: a comparative analysis of founding strategies. Oecologia, 132, 60–67.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-0960-2

    Johnson, R.A. (2006) Capital and income breeding and the evolution of colony founding strategies in ants. Insectes Sociaux, 53, 316–322.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00040-006-0874-9

    Johnson, R.A. (2015) A taxonomic revision of South American species of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I. Zootaxa, 4029 (1), 1–142.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4029.1.1

    Johnson, R.A. & Cover, S.P. (2015) A taxonomic revision of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Hispaniola. Zootaxa, 3972 (2), 231–249.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3972.2.5

    Johnson, R.A. & Overson, R.P. (2009) A new North American species of Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Mohave Desert of central California and western Nevada. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 18, 305–314.

    Johnson, R.A., Overson, R.P. & Moreau, C.S. (2013) A new species of seed-harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex hoelldobleri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from the Mohave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. Zootaxa, 3646 (3), 201–227.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3646.3.1

    Kusnezov, N. (1949) Pogonomyrmex del grupo Ephebomyrmex en la fauna de la Patagonia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Zoologica Lilloana, 8, 291–307.

    Kusnezov, N. (1951) El género Pogonomyrmex Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Acta Zoologica Lilloana, 11, 227–333.

    Kusnezov, N. (1953) Las hormigas en los parques nacionales de la Patagonia y los problemas relacionados. Anales del Museo Nahuel Huapí, 3, 105–125.

    Kusnezov, N. (1960) La fauna de hormigas en el oeste de la Patagonia y Tierra de Fuego. Acta Zoologica Lilloana, 17, 321–401.

    LaPolla, J.S., Kallal, R.J. & Brady, S.G. (2012) A new ant genus from the Greater Antilles and Central America, Zatania (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exemplefies the utility of male and molecular character systems. Systematic Entomology, 37, 2001–2214.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00605.x

    Larget, B. & Simon, D. (1999) Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for the Bayesian analysis of phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 16, 750–759.

    MacMahon, J.A., Mull, J.F. & Crist, T.O. (2000) Harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex spp.): their community and ecosystem influences. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 265–291.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.31.1.265

    Maddison, W.P. & Maddison, D.R. (2011) Mesquite: a molecular modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.75 http://mesquiteproject.org.

    Mayr, G. (1870) Neue Formiciden. Verhandlungen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wein, 20, 939–996.

    Mayr, G. (1887) Südamerickanische Formiciden. Verhandlungen der k. k. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wein, 37, 511–632.

    Miller, M.A., Pfeiffer, W. & Schwartz, T. (2010) Creating the CIPRES Science Gateway for inference of large phylogenetic trees. In: Proceedings of the Gateway Computing Environments Workshop (GCS), New Orleans, Louisiana, pp. 1–8.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/gce.2010.5676129

    Moreau, C.S. (2008) Unraveling the evolutionary history of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 48, 224–239.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2008.02.020

    Moreau, C.S. (2014) A practical guide to DNA extraction, PCR, and gene-based DNA sequencing in insects. Halteres, 5, 32–42.

    Moreau, C.S. & Bell, C.D. (2013) Testing the museum versus cradle biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants. Evolution, 67, 2240–2257.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.12105

    Moreau, C.S., Bell, C.D., Vila, R., Archibald, S.B. & Pierce, N.E. (2006) Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms. Science, 312, 101–104.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1124891

    Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D’Amico, J. A., Itoua, I., Strand, H.E., Morrison, J.C., Loucks, C.J., Allnutt, T.F., Ricketts, T.H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J.F., Wettengel, W.W., Hedao, P. & Kassem, K.R. (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. Bioscience, 51, 933–938.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2

    Parker, J.D. & Rissing, S.W. (2002) Molecular evidence for the origin of workerless social parasites in the ant genus Pogonomyrmex. Evolution, 56, 2017–2028.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb00128.x

    Posada, D. & Crandall, K.A. (2001) Selecting the best-fit model of nucleotide substitution. Systematic Biology, 50, 580–601.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106351501750435121

    Rannala, B. & Yang, Z.H. (1996) Probability distribution of molecular evolutionary trees: a new method of phylogenetic inference. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 43, 304–311.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02338839

    Sáiz, F. & Carvajal, C. (1990) Incendios forestales en el parque nacional La Campana, Sector Ocoa, V Region, Chile. V. Blattodea, Formicidae y Mutillidae. Impacto y recuperacion. Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparáiso Chile, 21, 51–61.

    Santschi, F. (1921) Ponerinae, Dorylinae et quelques autres formicides néotropiques. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, 54, 81–103.

    Schmidt, C.A. & Shattuck, S.O. (2014) The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa, 3817 (1), 1–242.
    http://dx.doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1

    Snelling, R.R. & Hunt, J.H. (1975) The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 9, 63–129.

    Solervicens, J., Estrada, P. & Márquez, M. (1991) Notes on the insect fauna from the soil surface and foliage at the Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo, Region Metropolitana, Chile. Acta Entomologia Chilena, 16, 161–182.

    Stamatakis, A., Ludwig, T. & Meier, H. (2005) RAxML-III: a fast program for maximum likelihood-based inference of large phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics, 21, 456–463.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bti191

    Ward, P.S. (2011) Integrating molecular phylogenetic results into ant taxonomy (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News, 15, 21–29.

    Ward, P.S., Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L. & Schultz, T.R. (2010) Phylogeny and biogeography of dolichoderine ants: effects of data partitioning and relict taxa on historical inference. Systematic Biology, 59, 342–362.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syq012

    Ward, P.S., Brady, S.G., Fisher, B.L. & Schultz, T.R. (2015) The evolution of myrmicine ants: phylogeny and biogeography of a hyperdiverse ant clade (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology, 40, 61–81.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/syen.12090

    Wiernasz, D.C. & Cole, B.J. (2003) Queen size mediates queen survival and colony fitness in harvester ants. Evolution, 57, 2179–2183.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2003.tb00396.x