This study examined the morphological and phylogenetic characteristics of Oreonectes shuilongensis sp. nov. The genus Oreonectes is distributed only in southwestern China and northern Vietnam. Sixteen specimens of cavefish were captured in the Shuilong Township in Guizhou Province of China and identified as a new species of Oreonectes (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae). Maximum likelihood was used to construct phylogenetic trees based on data for Nemacheilidae species accessible on GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that O. shuilongensis is closely related to O. platycephalus from which it is distinguished by having 6 vs. 5 branched anal rays, ratio of body length to body height 7.0–7.9 vs. 5.6–7.0, ratio of head length to distance between eyes 3.5–4.9 vs. 2.0–2.4, naked vs. scaly body, densely distributed fine black stains except on abdomen, and semitransparent body. Oreonectes shuilongensis is the only species of the genus not distributed in Guangxi Province. This study has contributed to the overall knowledge about the distribution of Oreonectes.
Anonymous. (2006) Freshwater Fishes of Guangxi, China. Fisheries Institute of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region & Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science. Guangxi People’s Publishing House, pp. 161–163.
Chen, P., Han, Y., Wu, T. & Gong, Z. (2011) The new species of Cobitidae fish in Linyun cave. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 39, 862–863.
Du, L., Chen, X. & Yang, J. (2008) A review of the Nemacheilinae genus Oreonectes Günther with description of two new species (Teleostei: Balitoridae). Zootaxa, 1729, 23–26.
Kottelat, M. (2001) Freshwater Fishes of Northern Vietnam: A Preliminary Check-list of the Fishes Known or Expected to Occur in Northern Vietnam with Comments on Systematics and Nomenclature. Washington DC: Environment and Social Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region of the World Bank, 261 pp.
Lan, J., Gan, X., Wu, T. & Yang, J. (2013) Cave fishes of Guangxi, China. Beijing: Science Press, 68–83.
Lan, J., Yang, J. & Chen, Y. (1995) Two new species of the subfamily Nemacheilinae from Guangxi, China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 30, 445–448.
Rui, M., Chen, X., Yang, J., Richard, W. & Richard, L. (2012) Phylogenetic relationships of the renus Homatula (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae), with special reference to the biogeographic history around the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Zootaxa, 3586, 78–94.
Tang, L., Zhao, Y. & Zhang, C. (2012) A new blind loach, Oreonectes elongates sp. nov. (Cypriniformes: Balitoridae) from Guangxi, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 93, 483–490.
Yang, J., Wu, T., Wei, R. & Yang, J. (2011) Oreonectes luochengensis, a new nemacheiline loach of genus Oreonectes (Balitoridae) from Guangxi, China. Zoological Research, 32, 208–211.
Yang, Q., Wei, M., Lan, J. & Yang, Q. (2011) A new species of the genus Oreonectes (Balitoridae) from Guangxi, China. Journal of Guangxi Normal University: Natural Science Edition, 29, 72–75.
Zhang Z.L., Zhao, Y.H. & Zhang, C.G. (2006) A new blind loach, Oreonectes translucens (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilinae), from Guangxi. China. Zoological studies, 45, 611–615.
Zheng C.-Y. (Ed.) 1989. The Fishes of Pearl River. Beijing: Science Press.
Zhu, S.-Q. (1989) The Loaches of the Subfamily Nemacheilinae in China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Jiangsu Science & Technology Publishing House, Nanjing, China, 150 pp.