Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Monograph
Published: 2016-06-27

A species checklist of the millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) of India

Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia
Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany
Myriapoda millipede taxonomy fauna India

Abstract

At present, the millipede fauna of India comprises over 270 nominate species or subspecies in at least 90 genera, 25 families and 11 orders. As complete a catalogue as possible is compiled of all species or subspecies of Diplopoda formally reported from India, some of which remain dubious. Additionally, a checklist is also compiled of millipedes that have erroneously been recorded in India. Given also several literature lacunae, as well as numerous taxonomic problems, the number of species and even genera cannot be claimed precise. The following new transfers are proposed: Delarthrum pumilum (Attems, 1944), comb. n. ex Dasypharkis Attems, 1936; Stemmiulus crassipes (Carl, 1941), S. insolitus (Carl, 1941), S. mulierosus (Carl, 1937), S. plumipes (Carl, 1941) and S. vagans (Carl, 1941), all comb. n. ex Diopsiulus Silvestri, 1897; Cryptocorypha riparia (Carl, 1932), comb. n. ex Archandrodesmus Carl, 1932. A new record of Stenobolus insularis Carl, 1918 is given from India.

 

References

  1. Achar, K.P. (1983a) The use of C-banding technique in the chromosome studies of a millipede species—Spirostreptus asthenes. Current Science, 52 (11), 540–543. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Achar, K.P. (1983b) Karyological studies in nine species of Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda). Nucleus, 26 (3), 191–197.

    Achar, K.P. (1984a) Chromosome studies in Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda) I: A note on the occurrence of polyploidy in Polydesmus gracilis. Current Science, 53 (14), 764–767. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Achar, K.P. (1984b) Analysis of male meiosis in five species of Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda). Caryologia, 37 (4), 373–386.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.1984.10797715

    Achar, K.P. (1985) Chromosome studies in Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda) II: A note on the occurrence of translocation in Aulacobolus excellens. Current Science, 54 (20), 1057–1060. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Achar, K.P. (1986) Analysis of male meiosis in seven species of Indian pill-millipedes (Diplopoda: Myriapoda). Caryologia, 39 (1), 89–101. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.1986.10797770]

    Achar, K.P. (1987) Chromosomal evolution in Diplopoda (Myriapoda: Arthropoda). Caryologia, 40 (1–2), 145–155. Avaliable from: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tcar20#.Vnab_E8sBaA]

    Achar, K.P. & Chowdaiah, B.N. (1979) The use of air drying in the study of diplopod chromosomes. In: Camatini, M. (Ed.), Myriapod Biology. Academic Press, London, New York etc., pp. 21–23.

    Achar, K.P. & Chowdaiah, B.N. (1980) The use of C-banding technique in the chromosome studies of a millipede Carlogonus acifer. Caryologia, 33 (2), 185–191.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.1980.10796830

    Alagesan, P. & Ganga, G. (1989) Millipedes as potential pests of tuber crops. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 27, 177–179.

    Alagesan, P. & Muthukrishnan, J. (2003) Effect of temperature on yolk utilisation and rate of development in Xenobolus carnifex (Fabricius) (Diplopoda: Spirobolida). African Invertebrates, 44 (1), 313–323.

    Alagesan, P. & Muthukrishnan, J. (2005a) Ecological energetics of the millipede, Xenobolus carnifex (Fabricius). Acta Arachnologica, 54 (1), 5–12.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2476/asjaa.54.5

    Alagesan, P. & Muthukrishnan, J. (2005b) Bioenergetics of the household millipede pest, Xenobolus carnifex (Fabricius, 1775) (Diplopoda: Spirobolida). Peckiana, 4, 3–14. Avaliable from: http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/publikationen/peckania/volume_2005/01_alagesan.pdf (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Alagesan, P. & Muthukrishnan, J. (2009) Population dynamics of the millipede, Xenobolus carnifex (Diplopoda: Spirobolida), in a unique habitat. In: Roble, S.M. & Mitchel, J.C. (Eds.), A lifetime of contributions to myriapodology and the natural history of Virginia: A festschrift in honor of Richard L. Hoffman’s 80th birthday. Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication, 16, pp. 237–243.

    Alagesan, P. & Ramanathan, B. (2013) Diversity of millipedes in Alagar Hills Reserve Forest in Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013 (ID 715460), 1–5.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/715460

    Alagesan, P. & Vanithapriya, S. (1992) Preliminary study on the biodigestion of millipede waste for biogas production. Bio Education, 9 (4), 299–300.

    Alagesan, P., Ashokkumar, B., Muthukrishnan, J. & Gunasekaran, P. (2003) Isolation and characterization of gut bacteria of the millipede, Xenobolus carnifex (Fabricius). Indian Journal of Microbiology, 43 (2), 111–113.

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2013a) Production and quality of pill-millipede manure: A microcosm study. Agricultural Research, 3(2), 258-264.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40003-013-0075-5

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2013b) Observations on pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats (India). Journal of Agricultural Technology, 9 (1), 61–79.

    http://www.ijat

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2014a) Cytological and karyological observations on two endemic giant pill-millipedes Arthrosphaera (Pocock 1895) (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida) of the Western Ghats of India. Caryologia, 67 (1), 49–56.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2014.891700

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2014b) Do the giant pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera: Sphaerotheriida) disseminate arbuscular mycorrhizal spores in the Western Ghats? Symbiosis, 64 (2), 95–99.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13199-014-0306-y

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2014c) Moulting behaviour of the giant-millipedes (Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaera) of the Western Ghats of India: an ex situ study. Lepcey – The Journal of Asian Tropical Entomology, 3 (1), 12–22. Avaliable from: http://www.lepcey.butterfliesandmoths.net/Vol_III_01/Vol_III_01_pdf/Vol_III_01_P_002_Moulting Behaviour of Giant Pill-Millipedes .pdf (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2015a) Microbial dynamics in food, intestine and fecal pellets of two endemic pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera: Sphaerotheriida) of the Western Ghats. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 11 (3), 637–648.

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2015b) Pill-millipedes (Arthrosphaera: Sphaerotheriida) of the Western Ghats: a future source of antioxidants? International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 35 (3), 117–124.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742758415000132

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2016a) Stridulation and courtship behaviour of four endemic pill-millipedes, Arthrosphaera spp. (Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae) of the Western Ghats of India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 69 (1), 104–113.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12595-014-0133-4

    Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2016b) Pattern of distribution of endemic pill-millipedes in the southwestern India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 30 July 2015, 1–8. [published online]

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12595-015-0153-8

    Ambarish, C.N., Kadamannaya, B.S. & Sridhar, K.R. (2013) Chromosome studies on two endemic pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida) from the Western Ghats of India. Nucleus, 56 (3), 205–210.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13237-013-0096-2

    Apurva, P, Sinha, S.K., Thakur, P.C. (2010) Composting an obnoxious weed, Parthenium xysterophorus L., with the help of a millipede, Harpaphe haydeniana. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 1 (2), 337–343.

    Apurva, P., Thakur, P.C. & Sinha, S.K. (2009) Reproductive behavior and hatching in Harpaphe haydeniana (Wood). Bioscan, 4 (1), 117–120.

    Apurva, P., Thakur, P.C. & Sinha, S.K. (2014) Characteristics of organic compost originated from Harpaphe haydeniana (Wood) and Eisenia foetida. International Journal for Exchange of Knowledge, 1 (1), 8–11.

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2002) Towards organic farming with millipede Arthrosphaera magna. Current Science, 82 (1), 20–22. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2005) Leaf litter preference and conversion by a saprophagous tropical pill millipede, Arthrosphaera magna Attems. Pedobiologia, 49 (4), 307–316.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedobi.2005.02.002

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2006a) Breakdown of plantation residues by pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera magna) and assessment of compost quality. Current Science, 90 (7), 954–959. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2006b) Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India. Acta Oecologica, 29, 27–32.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2005.07.005

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2006c) Evaluation of pill millipede (Arthrosphaera magna) compost on plant growth and dry matter yield. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 5 (2), 1323–1329.

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2006d) Feeding response of an endemic pill millipede Arthrosphaera magna Attems to plantation litter. Journal of Plantation Crops, 34 (1), 58–62.

    Ashwini, K.M. & Sridhar, K.R. (2008) Distribution of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and associated soil fauna in the Western Ghats and west coast of India. Pedosphere, 18 (6), 749–757.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(08)60070-3

    Attems, C. (1898) System der Polydesmiden. I. Theil. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Classe, 67, 221–482.

    Attems, C. (1909) Die Myriopoden der Vega-Expedition. Arkiv för Zoologi, 5 (3), 1–84.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.3495

    Attems, C. (1914) Die indo-australischen Myriopoden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 80A, 1–398.

    Attems, C. (1931) Myriopoden von Java, Sumatra und Bali. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 8 (Supplement), 115–192.

    Attems, C. (1932) Myriopoden. Résultats scientifiques du Voyage aux Indes Orientales Néerlandaises de LL. AA. RR. le Prince et la Princesse Léopold de Belgique. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire naturelle de Belgique, Hors série, 3 (12), 1–34.

    Attems, C. (1935) Myriopoden von Sumatra. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, Supplement 14 (1), 114–142.

    Attems, C. (1936) Diplopoda of India. Memoirs of the Indian Museum, 11 (4), 133–323.

    Attems, C. (1938) Die von Dr. C. Dawydoff in Französisch Indochina gesammelten Myriopoden. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, N.S., 6 (2), 187–353.

    Attems, C. (1940) Myriopoda 3. Polydesmoidea III. Fam. Polydesmidae, Vanhoeffeniidae, Cryptodesmidae, Oniscodesmidae, Sphaeriotrichopidae, Peridontodesmidae, Rhachidesmidae, Macellolophidae, Pandirodesmidae. Das Tierreich, 70, i–xxxii + 1–577.

    Attems, C. (1942) Zur Kenntnis der indischen Harpagophoridae. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 52, 66–105. [for 1941]

    Attems, C. (1944a) Neue Sphaerotheriden der Wiener Museums. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 53 (2), 60–75. [for 1942]

    Attems, C. (1944b) Neue Polydesmoidea. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 144 (11/12), 223–251.

    Attems, C. (1950) Über Spirostreptiden. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 57, 179– 257.

    Attems, C. (1951) Revision systématique des Colobognatha (myriapodes diplopodes) et description d’espèces nouvelles. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, N.S., Série A, Zoologie, 3 (3), 193–231.

    Attems, C. (1953) Myriopoden von Indochina. Expedition von Dr. C. Dawydoff (1938–1939). Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, N.S., Série A, Zoologie, 5 (3), 133–230.

    Bai, M.M. (1997a) Note on the millipede, Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus a biodegradator in South Arcot District, Tamilnadu. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 96 (1–4), 245–246.

    Bai, M.M. (1997b) Diplopoda. Fauna of Delhi. Zoological Survey of India. State Fauna Series, 6, 461–466.

    Bai, M.M. (2001) Millipede (Diplopoda). Fauna of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Zoological Survey of India. Fauna of Conservation Areas Series, 10, 45–53.

    Bai, M.M. & Indra, T.J. (1997) Report on the millipede fauna of South Arcot District, Tamilnadu. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 96 (1–4), 229–235.

    Balikai, R.A. & Kulkarni, K.A. (1998) Soybean and groundnut varietal reaction to Streptogonopus jerdani (Strongylosomatidae: Diplopoda) and its management. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 9, 5–10.

    Bandyopadhyay, U.K. (2007) Role of millipede, Streptogonopus phipsoni in mulberry garden. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 15 (2), 493–494.

    Bandyopadhyay, S. & Mukhopadhyaya, M.C. (1988) Distribution of 2 species of polydesmid millipedes Orthomorpha coarctata and Streptogonopus phipsoni in the grasslands and Taylor’s power law. Pedobiologia, 32, 7–10.

    Bandyopadhyay, S., Maity, C.R. & Mukhopadhyaya, M.C. (1987) Changes in the content of some biochemical components during post-embryonic development of Streptogonopus phipsoni (Pocock) (Polydesmida, Partinidae), a grassland millipede of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Physiology and Allied Sciences, 41 (2), 63–67.

    Banerjee, B. (1973) The breeding biology of Polydesmus angustus Latzel. Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift, 20, 291–294.

    Banerjee, B. (1974) Population dynamics of Trigoniulus lumbricinus (Gerst) (Diplopoda: Trigoniulidae). Research in Population Ecology, 16, 132–137.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02514085

    Bano, K. (1983) Millipedes and centipedes. In: Veeresh, G.K. & Rajagopal, D. (Eds.), Applied soil biology and ecology. Sharada Publishers, Bangalore, Gangenahalli, pp. 165–182,

    Bano, K. (1985) Sex and size specific haematology and haemochemistry of the millipede, Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 19 (3), 183–185.

    Bano, K. (1990) Functional role of the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus Verhoeff as a component of an ecosystem. Abstracts, 8th International Congress of Myriapodology. Veröffentlichungen der Universität Innsbruck, 177, 2.

    Bano, K. (1992) The role of the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus Verhoeff in an ecosystem (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck, 10 (Supplement), 327–331.

    Bano, K. (1993) Feeding rates and nutrient assimilation in the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus (family Paradoxosomatidae). Abstracts, 9th International Congress of Myriapodology, 26–31 July 1993, Paris, 8.

    Bano, K. (1996a) Records of paradoxosomatid millipedes of India. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 169, 73–77.

    Bano, K. (1996b) Feeding rates and nutrient assimilation in the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus (Diplopoda, Paradoxosomatidae). Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 169, 561–564.

    Bano, K. (1997) Check list of paradoxosomatid millipedes of India. Abstracts, Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P) Workshop for Biodiversity Conservation Prioritization Project (B.C.P.P.) for Selected Soil Invertebrates of Southern India. Zoological Survey of India, Chennai, 12.

    Bano, K. (1998a) Distinguishing characteristics and systematic positions of the known Indian paradoxosomatid millipedes. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Calcutta, 51 (1), 86–91.

    Bano, K. (1998b) Taxonomic review of the family Harpagophoridae (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida): characteristics of the Indian genera and a check-list of Indian species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Calcutta, 51 (2), 183–187.

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1977) Changes in the composition of soils due to defaecation by the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus (Verhoeff). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 11, 561–566.

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1978a) The role of the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus (Verhoeff) in soil humification. In: Edwards, C.A. & Veeresh, G.K. (Eds.), Soil Biology and Ecology in India, UAS Technical Series, 22 (22), 106–110. [University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore]

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1978b) Defensive secretions from the repugnatorial glands of a polydesmoid millipede. Current Science, 47 (11), 387–389. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1979) Circadian rhythms in the sociability and locomotor activities of the millipede, Jonespeltis splendidus Verhoeff. Behavioral and Neural Biology, 25, 573–582.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-1047(79)90377-7

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1981a) Consummatory responses of the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus (Verhoeff) in relation to soil organic matter. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Animal Sciences, 90 (6), 631–640.

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1981b) Relative rates of litter decomposition and humification of various soils by the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus. UAS Technical Series, University of Agricultural Sciences, 37, 87–92. [Hebbal, Bangalore]

    Bano, K. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1985) Reproductive strategy and life history of Jonespeltis splendidus (Verhoeff) (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) with environmental synchronization. Journal of Soil Biology and Ecology, 5 (1), 48–57.

    Bano, K. & Murthy, J.B. (1996a) Distribution of the diplopods of the families Harpagophoridae and Paradoxosomatidae in Karnataka State of South India. Abstracts, 10th International Congress of Myriapodology, 29 July–2 August 1996, Copenhagen (Denmark), 6.

    Bano, K. & Murthy, J.B. (1996b) Humic fractions from the excreta of two harpagophorid millipedes. Abstracts, 10th International Congress of Myriapodology, 29 July–2 August 1996, Copenhagen (Denmark), 8.

    Bano, K. & Murthy, J.B. (1997) Gonopods of some South Indian paradoxosomatid millipedes (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Entomologica scandinavica, Supplement 51, 155–162.

    Bano, K., Bagyaraj, D.J. & Krishnamoorthy, R.V. (1976) Feeding activity of the millipede, Jonespeltis splendidus Verhoeff and soil humification. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, B, 83 (1), 1–11.

    Barber, A.D. (2015) The "Ikea Millipede", Xenobolus carnifex (Diplopoda, Spirobolida, Pachybolidae) found in Dublin. Bulletin of the British Myriapod & Isopod group, 28, 52–53.

    Basil-Rose, S.M.R., Ravindranath, M.H. & Mercy, S.P.D. (2014) Physico-chemical characterization of a natural agglutinin from the hemolymph of a millipede Thyropygus descriptus. Invertebrate Survival Journal, 11, 331–336. Avaliable from: https://doaj.org/article/f6990d9471174347b199e9ec7390d5be (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Bellairs, V., Bellairs, R. & Goel, S. (1983) Studies on an Indian polydesmoid millipede Streptogonopus phipsoni. Life cycle and swarming behaviour of the larvae. Journal of Zoology, London, 199, 31–50.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1983.tb06115.x

    Bhakat, S. (1986) Survivorship study of the laboratory population of a grassland millipede Streptogonopus phipsoni (Pocock) (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, B, 52 (5), 625–626.

    Bhakat, S. (1987) Ecology of an Indian grassland millipede Streptogonopus phipsoni (Diplopoda: Polydesmoidea). Journal of Zoology, London, 212, 419–428.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1987.tb02913.x

    Bhakat, S. (1989a) The population ecology of Orthomorpha coarctata (Diplopoda: Polydesmidae). Pedobiologia, 33, 49–59.

    Bhakat, S. (1989b) Ecology of Chondromorpha kelaarti (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Journal of Zoology, 219, 209–219.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1989.tb02577.x

    Bhakat, S. (1996) Seasonal changes of the distribution of an Indian julid millipede Trigoniulus lumbricinus (Diplopoda, Julida, Trigoniulidae). Abstracts, 10th International Congress of Myriapodology, 29 July–2 August 1996, Copenhagen (Denmark), 10.

    Bhakat, S. (2014) Comparative water relations of some tropical millipedes. Kragujevac Journal of Science, 36, 185–194.

    Bhakat, S., Bhakat, A. & Mukhopadhyaya, M.C. (1989) The reproductive biology and post-embryonic development of Streptogonopus phipsoni (Diplopoda: Polydesmoidea). Pedobiologia, 33, 37–47.

    Bhamare, S.N., Nikam, S.V., Jadhav, B.N. & Dama, S.B. (2014) Prevalence and observation of intestine-dwelling gregarines including one new species in the millipede Trigoniulus corallinus collected from Nashik District of Maharashtra, India. International Science Journal, 1 (1), 100–106.

    Bhavani, R. & Umamaheswari, R. (2013) RAPD-PCR analysis of Aulacobolus newtoni in Palani Hills. Indian Journal of Life Sciences, 3 (1), 27–30. Avaliable from: http://www.ijls.in/upload/225756649CHAPTER_5.pdf (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Blower, J.G. (1985) Millipedes. Synopses of the British Fauna, New Series, 35, 1–242.

    Bouvier, E.-L. (1903) Acanthiulus Maindroni, myriapode nouveau de la famille des Spirobolidés. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle, 3, 263–267.

    Brandt, J.F. (1833) Tentaminum quorundam monographicorum Insecta Myriapoda Chilognatha Latreillii spectantium prodromus. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou, 6, 194–209.

    Brandt, J.F. (1839) Note relative à la classification des espèces qui composent le genre Polydesmus, et suivie d’un caractéristique de dix espèces nouvelles, ainsi que de quelques remarques sur la distribution géographique des espèces en général. Bulletin scientifique publié par l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, 5 (20), 307–315.

    Brandt, J.F. (1841a) Generis Juli specierum enumeratio, adjectis plurium, quae hucusque nondum innotuerunt specierum brevibus descriptionibus ad Musei Academiae Scientiarum Pentropolitanae specimina factis. Bulletin scientifique publié par l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, 8, 97–128.

    Brandt, J.F. (1841b) Remarques supplémentaires au mémoire: Generis Juli specierum enumeratio, accompagnée de descriptions de trois espèces nouvelles. Bulletin scientifique publié par l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg, 8, 365–370.

    Brandt, J.F. (1841c) Recueil de mémoires relatifs à l’ordre des Insectes Myriapodes. et lus à l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, St.-Pétersbourg & Leipsik, 189 pp.

    Brölemann, H.-W. (1903) Le genre Acanthiulus (Myriapodes). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 72, 469–477.

    Brölemann, H.-W. (1913) The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii—Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum, 10 (6), 77–158.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.3853/j.0067-1975.10.1913.899

    Butler, A.G. (1872) Descriptions of new Myriopoda of the family Glomeridae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser. 4, 10, 354–359.

    Butler, A.G. (1873) A monographic revision of the genera Zephronia and Sphaerotherium, with descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1873, 172–182.

    Butler, A.G. (1874) Descriptions of four new species of Glomeridae from Sikkim. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 14, 185–187.

    Butler, A.G. (1878) Descriptions of several new species of Myriapoda of the genera Sphaerotherium and Zephronia. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1878 (4), 299–302.

    Butler, A.G. (1882) Descriptions of new species of Myriopoda of the genus Zephronia from India and Sumatra. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 4, 14, 196–197.

    Carl, J. (1909) Neue Diplopoden. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 17, 249–271.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.75198

    Carl, J. (1918) Miscellanées diplopodologiques. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 26 (13), 417–468.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.82529

    Carl, J. (1919) Revision de quelques spirobolides du Muséum de Genève. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 27 (12), 377–404.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.36330

    Carl, J. (1932) Diplopoden aus Süd-Indien und Ceylon. 1. Teil. Polydesmoidea. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 39 (17), 411–529.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.118948

    Carl, J. (1935) Polydesmiden gesammelt von Major R.W. Hingston auf der III. Everest-Expedition, 1924. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 42 (10), 325–340.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.118945

    Carl, J. (1937) Diplopoden-Studien. IV. Neues über Stemmiuloidea. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 117 (9/10), 241–249.

    Carl, J. (1940) Un “cercle de races” en miniature chez les diplopodes de l’Inde méridionale. Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles, Genève, 22, 227–233.

    Carl, J. (1941a) Orientalische Polydesmoiden. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 48 (6), 359–376.

    Carl, J. (1941b) Diplopoden aus Südindien und Ceylon. 2. Teil: Nematophora und Juliformia. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 48 (22), 569–714.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.154483

    Carl, J. (1941c) La différenciation sexuelle des Glomeridesmidae. Une mise au point. Compte rendu des séances de la Société de physique et d’histoire naturelle de Genève, 58, 250–254.

    Carl, J. (1942) Contribution à la connaissance des Limacomorpha. Essai de morphologie comparée. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 49, 133–167.

    Chamberlin, R.V. (1920) On some new myriopods collected in India in 1916 by C. A. Kofoid. University of California Publications in Zoology, 19 (12), 389–402.

    Chamberlin, R.V. (1921) New Chilopoda and Diplopoda from the East Indian region. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Serie 9, 7, 50–87.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.154483

    Chamberlin, R.V. & Wang, Y.W. (1953) Records of millipeds (Diplopoda) from Japan and other oriental areas, with descriptions of new genera and species. American Museum Novitates, 1621, 1–13.

    Chen, C.C., Golovatch, S.I., Mikhaljova, E.V. & Chang, H.W. (2010) The millipede genus Anoplodesmus Pocock, 1895, recorded in Taiwan for the first time, with descriptions of two new species (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae: Sulciferini). Zootaxa, 2399, 20–30.

    Chezhian, Y. & Prabakaran, S. (2016) Diversity of millipedes (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) in Yelagiri hills, Eastern Ghats, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Sciences, 3 (2), 91–97.
    http://www.faunajournal.com

    Chinlampianga, M., Singh, R.K. & Shukla, A.C. (2013) Ethnozoological diversity of Northeast India: Empirical learning with traditional knowledge holders of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 12 (1), 18–30.

    Choudhari, C.R., Dumbare, Y.K. & Theurkar, S.V. (2014) Diversity of millipedes along the northern Western Ghats, Rajgurungar (MS), India (Arthropod: Diplopod). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2 (4), 254–257.

    Chowdaiah, B.N. (1966a) Cytological investigations of some Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda). Nature, 210 (5038), 847.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/210847a0

    Chowdaiah, B.N. (1966b) Cytological studies of some Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda). Cytologia, 31, 294–301.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1508/cytologia.31.294

    Chowdaiah, B.N. & Kanaka, R. (1970) Cytological studies of Indian Diplopoda. II. (Myriapoda). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 2, 41 (Supplément 2), 41–45. [for 1969]

    Chowdaiah, B.N. & Kanaka, R. (1974) Cytological studies in six species of pill-millipedes (Diplopoda-Myriapoda). Caryologia, 27 (1), 55–64.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.1974.10796561

    Chowdaiah, B.N. & Kanaka, R. (1979) Chromosome cytology of seven species of Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda). In: Camatini, M. (Ed.), Myriapod Biology. Academic Press, London, NY, etc., pp. 9–20.

    Condé, B. (1959) Diplopoda: Penicillata. South African Animal Life, 6, 12–23.

    Condé, B. (1962) Révision d’un polyxenidé indien décrit par F. A. Turk. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 87 (4), 452–458.

    Condé, B. & Jacquemin, M. (1962) Diplopodes pénicillates de Madagascar et de Mascareignes. Revue française d’Entomologie, 29 (4), 354–286.

    Condé, B. & Jacquemin, M. (1963) Diplopodes pénicillates récoltés à Bombay par P. A. Remy. Revue française d’Entomologie, 30 (1), 68–78.

    Condé, B. & Jacquemin-Nguyen Duy, M. (1968) Diplopodes pénicillates et diploures campodéidés. Khumbu Himal, 3, 4–8.

    Condé, B. & Jacquemin-Nguyen Duy, M. (1987) Le statut de Polyxenus ceylonicus Pocock et de Polyxenus poecilus Chamberlin (Diplopodes pénicillates). Revue d’Écologie et de Biologie du Sol, 24 (1), 99–107.

    Daday, J. (1889) Myriopoda extranea Musæi Nationalis Hungarici. Természetrajazi Füzetek, 12, 115–156.

    Daday, J. (1891) Myriopoda extranea collectionis zoologicae Universitatis Heidelbergensis. Ausländische Myriopoden der zoologischen Collection der Universität zu Heidelberg. Természetrajazi Füzetek, 14, 135–154, 172–193.

    Dash, S. & Priyadarsini, P. 2016. First record of three species of Millipedes (Diplopoda: Paradoxosomatidae) from Gujarat, India. Journal of Biological Records, e0052016: 52–60.

    De, M.L. & Mitra, T.R. (1999) Preliminary observations on three macroinvertebrates in the break down of the leaf litter in a garden near Calcutta. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, 97 (3), 117–121.

    De Zoysa, H.K.S., Nguyen, D.A. & Wickramasinghe, S. (2016) Annotated checklist of millipedes (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) of Sri Lanka. Zootaxa, 4061 (5), 451–482.

    http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4061.5.1

    Decker, P. & Tertilt, T. (2012) First records of two introduced millipedes Anoplodesmus saussurii and Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Diplopoda: Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 5, 141–149.

    Demange, J.M. (1961) Matériaux pour servir à une revision des Harpagophoridae (Myriapodes—Diplopodes). Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série A, Zoologie, 24, 1–274.

    Demange, J.M. (1962) Matériaux pour servir à une revision des Harpagophoridae. II. Sur une collection du Senckenberg-Museum. Senckenbergiana biologica, 43 (5), 369–376.

    Demange, J.M. (1967) Matériaux pour servir à une révision des Harpagophoridae (Myriapodes, Diplopodes, Spirostreptoidea). III. Les types de F. Karsch conservés au Musée de Berlin. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 2, 39 (3), 528–539.

    Demange, J.M. (1969a) Matériaux pour servir à une revision des Harpagophoridae. VI. Les Harpagophoridae décrits par F. Silvestri et conservés à l’Institut Filippo Silvestri (Portici-Italie). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia agraria «Filippo Silvestri» di Portici, 27, 255–286.

    Demange, J.M. (1969b) Matériaux pour servir à une révision des Harpagophoridae. V.—Collection d’indéterminés du Muséum de Hambourg. Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg, 4 (67), 49–65.

    Demange, J.M. (1970) Matériaux pour servir à une revision des Harpagophoridae. V.—Collection du Muséum de Hambourg: Deutsche Indien-Expedition—1955–1957. Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg, 4 (68), 79–82.

    Demange, J.M. (1975) Matériaux pour servir à une revision des Harpagophoridae. VII. Caractérisation nouvelle du genre Phyllogonostreptus Carl, 1918, description d’une nouvelle espèce indienne du genre et étude morphologique complémentaire du type de Thyropygus (?) negotiosus Carl, 1942. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 82 (1), 157–162.

    Demange, J.-M. (1977a) Harpagophoridae (Myriapodes, Diplopodes) de l’Inde nouveaux ou peu connus. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 3, Zoologie, 231, 231–235.

    Demange, J.-M. (1977b) Descriptions de trois nouvelles espèces de Spirostreptoidea (Myriapodes, Diplopodes) de l’Inde, dont une appartenant à un genre typiquement africain. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 3, Zoologie, 231, 237–242.

    Demange, J.-M. (1981) Spirostreptida, Harpagophoridae (Myriapoda—Diplopoda) de Sri Lanka. Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 11, 63–80.

    Demange, J.-M. (1983) Données nouvelles sur la famille des Harpagophoridae (Myriapoda, Diplopoda). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 4, Section A, 5 (2), 561–584.

    Demange, J.-M. (1986) Harpagophoridae du Thaïlande et de Malaisie (Myriapoda, Diplopoda, Spirostreptida). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 4, Section A, 8 (4), 851–865.

    Demange, J.-M. (1988) Myriapodes diplopodes de l’expédition zoologique du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Bâle au royaume du Bhoutan (Spirostreptoidea : Harpagophoridae et Polydesmoidea). Entomologica Basiliensia, 12, 7–14.

    Demange, J.-M. (1989) Sur quelques Harpagophoridae du Sud-Est asiatique et de l’Inde (Myriapoda, Diplopoda, Spirostreptoidea). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Série 4, Section A, 11 (4), 773–781.

    Deshmukh, S.V. & Deshmukh, C.K. (2011) Histological studies on the alimentary canal of the millipede, Anoplodesmus tanjoricus (Pocock) (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Bioscan, 6 (4), 579–583. Avaliable from: http://www.thebioscan.in (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Devi, D.S. & Prabhoo, N.R. (1990) Studies [on] food and feeding habits, food preference and feeding mechanism in the millipede Jonespeltis splendidus Verhoeff in captivity. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 10 (1), 48–56.

    Dey, P. & Prasad, M. (1985) Biology of a jute field inhabiting millipede, Streptogonopus phipsoni (Pocock) (Paradoxosomatidae: Polydesmida: Diplopoda). Journal of Bengal Natural History Society, New Series, 4 (2), 111–126.

    Dwarakanath, S.K. (1971) The influence of body size and temperature upon oxygen consumption in the millipede, Spirostreptus asthenes (Pocock). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 38A, 351–358.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(71)90061-2

    Dwarakanath, S.K. & Job, S.V. (1965a) Studies on transpiration in millipedes. I. Spirostreptus asthenes Poc., from a tropical jungle near Madurai. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, B, 61 (3), 142–146.

    Dwarakanath, S.K. & Job, S.V. (1965b) Studies on transpiration in millipedes. II. Respiration and water loss in Spirostreptus asthenes. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, B, 62 (5), 224–228.

    Dwarakanath, S.K. & Job, S.V. (1974) The effect of aqueous submersion on respiration in the millipede Spirostreptus asthenes. Monitore Zoologico Italiano, 8 (1–2), 11–18.

    Dwarakanath, S.K., Berlin, O.G.W. & Thilagar, A.K.R. (1971) Effect of repignatorial gland secretion on the oxygen consumption in the millipede, Polydesmus. Current Science, 40 (16), 437. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Dwarakanath, S.K., Berlin, O.G.W. & Pandian, R.S. (1972) Respiratory metabolism in Polydesmus gracilis (Diplopoda) as a function of temperature and sex. Current Science, 41 (5), 184–185. Avaliable from: http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/volumes.php (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Dwarakanath, S.K., Berlin, O.G.W. & Pandian, R.S. (1973) Oxygen consumption as a function of size and temperature in the pill millipede Arthrosphaera disticta. Monitore Zoologico Italiano, 7 (1–2), 43–50.

    Enghoff, H. (1977) Arthrosphaera cf. brandti (Humbert), a giant pill-millipede found in Tanzania, probably introduced from Sri Lanka (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriidae). Revue de Zoologie africaine, 91 (4), 997–999.

    Enghoff, H. (1987) Revision of Nepalmatoiulus Mauriès, 1983—a Southeast Asiatic genus of millipedes (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae). Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg, 93, 241–331.

    Enghoff, H. (1993) Cape Verdean millipedes (Diplopoda). Tropical Zoology, 6, 207–216. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03946975.1993.10539220]

    Enghoff, H., Golovatch, S.I. & Nguyen, D.A. (2004) A review of the millipede fauna of Vietnam (Diplopoda). Arthropoda Selecta, 13 (1–2), 29–43.

    Fabricius, I.C. (1775) Systema entomologiae etc. Officina Libraria Kortii, Flensburgi & Lipsiae, 832 pp.

    Fabricius, J.C. (1781) Species Insectorum etc. Vol. 1. Carol Ernest Bohhn, Hamburgi & Kilonii, viii + 552 pp.

    Fabricius, J.C. (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta etc. Hafniae, 2, i–viii + 519 p.

    Gervais, P. (1837) Études pour servir à l’histoire naturelle des Myriapodes. Annales des Sciences naturelles, Série 2 (Zoologie), 7, 1–26.

    Gervais, P. (1847) Myriapodes. In: Walckenaer, C.A. & Gervais, P. (Eds.), Histoire naturelle des Insectes, Aptères, 4, pp. 1–623. [Roret, Paris]

    Golovatch, S.I. (1983a) [Millipedes (Diplopoda) of the fauna of Vietnam]. In: Sokolov, V.E. (Ed.), Fauna and animal ecology of Vietnam. Nauka Publication, Moscow, pp. 178–186. [in Russian]

    Golovatch, S.I. (1983b) On several new Glomeridae (Diplopoda) from Indochina. Annales historico-naturales Musei nationalis hungarici, 75, 107–116.

    Golovatch, S.I. (1983c) Two Paradoxosomatidae from the Kashmir Himalayas (Diplopoda). Senckenbergiana biologica, 63 (3/4), 297–302. [for 1982]

    Golovatch, S.I. (1984) Some new or less known Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) from India. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 30 (3/4), 327–352.

    Golovatch, S.I. (1987) Diplopoda from the Nepal Himalayas. Glomeridae, additional Opisotretidae. Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg, 93, 219–228.

    Golovatch, S.I. (1988a) On three remarkable genera of Polydesmoidea (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) from the Himalayas of India. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 49, 41–47.

    Golovatch, S.I. (1988b) On the first Polydesmidae, Opisotretidae and Fuhrmannodesmidae from Bhutan (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Entomologica Basiliensia, 12, 15–48.

    Golovatch, S.I. (1990) Diplopoda from the Nepal Himalayas. The first Paradoxosomatidae (Polydesmida). Spixiana, 13 (1), 9–24.

    Golovatch, S.I. (1991) On a small collection of millipedes (Diplopoda) from northern Pakistan and its zoogeographic significance. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 98 (4), 865–878.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.79815

    Golovatch, S.I. (1993) On several new or poorly-known Oriental Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda Polydesmida). Arthropoda Selecta, 2 (1), 3–14.

    Golovatch, S.I. (2000) On several new or poorly-known Oriental Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), VII. Arthropoda Selecta, 8 (4), 215–220. [for 1999]

    Golovatch, S.I. (2009a) On several new or poorly-known Oriental Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), VIII. Arthropoda Selecta, 18 (1–2), 1–7.

    Golovatch, S.I. (2009b) On several new or poorly-known Oriental Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), IX. Arthropoda Selecta, 18 (3–4), 119–124.

    Golovatch, S.I. (2014) On several new or poorly-known Oriental Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), XVI. Arthropoda Selecta, 23 (3), 227–251.

    Golovatch, S.I. (2015) On several new or poorly-known Oriental Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida), XVII. Arthropoda Selecta, 24 (2), 127–168.

    Golovatch, S.I. & Korsós, Z. (1990) Contributions to the millipede fauna of Vietnam (Diplopoda) III. Spirobolida. Acta Zoologica Hungarica, 36 (1–2), 25–36.

    Golovatch, S.I. & Martens, J. (1996) On the distribution and faunogenesis of Himalayan millipedes (Diplopoda): Preliminary results. Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 169, 163–174.

    Golovatch, S.I. & VandenSpiegel, D. (2014) Koponenius gen. nov., a new genus of the millipede family Haplodesmidae from the Himalayas of India and Nepal (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Zootaxa, 3894 (1), 141–151.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3894.1.11

    Golovatch, S.I. & VandenSpiegel, D. (2015) The millipede genus Koponenius Golovatch & VandenSpiegel, 2014 found in Myanmar (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Haplodesmidae). Tropical Natural History, 15 (1), 81–86. Avaliable from: http://www.biology.sc.chula.ac.th/TNH/archives/v15_no1/6Golovatch ready for print 81-86.pdf (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Golovatch, S.I., Geoffroy, J.-J. & Mauriès, J.-P. (2006) Review of the millipede genus Hyleoglomeris Verhoeff, 1910 (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae), with descriptions of new species from caves in Southeast Asia. Zoosystema, 28 (4), 887–915.

    Golovatch, S.I., Geoffroy, J.-J. & VandenSpiegel, D. (2013) A new species of the millipede genus Cryptocorypha Attems, 1907, from Vanuatu, Melanesia, southwestern Pacific (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Pyrgodesmidae). Arthropoda Selecta, 22 (4), 333–337.

    Golovatch, S.I., Geoffroy, J.-J. & VandenSpiegel, D. (2014) Review of the millipede family Trichopolydesmidae in the Oriental realm (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), with descriptions of new genera and species. ZooKeys, 414, 19–65.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.414.7671

    Golovatch, S.I., Liu, W.-X. & Geoffroy, J.-J. (2012) Review of the millipede genus Hyleoglomeris Verhoeff, 1910 in China, with descriptions of new species (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae). Zootaxa, 3358, 1–27.

    Golovatch, S.I., Geoffroy, J.-J., Mauriès, J.-P. & VandenSpiegel, D. (2009) Review of the millipede genus Plusioglyphiulus Silvestri, 1923, with descriptions of new species from Southeast Asia (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Cambalopsidae). Zoosystema, 31 (1), 71–116.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5252/z2009n1a5

    Golovatch, S.I., Geoffroy, J.-J., Mauriès, J.-P. & VandenSpiegel, D. (2010) Two new species of the millipede genus Trichopeltis Pocock, 1894 (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Cryptodesmidae) from Vietnam and China. Arthropoda Selecta, 19 (2), 63–72.

    Golovatch, S.I., Semenyuk, I.I., VandenSpiegel, D. & Anichkin, A.E. (2011) Three new species of the millipede family Pyrgodesmidae from Nam Cat Tien National Park, southern Vietnam (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Arthropoda Selecta, 20 (1), 1–9.

    Govindan, R., Devaiah, N.C. & Thippeswamy, C. (1981) The reproductive pattern of the millipede Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus (Newport) (Spirostreptida: Harpagophoridae). Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15, 274–276.

    Gowri, N. (1986) Cordiac activity in a millipede Cingalobolus bugnioni Carl during aestivation and active life. Indian Zoologist, 10 (1–2), 19–20.

    Gowri, N. (1987) Cardiac activity in a millipede Cingalobolus bugnioni Carl during aestivation and active life. Abstracts, 7th International Congress of Myriapodology, 19–24 July 1987, VittorioVeneto, 16.

    Gowri, N. & Sethuramakrishnan, S. (1981) Control of activities by the cerebral gland hormones in a pill-millipede arthrosphera lutescens. Indian Zoologist, 5 (1–2), 113–118.

    Gravely, F.H. (1915) Notes on the habits of Indian insects, myriapods and arachnids. Records of the Indian Museum, 11, 483–539.

    Guru, A.D., Lahir, Y.K. & Mohite, V.T. (2013a) Amylase activity in the alimentary canal of millipede Harpaphe haydeniana (Wood). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, 16 (1), 215–218.

    Guru, A.D., Lahir, Y.K. & Mohite, V.T. (2013b) Protease activity in the alimentary canal of millipede Harpaphe haydeniana (Wood). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, 16 (2), 653–656.

    Hamer, M.L. (1998) Checklist of southern African millipedes (Myriopoda: Diplopoda). Annals of the Natal Museum, 39, 11–82.

    Harries, D.B., Ware, F.J., Fischer, C.W., Biswas, J. & Kharpran-Daly, D.D. (2008) A review of the biospeleology of Meghalaya, India. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 70 (3), 163–176.

    Hirst, S. (1911) A new termitophilous millipede from Bengal. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8, 8, 256–257.

    Hirst, S. (1913) On a second Indian species of the genus Termitodesmus (T. fletcheri, sp. n.). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 8, 11, 481–482.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1961) Two new diplopod genera from western China (Polydesmida: Strongylosomatidae). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series 13, 3 (33), 533–543.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1962) Studies on spiroboloid millipeds. IV. Systematic and nomenclatorial notes on the family Pachybolidae. Revue suisse de Zoologie, 69 (36), 759–783.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.75592

    Hoffman, R.L. (1963) A contribution to the knowledge of Asiatic strongylosomoid Diplopoda (Polydesmida: Strongylosomatidae). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 13, 5, 577–593.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1970) Studies on spiroboloid millipeds. IX. The status of the Indian genus Leiotelus Chamberlin. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 83 (16), 183–190.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1977a) Studies on spirostreptoid millipeds. XIII. Adiaphorostreptus, a remarkable new genus from India, type of a new family in the Spirostreptoidea. Entomologische Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Hamburg, 5 (96), 137–143.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1977b) Diplopoda. La faune terrestre de l’île de Sainte-Hélène, 4. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Série in-8, Sciences zoologiques, 220, 360–377.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1980) Classification of the Diplopoda. Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Genève, 237 pp. [for 1979]

    Hoffman, R.L. (1982) Studies on spirostreptoid millipeds. XVII. On the identity of some Asiatic species of Harpagophoridae described by E. Tömösváry, 1885, and E. Daday, 1889. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 28 (1–2), 35–44.

    Hoffman, R.L. (1999) Checklist of the millipeds of North and Middle America. Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication, No. 8, 1–581.

    Hoffman, R.L. & Burkhalter, E.A. (1978) Studies on spirostreptoid millipeds. XIV. A new species of Gonoplectus from Thailand, with notes on the status and distribution of the genus (Spirostreptida: Harpagophoridae). Journal of Natural History, 12, 413–422.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222937800770271

    Humbert, A. (1865) Essai sur les Myriapodes de Ceylan. Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d’Histoire naturelle de Genève, 18 (1), 1–62.

    Huynh, C. & Veenstra, A. (2013) Taxonomy and biology of a new species of pincushion millipede of the genus Monographis (Diplopoda: Polyxenidae) from Australia. Zootaxa, 3721 (6), 573–588.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3721.6.4

    Huynh, C. & Veenstra, A. (2015) Description of a new species of penicillate millipede from the genus Monographis (Diplopoda: Polyxenidae) found in Vietnam. Zootaxa, 3964 (4), 460–474.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3964.4.5

    Jacquemin, M. & Condé, B. (1964) Un nouveau type de polyxénidé aveugle vivant au Gabon. Biologia Gabonica, 1 (1), 31–40.

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1981) Stenoductus chondromorphi sp. n. (Sporozoa: Cephalina) from the polydesmoid millipede, Chondromorpha kelaarti (Humbert). Acta Protozoologica, 20 (4), 411–419.

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1982a) Studies on a new cephaline gregarine, Stenoductus trigoniuli n. sp. with a note on its cytopathology. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 125, 249–256.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9365(82)80022-5

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1982b) Observations on Stenoductus organognathi sp. nov. (Cephalina: Monoductidae) from the millipedes, Organognathus janardhanani Demange and Fageostreptus hyatti Demange, collected from Kerala, India. Rivista di Parassitologia, 43 (2), 293–299.

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1983a) On a new septate gregarine, Stenoductus polydesmi sp. n. (Sporozoa: Cephalina) from the millipede, Polydesmus sp., with observations on host-specificity of gregarines infecting the millipedes in Kerala, India. Acta Protozoologica, 22 (1), 87–94.

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1983b)Observations on 2 new species of cephaline gregarines (Protozoa: Sporozoa) of the genus Stenoductus Ramachandran, 1976 from sphaerotherid millipedes in Kerala, India. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 127 (3–4), 405–412.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9365(83)80019-0

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1987a) Observations on the polysaccharides of Stenoductus carlogoni (Cephalina: Monoductidae): a cyto-biochemical analysis. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 133, 145–150.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9365(87)80047-7

    Janardanan, K.P. & Ramachandran, P. (1987b) Stenoductus ktenostrepti n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cephalina) from the millipede, Ktenostreptus calcaratus Demange. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 133, 295–299.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9365(87)80062-3

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1953) Two new Strongylosomidae from Indochina (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Beaufortia, 2 (29), 1–8.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1956) Milliped miscellany—Part III. Beaufortia, 5 (51), 73–99.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1963) Diplopoda of Guiana (1–5). Studies on the fauna of Suriname and other Guyanas, 4, 1–157.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1965) A revision of the Burmese Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda, Polydesmida) in the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale at Genoa (Part 1). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 108 (5), 95–144.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1968) On the classification and geographical distribution of the family Paradoxosomatidae (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Privately published, Rotterdam, 162 pp.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1971) Nomenclator generum et familiarum Diplopodorum: A list of the genus and family-group names in the Class Diplopoda from the 10th edition of Linnaeus, 1758, to the end of 1957. Monografieёn van de Nederlandse Entomologische Veneniging, 5, i–xii, 1–412. [for 1970]

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1972) The “endemic” paradoxosomatids ((Diplopoda, Polydesmida) of the Fiji Islands. Beaufortia, 20 (258), 1–6.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1980a) On some little known Paradoxosomatidae from India and Ceylon, with the description of four new genera (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Beaufortia, 30 (8), 163–178.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1980b) The generic allocation of some little-known Paradoxosomatidae from South-East Asia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Revue suisse de Zoologie, 87 (3), 651–670.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.85538

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (1988) The generic position of Orthomorpha bucharensis Lohmander and O. muminabadensis Gulička and the taxonomic status of Hedinomorpha Verhoeff (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). Bulletin, Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 11 (11), 97–111.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2001a) A bibliographic catalogue of the Asiatic Sphaerotheriida (Diplopoda). Myriapod Memoranda, 3, 4–38.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2001b) A bibliographic catalogue of the Siphonophorida (Diplopoda). Myriapod Memoranda, 3, 44–71.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2001c) A bibliographic catalogue of the Spirobolida of the Oriental and Australian regions (Diplopoda). Myriapod Memoranda, 4, 5–104.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2003a) Paradoxosomatidae from North Pakistan, collected by Cl. Besuchet and I. Löbl in 1983 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida). Myriapod Memoranda, 6, 12–27.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2003b) A bibliographic catalogue of the order Glomeridesmida (Diplopoda). Myriapod Memoranda, 6, 102–109.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2004) A bibliographic catalogue of the “Cambaloidea” (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida). Myriapod Memoranda, 7, 43–109.

    Jeekel, C.A.W. (2006) A bibliographic catalogue of the Oriental Harpagophoridae (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida). Myriapod Memoranda, 9, 5–58.

    Jones, S. (1937) On two new South Indian pselaphognathous diplopods. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 119 (5/6), 138–146.

    Jones, S. (1944) Mechanism of defence in a pselaphognathous diplopod, Unixenus padmanabhii Jones. Proceedings of the 31st Indian Scientific Congress, 3, 118.

    Joshi, P.V. (1969) Some observations on the millipede, Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus (Newport 1844) (Diplopoda, Myriapoda), from Poona. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 66 (3), 637–640. Avaliable from: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/185635 (accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Joshi, P.V. (1970) Certain observations on the salivary glands in Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus (Newport). Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology, 17 (1 & 2), 159–161.

    Joshi, P.V. (1972) Mucopolysaccharides in the secretion of midgut cells in the millipede, Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus (Newport) (Diplopoda, Myriapoda). Journal of the University of Poona, Science Section, 42, 1–7.

    Joshi, P.V. & Vadgama, M.R. (1974) Distribution of mucopolysaccharides in the salivary glands of a millipede Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus (Newport), Diplopoda, Myriapoda. Journal of the University of Poona, Science Section, 46, 1–6.

    Joy, S., Sarkar, K., Pramanik, R. & Joy, V.C. (1998) Digestion of carbohydrate resources in decomposing leaf litter by Anoplodesmus saussurei (Humb.), (Polydesmida: Diplopoda). Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 4 (3), 117–122.

    Kadamannaya, B.S. & Sridhar, K.R. (2009a) Leaf litter ingestion and assimilation by two endemic pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera). Biology and Fertility of Soils, 45, 761–768.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-009-0391-x

    Kadamannaya, B.S. & Sridhar, K.R. (2009b) Diurnal periodicity of three endemic species of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) in Western Ghats, India. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 10 (3), 505–513.

    Kadamannaya, B.S., Sridhar, K.R. & Seena, S. (2009) Seasonal periodicity of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and earthworms of the Western Ghats, India. World Journal of Zoology, 4 (2), 63–69. Avaliable from: http://www.idosi.org/wjz/wjz4(2)2009/1.pdf (Accessed 20 Jun. 2016)

    Kadamannaya, B.S., Sreepada, K.S. & Sridhar, K.R. (2010a) Chromosomal features of the endemic pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera: Sphaerotheriidae, Diplopoda) from Western Ghats, India. Cytologia, 75 (4), 467–475.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1508/cytologia.75.467

    Kadamannaya, B.S., Sridhar, K.R. & Sreepada, K.S. (2010b) Assemblage and distribution of pill millipedes and earthworms in relation to soil edaphic features in the Western Ghats and the west coast of India. Frontiers of Agriculture in China, 4 (2), 243–250.

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11703-010-0006-1

    Kadamannaya, B.S., Ambarish, C.N. & Sridhar, K.R. (2012) Morphological features of three endemic pill-millipedes of the genus Arthrosphaera in the Western Ghats of India. Animal Biology Journal, 3 (4), 181–193.

    Kalla, N.R. (1969) Cytology and cytochemistry of spermatogenesis in two millipedes Phyllogonostreptus nigrolabiatus and Gonoplectus malayus. Cytologia, 34, 80–89.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1508/cytologia.34.80

    Kanaka, R. & Chowdaiah, B.N. (1974) Studies on the male reproductive pattern in some Indian Diplopoda (Myriapoda). Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 32, 361–372.

    Karandikar, K.R. & Rodgi, S.S. (1955) Gregarines from the millipedes of Bombay Karnataka. Journal of the University of Bombay, 24, 11–37.

    Karandikar, K.R. & Rodgi, S.S. (1956) Ciliates and flage