Two new species of Bathyaethiops (Teleostei: Characiformes: Alestidae) are described. Bathyaethiops baka n. sp. is a dwarf species with the largest known specimen being only 24.4 mm SL. The species is characterized by an incomplete squamation and a large humeral spot. Bathyaethiops baka n. sp. is known so far only from the Ngoko River of Southeastern Cameroon, a tributary of the Sangha River in the northern Congo basin. The second species, Bathyaethiops flammeus n. sp., shows a diagnostic spot in front of the dorsal-fin base, which is devoid of melanophores and bright red in life. The species is described from the Bakéré River at Yambula-Bakéré, a locality north-west of Kisangani in the Central Congo basin. Other records of Bathyaethiops flammeus n. sp. from the Tshuapa respectively Ruki River at Boende and Eala, Central Congo basin, suggests a wider geographic distribution. A key to all species of Bathyaethiops is provided.
Arroyave, J. & Stiassny, M.L.J. (2011) Phylogenetic relationships and the temporal context for the diversification of African characins of the family Alestidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes): evidence from DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 60, 385–397.
Brewster, B. (1986) A review of the genus Hydrocynus Cuvier 1819 (Teleostei: Characiformes). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Zoology), 50, 163–206.
Calcagnotto, D., Schaefer, S.A. & DeSalle, R. (2005) Relationships among characiform fishes inferred from analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 36, 135–153.
Conway, K.W. & Moritz, T. (2006) Barboides britzi, a new species of miniature cyprinid from Benin (Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae), with a neotype designation for B. gracilis. Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 17, 73–84.
Dingerkus, G. & Uhler, L.D. (1977) Enzyme clearing of alcian blue stained whole small vertebtrates for demonstration of cartilage. Stain Technology, 52, 229–232.
Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. (2016) Species by family/subfamily in the catalog of fishes. Available from: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/SpeciesByFamily.asp (accessed January 2016)
Fowler, H.W. (1949) Results of the two Carpenter Africa expeditions, 1946–1948. Part II—the fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 101, 233–275.
Géry, J. (1977) Characoids of the World. TFH Publications, Neptune City, 672 pp.
Géry, J. (1995) Description of new or poorly known Alestinae (Teleostei: Characiformes: Alestidae) from Africa, with a note on the generic concept in the Alestinae. aqua, 1, 37–63.
Géry, J. (1996) On a small collection of characiform fishes from the middle Sangha River, Zaire basin, with the description of a new Phenacogrammus (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Alestidae). aqua, 2, 4–11.
Hubert, N., Bonillo, C. & Paugy, D. (2005a) Early divergence among the Alestidae (Teleostei, Ostariophyses, Characiformes): mitochondrial evidence and congruence with morphological data. Animal biology and pathology, 328, 477–491.
Hubert, N., Bonillo, C. & Paugy, D. (2005b) Does elision account for molecular saturation: case study based on mitochondrial ribosomal DNA among characiform fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 35, 300–308.
Mamonekene, V. & Stiassny, M.L.J. (2012) A new Bathyaethiops (Characiformes: Alestidae) from the Lékoumou River (Kouilou-Niari Basin) in the Repbulic of Congo; first record of the genus in the Lower Guinean ichthyofaunal province. Copeia, 2012, 478–483.
Paugy, D. (1984) Characidae. In: Daget, J., Gosse, J.P. & Thys van den Audenaerde, D.E.F. (Eds.), Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa. ORSTOM, Paris, pp. 140–183.
Paugy, D. (1990) Note à propos des Petersiini (Teleostei: Characidae) f’Afrique occidentale. Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 1, 75–84.
Poll, M. (1967) Revision des characidae nains Africains. Annals de Musee Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, sér. 8, Sciences Zoologiques, 162, 1–158.
Roberts, T. (1969) Osteology and relationships of characoid fishes, particularly the genera Hepsetus, Salminus, Hoplias, Ctenolucius, and Acestrorhynchus. Proccedings of the California Academy of Sciences, fourth series, 36, 391–500.
Schaefer, S.A. (2007) Petersiini. In: Stiassny, M.L.J., Teugels, G.G., & Hopkins, C.D. (Eds.), The fresh and brackish water fishes of Lower Guinea, West Central Africa. IRD, Paris, pp. 380–411.
Stiassny, M.L.J. & Schaefer, S.A. (2005) Rhabdalestes aeratis, new species (Characiformes: Alestidae): first occurence of the genus from the Middle Congo River basin. Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters, 16, 271–278.
Taylor, W.R. & van Dyke, G.C. (1985) Revised procedures for staining and clearing small fishes and other vertebrates for bone and cartilage study. Cybium, 9, 107–119.
Vari, R.P. (1979) Anatomy, relationships and classification of the families Citharinidae and Distichodontidae (Pisces, Characoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Zoology), 36, 261–344.
Weitzman, S.H. & Vari, R.P. (1988) Miniaturization in South American freshwater fishes; an overview and discussion. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 101, 444–465.
Zanata, A.M. & Vari, R.P. (2005) The family Alestidae (Ostariophysi, Characiformes): a phylogenetic perspective. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 145, 1–144.