Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Monograph
Published: 2016-05-27

Revision of Ephydrini Zetterstedt (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the Americas south of the United States

Department of Entomology, NHB 169, PO Box 37012, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20013-7012, United States.
Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Jardim das Américas, 81531-980 - Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
Diptera Ephydridae Ephydrini neotropics new species taxonomy

Abstract

The Neotropical genera and species of the tribe Ephydrini are revised and include nine genera and 33 species. Of the nine genera, Setacera Cresson, Cirrula Cresson, Dimecoenia Cresson, Paracoenia Cresson and Ephydra Fallén are mostly temperate in distribution, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. The other four genera, which are exclusively Neotropical, include two, Austrocoenia and Notiocoenia, that were treated previously in the tribe Scatellini, and two recently described genera: Paraephydra (type species: Paraephydra freitasi (Oliveira)) and Neoephydra (type species: Neoephydra araucaria Mathis). New species described herein are: Neoephydra neotropica (Chile), N. dasycephala (Argentina and Peru), N. mallonota (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. shewelli (Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile), N. inca (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru), N. penai (Chile) and N. trichina (Argentina and Chile). New synonyms are (cited in their original combinations): Ephydra densepilosa Hendel = E. ciligena Rondani, Dimecoenia grumanni Oliveira = E. ciligena Rondani, D. coltaensis Cresson = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. carrerai Oliveira = D. zurcheri Hendel, D. lopesi = E. ciligena Rondani, D. travassosi Mello and Oliveira = E. prionoptera Thomson. A neotype is designated for E. caesia Wulp, and the following lectotype designations have also been made to better stabilize nomenclature (here cited in their original combination): Ephydra chilensis Macquart, Ephydra densepilosa Hendel, Ephydra pravoneura Hendel, Ephydra prionoptera Thomson, and Dimecoenia zurcheri Hendel. Dimecoenia venteli Oliveira is listed as a species inquirenda, as the type series includes only female specimens that we cannot presently recognize. Although the genera and subgenera are fairly easily distinguished, the included species are frequently difficult to separate, and we have generally relied on characters of the male terminalia to determine a species identity. Illustrations of male terminalia and distribution maps are included for each species and keys to all taxa have been provided.

 

References

  1. Aldrich, J.M. (1905) A catalogue of North American Diptera (or two-winged flies). Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 46 (1444), 1–680.

    Aldrich, J.M. (1912) The biology of some western species of the dipterous genus Ephydra. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 20 (2), 77–99.

    Arnaud, P.H. Jr. (1979) A catalog of the types of Diptera in the collection of the California Academy of Sciences. Myia, 1, 1–505 + i–v.

    Blanchard, E. (1852) Orden IX. Dipteros. In: Gay, C. (Ed.), Historia fisica y politica de Chile, Zoologia, 7, pp. 327–468. [Paris and Santiago]

    Clausen, P.J. (1985) A revision of the Neotropical species of the genus Parydra (Diptera: Ephydridae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 111(3), 361–384.

    Cogan, B.H. (1980) 71. Family Ephydridae. In: Crosskey, R.W. (Ed.), Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 655–669.

    Cogan, B.H. & Wirth, W.W. (1977) Family Ephydridae. In: Delfinado, M.D. & Hardy, D.E. (Eds.), A catalogue of the Diptera of the Oriental Region. Vol. III. Suborder Cyclorrhapha (excluding Division Aschiza). University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, pp. 321–339.

    Coquillett, D.W. (1900) New genera and species of Ephydridae. The Canadian Entomologist, 32 (2), 33–36.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/Ent3233-2

    Coquillett, D.W. (1901) Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos Expedition, 1898–1899. II. Entomological Results (2): Diptera. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 3, 371–379.

    Coquillett, D.W. (1902) New Acalyptratae Diptera from North America. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 10 (4), 177–191.

    Cresson, E.T. Jr. (1915) Descriptions of new genera and species of the dipterous family Ephydridae.—II. Entomological News, 26 (2), 68–72.

    Cresson, E.T, Jr. (1916) Descriptions of new genera and species of the dipterous family Ephydridae.—III. Entomological News, 27 (4), 147–152.

    Cresson, E.T. Jr. (1930) Studies in the dipterous family Ephydridae. Paper III. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 56, 93–131.

    Cresson, E.T. Jr. (1931) Ephydridae. In: Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. 6 (2). British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 85–116.

    Cresson, E.T. Jr. (1934) Descriptions of new genera and species of the dipterous family Ephydridae.—XI. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 60, 199–222.

    Cresson, E.T. Jr. (1935) Descriptions of new genera and species of the dipterous family Ephydridae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 61, 345–372.

    Curran, C.H. (1931) Twelve new Diptera. American Museum Novitates, 492, 1–13.

    Curtis, J. (1832) British Entomology; Being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland: containing coloured Figs. from nature of the most rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found. Vol. 9. E. Ellis and Company, Simpkin and Marshall, J. B. Bailliere, London, 44 pp.

    Dahl, R.G. (1959) Studies on Scandinavian Ephydridae (Diptera Brachycera). Opuscula Entomologica, Supplementum 15, 1–224.

    Edwards, F.W. (1933) Ephydridae (Supplement.). Syrphidae, Conopidae, In, Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile, 6 (3), 117–119. [British Museum (Natural History), London]

    Egger, J. (1862) Dipterologische Beiträge. Fortsetzung der Beschreibungen neuer Dipteren. Verhandlungen der kaiserlich-königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 12, 777–784, 1233–1236.

    Fallén, C.F. (1810) Specimen entomologicum novam Diptera disponendi methodum exhibens. Berlingianis, Lundae [= Lund], 26 pp.

    Fallén, C.F. (1813) Beskrifning öfver några i Sverige funna Vattenflugor (Hydromyzides). Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar series 3, 1813, 240–257.

    Foote, B.A. (1982) Biology and immature stages of Setacera atrovirens a grazer of floating algal mats (Diptera: Ephydridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 84 (4), 828–844.

    Giordani Soika, A.G. (1956) Diagnosi preliminari di nuovi Ephydridae e Canaceidae della Regione etiopica e del Madagascar (Diptera). Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Venezia, 9, 123–130.

    Hardy, D.E. (1952) Additions and corrections to Bryan’s check list of Hawaiian Diptera. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 14 (3), 443-482.

    Hendel, F. (1917) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der acalyptraten Musciden. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1917 (6), 33–47.

    Hendel, F. (1930) Die Ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expedition 1925/26. Diptera. XIX. Ephydridae. Konowia, 9 (2), 127–155.

    Hendel, F. (1931) Kritische und synonymische Bemerkungen über Dipteren. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 81 (1–4), 4–19.

    Hendel, F. (1933) Von Dr. Zürcher in den Jahren 1913–1918 in Paraguay gesammelte acalyptrate Dipteren. Revista de Entomologia, 3 (2), 213–224.

    Hennig, W. (1943) Übersicht über die bisher bekannten Metamorphosestadien der Ephydriden, mit Neubeschreibungen nach dem Material der Deutschen Limnologischen Sundaexpedition. (Diptera: Ephydridae). Arbeiten über morphologische und taxonomische Entomologie aus Berlin-Dahlem, 10 (2–3), 105–138.

    Heyden, C.H.G. von. (1844) Ferne Nachrichten über Insecten der Salinen. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 5 (6), 202–205.

    Hine, J.S. (1904) On Diptera of the family Ephydridae. The Ohio Naturalist, 4 (3), 63–65.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.19903

    Horn, W. & Kahle, I. (1937) Uber entomologische Sammlungen, Entomologen und Entomo‑Museologie. Entomologische Beihefte aus Berlin-Dahlem, 4, 297–536.

    Johannsen, O.A. (1935) Aquatic Diptera. Part II. Orthorrhapha-Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. Memoir, 177, 1–62.

    Jones, B.J. (1906) Catalogue of the Ephydridae, with bibliography and description of new species. University of California Publications in Entomology, 1 (2), 153–198.

    Lizarralde de Grosso, M.S. (1989) Ephydridae de la Republica de Argentina (Insecta – Diptera). Serie Monografica y Didactica No. 3. Faculdad de Ciéncias Naturales y Instituto Miguel Lillo Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, 93 pp.

    Loew, H. (1864) Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria quinta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 8, 47–104.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.18640080105

    Loew, H. (1866) Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria sexta. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, 9 [1865], 127–186.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.18660100103

    Macquart, M.J. [1851] Diptères exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Suite du 4e supplément. Mémoires de la Société royale des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Arts de Lille, 1850, 134–294.

    Mathis, W.N. (1975) A systematic study of Coenia and Paracoenia (Diptera: Ephydridae). Great Basin Naturalist, 35 (1), 65–85.

    Mathis, W.N. (1979a) Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), II: Phylogeny, classification, and zoogeography of Nearctic Lamproscatella Hendel. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 295, 1–41 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. (1979b) Ecuadorian Parascatella (Diptera: Ephydridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 81 (4), 602–610.

    Mathis, W.N. (1979c) Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae) - A new perspective. In: Deonier, D.L. (Ed.), First Symposium on the Systematics and Ecology of Ephydridae (Diptera). North American Benthological Society, Oxford, Ohio, pp. 47–60.

    Mathis, W.N. (1980) Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), III: Revision of some Neotropical genera and species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 303, 1–50 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. (1982a) Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VI: Review of the tribe Dagini. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 345, 1–30 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. (1982b) Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VII: Revision of the genus Setacera Cresson. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 350, 1–57 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. (1986) Studies of Psilopinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), I: A revision of the shore fly genus Placopsidella Kertész. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 430, 1–30 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. (1989) 66. Family Ephydridae. In: Evenhuis, N.L. (Ed.), Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanian Regions. B.P. Bishop Museum special publication 86 and E.J. Brill, Honolulu and Leiden, pp. 639–649.

    Mathis, W.N. (1995) Shore flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) of the Galápagos Islands. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 88 (5), 627–640.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/88.5.627

    Mathis, W.N. (1997) The shore flies of the Belizean Cays (Diptera: Ephydridae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 592, i–vi + 1–77.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.592

    Mathis, W.N. (2008) Two new neotropical genera of the shore-fly tribe Ephydrini Zetterstedt (Diptera: Ephydridae). Zootaxa, 1874, 1–15.

    Mathis, W.N. & Shewell, G.E. (1978) Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), I: Revisions of Parascatella Cresson and the triseta Group of Scatella Robineau‑Desvoidy. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 285, 1–44 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. & Simpson, K.W. (1981) Studies of Ephydrinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), V: The genera Cirrula Cresson and Dimecoenia Cresson in North America. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 329, 1–51 + i–iv.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (1990a) A revision of the Western Palearctic species of Athyroglossa (Diptera: Ephydridae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 116 (1), 103–133.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (1990b) Taxonomic notes on Ephydridae (Diptera). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103 (4), 891–906.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (1995) A world catalog of the shore flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). Memoirs on Entomology, International, 4, i–vi + 1–423.

    Mathis, W.N. & Zatwarnicki, T. (1998) 3.49. Family Ephydridae. In: Papp, L. & Darvas, B. (Eds.), Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with Special Reference to Flies of Economic Importance). Vol. 3. High Brachycera. Science Herald, Budapest, pp. 537–570.

    Mathis, W.N., Rung, A. & Kotrba, M. (2012) A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera: Periscelididae). ZooKeys, 225, 1–83.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.225.3721

    McAlpine, J.F. (1981) Morphology and terminologyÄadults. In: McAlpine, J.F., Peterson, B.V., Shewell, G.E., Teskey, H.J., Vockeroth, J.R. & Wood, D.M. (Eds.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Monograph No. 27. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa. Ontario pp. 9–63.

    Mello, R.P. de & Oliveira, S.J. de (1992) Contribuição para o conhecimento do gênero Dimecoenia Cresson, (1916. V. Sobre uma espécie nova do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Diptera: Ephydridae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 87 (Supplement 1), 137–144.

    Oliveira, S.J. de (1954a) Contribuição para o conhecimento do gênero “Dimecoenia” Cresson, 1916. I. “Dimecoenia lenti” sp. nov. encontrada no Chile (Diptera, Ephydridae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 14 (2), 187–194.

    Oliveira, S.J. de (1954b) Contribuição para o conhecimento do gênero “Dimecoenia” Cresson, (1916. II. Sôbre 3 espécies novas do Brasil (Diptera, Ephydridae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 14 (3), 269–278.

    Oliveira, S.J. de (1954c) Sôbre a presença do gênero “Ephydrella” Tonnoir and Malloch, (1926, na regiao neotrópica, com descrição de uma nova espécie (Diptera: Ephydridae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 14 (3), 291–294.

    Oliveira, S.J. de (1957) Contribuição para o conhecimento do gênero “Dimecoenia” Cresson, (1916. III. Sôbre uma espécie nova do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Diptera, Ephydridae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 17 (3), 305–308.

    Oliveira, S.J. de (1958) Contribuição para o conhecimento do gênero “Dimecoenia” Cresson, 1916. IV. Descrição da larva e do pupário de “Dimecoenia grumanni” Oliveira, 1954 (Diptera, Ephydridae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 18 (2), 167–169.

    Osten Sacken, C.R. (1858) Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 3, i–xx + 1–92.

    Osten Sacken, C.R. (1878) Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 16 (2 [= publication 270]), i–xlviii + 1–276.

    Packard, A.S. Jr. (1869) On insects inhabiting salt water. Proceedings of the Essex Institute, 6 (Communications), 41–51.

    Packard, A.S. Jr. (1871) On insects inhabiting salt water. No. 2. American Journal of Science and Arts, 3rd series, 1 (1–6), 100–110. [whole number 101]
    http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.s3-1.2.100

    Ping, C. (1921) The biology of Ephydra subopaca Loew. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. Memoir, 49, 557–616.

    Rondani, C. (1868) Diptera aliqua in America meridionali lecta a Prof. P. Strobel annis 1866-67 distincta et annotata, novis aliquibus descriptis. Annuario della Società dei Naturalisti in Modena, 3, 24–40.

    Sabrosky, C.W. (1966) Introduction. In: Papavero, N. (Ed.), A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo, pp. I–II.

    Say, T. (1830) Descriptions of North American dipterous insects. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 6 (2), 183–188.

    Simpson, K.W. (1976) The mature larvae and puparia of Ephydra (Halephydra) cinerea Jones and Ephydra (Hydropyrus) hians Say (Diptera: Ephydridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 78 (3), 263–269.

    Steyskal, G.C. (1970) The species of the genus Dimecoenia (Diptera: Ephydridae) in America north of Panama, with the description of a new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63 (2), 462–465.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/63.2.462

    Stuckenberg, B.R. (1999) Antennal evolution in the Brachycera (Diptera), with a reassessment of terminology relating to the flagellum. Studia Dipterologica, 6, 33–48.

    Sturtevant, A.H. & Wheeler, M.R. (1954) Synopses of Nearctic Ephydridae (Diptera). Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 79, 151–257.

    Thompson, F.C. (1974) The genus Pterallastes Loew (Diptera: Syrphidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 82 (1), 15–29.

    Thomson, C.G. (1868) 6. Diptera. species nova descripsit. In: Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps‑Akademien. Kongliga svenska fregaten Eugenies resa omkring jorden [q. v.]. Pt. 2: Zoologie, [Sec.] 1: Insecter. P. A. Norstedt and Söner, Stockholm, pp. 443–614, pl. 9 (= h. 12, no. 2).

    Williston, S.W. (1893) List of Diptera of the Death Valley Expedition. In: Riley, C.V. (Ed.), The Death Valley Expedition. A biological survey of parts of California, Nevada, Arizona and Utah. Part II. 4. Report on a small collection of insects made during the Death Valley Expedition. North American Fauna, 7, 235–268.

    Wirth, W.W. (1956) The Ephydridae (Diptera) of the Bahama Islands. American Museum Novitates, 1817, 1–20.

    Wirth, W.W. (1965) Ephydridae. In: Stone, A., Sabrosky, C.W., Wirth, W.W., Foote, R.H. & Coulson, J.R. (Eds.), A Catalog of the Diptera of America North of Mexico. Handbook 276. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., pp. 734–759.

    Wirth, W.W. (1968) 77. Family Ephydridae. In: Papavero, N. (Ed.), A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo, pp. 1–43.

    Wirth, W.W. (1969) New species and records of Galápagos Diptera. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 36 (20), 571–594.

    Wirth, W.W. (1970) A new genus and species of shore fly (Diptera, Ephydridae) from southern Patagonia. Acta Zoologica Lilloana, 26 (1), 1–8.

    Wirth, W.W. (1971) The brine flies of the genus Ephydra in North America (Diptera: Ephydridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 64 (2), 357–377.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aesa/64.2.357

    Wirth, W.W. (1975) A revision of the brine flies of the genus Ephydra of the Old World (Diptera: Ephydridae). Entomologica Scandinavica, 6 (1), 11–44.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187631275X00325

    Wirth, W.W. & Stone, A. (1956) Chapter 14. Aquatic Diptera. In: Usinger, R.L. (Ed.), Aquatic Insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 372–482.

    Wirth, W.W., Mathis, W.N. & Vockeroth, J.R. (1987) 98. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J.F. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 2. Research Branch Agriculture Canada. Monograph No. 28. Biosystematics Research Institute Ottawa, Ontario, pp. 372–482.

    Wulp, F.M. van der (1883) Amerikaansche Diptera. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 26, 1–60.

    Zatwarnicki, T. (1992) A new classification of Ephydridae based on phylogenetic reconstruction (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha). Genus, 3 (2), 65–119.

    Zatwarnicki, T. (1996) A new reconstruction of the origin of eremoneuran hypopygium and its classification implications (Insecta: Diptera). Genus, 7 (1), 103–175.

    Zetterstedt, J.W. (1837) Conspectus Familiarum, Generum et Specierum Dipterorum. In: Fauna Insectorum Lapponica descriptorum. Isis [Oken's], 1837, 28–67.