Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2016-05-05

Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history traits

Department of Zoology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Curculio-Institute e.V. (CURCI), Weckenstraße 15, 30451 Hannover, Germany
Group Function of Invertebrate and Plant Biodiversity in Agrosystems, Crop Research Institute, Prague 6 – Ruzyně, Czech Republic.
Łosień 4, 23-145 Wysokie, Poland
Julius Kuehn Institute (JKI), Messeweg 11/12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany.
Coleoptera Curculionidae Entiminae Otiorhynchus morphology mature larva key larval development life history Palaearctic Region Central Europe


The mature larvae of 14 Otiorhynchus taxa are described: O. (Otiorhynchus) armadillo (Rossi, 1792), O. (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846, O. (Otiorhynchus) aurifer Boheman, 1843, O. (Pocodalemes) crataegi Germar, 1824, Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) indefinitus Reitter, 1912 (syn. O. dieckmanni Magnano, 1979), O. (Choilisanus) raucus (Fa-bricius, 1777) and 3 taxa of the O. (Otiorhynchus) tenebricosus complex (Herbst, 1784), O. (Otiorhynchus) clavipes (Bonsdorff, 1785), O. (Otiorhynchus) fuscipes (Olivier, 1807) and O. (Otiorhynchus) lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, are described and illustrated for the first time. The larvae of (Otiorhynchus) meridionalis Gyllenhal, 1834, O. (Pendragon) ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758), O. (Zustalestus) rugosostriatus (Goeze, 1777), O. (Metopiorrhynchus) singularis (Linnaeus, 1767), and O. (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius, 1775) are redescribed and illustrated, and new characters are added. Important characters of the mature larvae (e.g. chaetotaxy, shape of head and body) are explained in detail and illustrated. A key to the identification of the mature larvae of 19 Otiorhynchus taxa is provided. Breeding and collecting data of the larvae are given, and the study is completed by a current overview on the life histories of all treated species.


  1. Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A. (2014) Fauna Europaea. Version 2.6.2 from 29.08.2013; Available from:

    Anderson, W.H. (1947) A terminology for the anatomical characters useful in the taxonomy of weevil larvae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 49 (5), 123–132.

    Andison, H. (1942) The occurrence of the clay-coloured weevil, (Brachyrhinus singularis (L)) in British Columbia (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 38, 8–10.

    Audemard, H., Drevet, C., Villevieille, M. & Jacquot, M. (1981) Un nouveau ravageur du fraisier, l’otiorrhynque méridional. Phytoma, 329, 15–17.

    Barrett, R.E. (1930) A study of the immature forms of some Curculionidae (Coleoptera). University of California Publications in Entomology, 5, 89–104.

    Bogs, D. & Braasch, D. (1988) Dickmaulrüßler als Schädlinge der Baumschule und Staudengärtnerei und ihre rationelle Bekämpfung. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzen-schutz in der DDR, 42 (12), 233–236.

    Bues, R., Toubon, J.-F., Villevieille, M., Jacquot, M. (1984) Otiorrhynchus meridionalis Gyll., ravageur du fraisier dans le Sud-Est de la France: migration des adultes, cycle évolutif et essais préliminaires de lutte. La Défense des Végétaux, 228, 224–237.

    Burakowski, B., Mroczkowski, M. & Stefańska, J. (1993) Chrząszcze (Coleoptera) Ryjkowce - Curculionidae, vol. 1. Catalogus Faunae Poloniae, 23, 306 pp.

    Crovetti, A. (1971) Segnalazione di danni causati dallo Otiorrhynchus aurifer Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Otiorhynchinae) agli agrumi in Sardegna. Quaderno n. 5. Associazione Provinciale Laureati in Scienze Agrarie di Sassari, Sassari, 1–5. (source not seen).

    Del Bene, G. & Parrini, C. (1986) Nota sulla biologia di specie di Otiorrhynchus (Coleoptera Curculionidae) dannose a piante ornamentali in vivai della Toscana. Redia, 69, 341–359.

    Dieckmann, L. (1980) Beiträge zur Insektenfauna der DDR: Coleoptera – Curculionidae (Brachycerinae, Otiorhynchinae, Brachyderinae). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 30, 145–310.

    Emden, F.I. van (1952) On the taxonomy of Rhynchophora larvae: Adelognatha and Alophinae (Insecta: Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 122, 651–795.

    Fidler, H. (1936) On the first instar larvae of some species of Otiorrhynchus found on strawberries, with notes on their biology. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 27, 369–376.

    Fowler, V.W. (1963) The identification of Otiorrhynchus larvae from blackcurrant fields with descriptions of the larvae of O. clavipes (Bonsd.) and O. singularis (L.) (Col., Curculionidae). Entomologists Monthly Magazine, 99, 210–212.

    Germann, C. (2013) Erster Nachtrag zur Checkliste der Rüsselkäfer der Schweiz (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft, 86, 151–164.

    Gill, S., Shrewsbury, P. & Reeser, R. (2003) Controlling a major nursery pest Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius). Central Maryland Research and Education Center, University of Maryland Cooperative Extension. Fact Sheet, 805, 1–8.

    Gosik, R. (2010) Morphology of the mature larva and pupa of Rhinusa bipustulata (Rossi, 1792) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with some remarks on its biology. Baltic Journal of Coleopterology, 10 (2), 185–194.

    Gosik, R. & Sprick, P. (2012a) Morphology and identification of the pupae of seven species of the genus Otiorhynchus Germar, 1822 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Otiorhynchini). Zootaxa, 3483, 39–57.

    Gosik, R. & Sprick, P. (2012b) Larval morphology of Otiorhynchus ligustici, O. porcatus and O. salicicola (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Otiorhynchini). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 59 (2), 301–316.

    Gosik, R. & Sprick, P. (2013) Morphology and identification of the pupae of several species of soil-dwelling broad-nosed weevils from Central Europe (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae). Zootaxa, 3731 (4), 445–472; incl. Erratum: Zootaxa, 3745 (2), 299–300.

    Grandi, G. (1913) Gli stati postembrionali di un Coleottero (Otiorrhynchus cribricollis Gyll.) a riproduzione partenogenetica ciclica irregolare. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della R. Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura, 7, 72–90.

    Hanuss, K. (1958) Untersuchungen über den Klee-Luzernerüßler Brachyrhinus (Otiorrhyn-chus) ligustici L. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie, 43, 233–281.

    Heijerman, T. & Drost, M.P.B. (2000) Otiorhynchus aurifer, een Zuid-Europese snuitkever ingeburgerd in Nederland (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomologische Berichten, 60 (5), 84–88.

    Hoffmann, A. (1958) Coléoptères Curculionides (Troisième Partie). Faune de France, 62, 1209–1841.

    Hoffmann, A. (1963) Sous-famille des Brachycerinae. In: Balachowsky, A.S. (Ed.), Entomologie appliquée à l'agriculture, Tome 1. Coléoptères 2. Phytophagoidea (suite et fin) (Chrysomelidae – Curculionidae – Attelabidae – Scolytidae et Platypodidae). Paris, Masson et Cie. (Otiorhynchus 948–952).

    Ibbotson, A. & Edwards, C.A.T. (1954) The biology and control of Otiorrhynchus clavipes Bonsd. (Rhyn. Coleopt.), a pest of strawberries. Annals of applied Biology, 41 (3), 520–535.

    Keifer, H.H. (1932) Some Pacific coast otiorhynchid weevil larvae. Entomologica Americana, 8 (n.s.) (2), 45–85.

    Koch, K. (1992) Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Vol. 3 (Ökologie). Goecke & Evers, Krefeld, 380 pp.

    La Lone, R.S. & Clarke, R.G. (1981) Larval development of Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleo-ptera: Curculionidae) and effects of larval density on larval mortality and injury to Rhododendron. Environmental Entomology, 10, 190–191.

    Landi, S. (1991) Notes on the biology of Otiorhynchus salicicola Heyd. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Redia, 74, 127–134.

    Löbl, I. & Smetana, A. (2013) Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 8. Curculionoidea II. Brill, Leiden, Boston, 700 pp.

    Lockwood, S. & Keifer, H.H. (1930) Preliminary observations on a weevil, Brachyrhinus cribricollis (Gyll.), with comparisons to related forms found in California. Monthly Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, State of California, 19, 16–39.

    Magnano, L. (2001) Designation of lectotypes for species of Cirrorhynchus Apfelbeck, 1898, Dodecastichus Stierlin, 1861, Limatogaster Apfelbeck, 1898, Otiorhynchus Germar, 1822 and Tylotus Schoenherr, 1823, in the Germar and Herbst collections (Coleoptera Curculionidae). Mem. Soc. entomol. ital., 80, 139–158.

    Magnano, L., Heijerman, T. & Germann, C. (2008) On the species status of Otiorhynchus armadillo (Rossi, 1792) and Otiorhynchus salicicola Heyden, 1908 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entimini). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse, 81, 155–163.

    Marvaldi, A.E. (1997) Higher level phylogeny of Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) based mainly on larval characters, with special reference to broad-nosed weevils. Cladistics, 13, 285–312.

    Marvaldi, A.E. (1998a) Larvae of Entiminae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Tribal diagnoses and phylogenetic key, with a proposal about natural groups within Entimini. Entomologica Scandinavica, 29, 89–98.

    Marvaldi, A.E. (1998b) Larvae of South American Rhytirrhininae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The Coleopterists Bulletin 52 (1), 71–89.

    Marvaldi, A.E. (2003) Key to larvae of the South American subfamilies of weevils (Coleo-ptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 76, 603–612.

    Maus, C. (1998) Bemerkenswerte Otiorhynchus-Funde aus Südwestdeutschland (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Mitteilungen aus dem entomologischen Verein Stuttgart, 33 (1), 60–64.

    May, B. (1977) Immature stages of Curculionidae: Larvae of the soil-dwelling weevils of New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 72, 189–228.

    May, B. (1993) Larvae of Curculionidae (Insecta: Coleoptera): a systematic overview. Fauna of New Zealand. Ko te aitanga pepeke o Aotearoa, 28, 225 pp.

    May, B. (1994) An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea, family Curculionidae: Entiminae. In: Zimmerman, E.C. (Ed.), Australian Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Vol, 2. CSIRO, Melbourne, pp. 475–481.

    Moorhouse, E., Charnley, A. & Gillespie, A. (1992) A review of the biology and control of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Annals of Applied Biology, 121, 431–454.

    Palm, C.E. (1935) The Alfalfa Snout Beetle, Brachyrhinus ligustici L. Thesis. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 629, 1–47.

    Rosenstiel, R.G. (1987) Larval taxonomy of some Polydrosinae and Entiminae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, 67, 1–64.

    Scherf, H. (1964) Die Entwicklungsstadien der mitteleuropäischen Curculioniden (Morpholo-gie, Bionomie, Ökologie). Abh. Senckenberg. Naturf. Ges., 506, 1–336, 497 figures.

    Schrameyer, K. & Bernau, W. (2011) Interessante Käferfunde aus Heilbronn. Mitteilungen aus dem entomologischen Verein Stuttgart, 46 (2), 98–100.

    Schütte, A., Stüben, P.E. & Sprick, P. (2013) The Molecular Weevil Identification Project (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), Part I. A contribution to integrative taxonomy and phylogenetic systematics. Snudebiller, 14, No. 211, 77 pp.

    Skuhrovec, J., Gosik, R. & Caldara, R. (2014) Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Tychius (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with an evaluation of their value in a phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus. Zootaxa, 3839 (1), 1–83.

    Skuhrovec, J., Gosik, R., Caldara, R. & Koštál, M. (2015) Immatures of Palaearctic species of the weevil genus Sibinia (Coleoptera, Curculionidae): new descriptions and new bionomic data with suggestions on their potential value in a phylogenetic recon-struction of the genus. Zootaxa, 3955 (2), 151–187.

    Smith, F. (1932) Biology and control of the Black Vine Weevil. Technical Bulletin. United States Department of Agriculture Washington, D. C., 325, 45 pp.

    Smreczyński, S. (1966) Ryjkowce (Curculionidae). Podrodziny: Otiorhynchinae, Brachyderi-nae. Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 19, 130 pp.

    Spessivtseff, P. (1923) Bidrag till kännedomen bruna öronvivelns (Otiorrhynchus ovatus L.) morfologi och biologi. Medelingen från Statens Skogsförsoksanstalt, 20, 241–260.

    Sprick, P. & Gosik, R. (2014) Biology and morphology of the mature larva of Mitoplinthus caliginosus caliginosus (Curculionidae, Molytinae). Snudebiller. Studies on taxonomy, biology and ecology of Curculionoidea, 15, No. 229, 10 pp.; Available from:

    Sprick, P. & Stüben, P.E. (2012) Rüsselkäfer in anthropogenen Lebensräumen. Snudebiller extra (CD Rom), Curculio-Institute, Mönchengladbach. With 1318 coloured photos, 60 maps und 100 plates, 170 pp.; available at: Julius-Kühn-Institut, Institut für Pflanzenschutz in Gartenbau und Forst, Messeweg 11/12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany.

    Stein, W. & Küthe, K. (1969) Ein Beitrag zur Biologie und Ökologie von Otiorrhynchus ovatus L. (Col., Curculionidae). Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 76 (11–12), 625–632.

    Treherne, R.C. (1914) The Strawberry Root Weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus Linn.) in British Columbia with notes on other insects attacking strawberry plants in the Lower Fraser Valley. Dominion of Canada. Dept. of Agriculture. Experimental Farms. Division of Entomology. Entomological Bulletin 18, second series; Ottawa, 1–44.

    Viggiani, G. (1977) Nuovi reperti su alcuni Coleotteri radicicoli (Haplidia etrusca Kr., Otiorrhynchus armatus Boh., O. trophonius Reitt.). Boll. Lab. ent. agr. Portici, 34, 11–15.

    Wilcox, J., Mote, D.C. & Childs, L. (1934) The root-weevils injurious to strawberries in Oregon. Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State Agricultural College Corvallis. Station Bulletin 330, 109 pp.

    Willis, R.J. (1964) The bionomics and larval morphology of the otiorrhynchid pests of soft fruit crops. Thesis, The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, 250 pp. and appendix of 60 pp.

    York, A., Gyrisco, G. & Edmonds, C. (1971) The status of The Alfalfa Snout Beetlein New York State. Journal of Economic Entomology, 64, 1331–1334.

    Yunakov, N.N. & Nazarenko, V.Yu. (2003) New and little-known Curculionoidea species (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea) from Ukrainian fauna. Vestnik zoologii, 37 (1), 95–99. [in Ukrainian, with English abstract]